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An Introduction to Music




www.muziclub.com
Contents

  Why living Music is so Important

  What is Music

  Fundamental Blocks for Music
      –   Melody
      –   Harmony
      –   Rhythm
      –   Lyrics*

  Mapping between key terms in Indian and western music

  Expressing Emotions through Music




                                     2
Why live Music

    Music - Essential Life Component


 • Human Brain has natural affinity
   towards music. A musical activity
   improves intellectual brain activity.

 • Music skills enhance Self
   Confidence, Social Bonding and
   Success in society .

 • Playing music helps in bringing
   down Stress levels and improves
   overall health and well being.                    From Loving to Living Music
                                               • Actively playing music (living music) is
                                                 infinitely more enjoyable than passively
                                                 listening to it

                                               • Every Human being has the potential to
                                                 evolve into a Musical genius with
                                                 proper training and Practice

                                           3
Music – Organized Sound evoking Emotions


       Organized                                                   Sound
       Rhythmic patterns                                         Pitch / Frequency

        Melodic Phrases                                            Timbre / Voice

     Harmonic Progressions                                     Loudness / Dynamics


                                       evoking



                                    Emotions
                  Wide melodic range, Consistent strong rhythm, Major Chords


                       Narrow melodic range, Slow rhythm, Minor Chords


                     Wide melodic range, Rhythm variations, Mixed Chords



                                            4
Building Blocks of Music




                                            Song /
    Lyrics                                                                   Rhythm
                                        Composition
Rhymes   Syllables                                                        Meter   Tempo




                              Melody                     Harmony

                     Scale        Phrase             Chord Progressions



                                       Musical Note

                 Duration               Pitch         Intensity   Timbre
                      Beats            Frequency


                                             5
Musical Note

               Duration
 • Duration tells how long the note
   lasts or the Time Value of the note                Whole note   Half Note   Quarter Note   Eighth Note
 • This is usually expressed in Beats                 4 Beats      2 Beats     1 Beat         half Beat


   (measure of time in music)                                      Time value of Notes


                 Pitch
 • Auditory property helping sound to                                                  Higher Notes
   be perceived as higher or lower
                                                                                       Lower Notes
 • Depends on Frequency, expressed in
                                                  Quarter Note A on Staff = 440 Hz
   Hertz (cycles per second)

                                         Tone and Note

 • A sound of a specific frequency and pitch is referred to as a Musical Tone. In addition to
   these Tone has following Attributes
       Intensity: A measure of loudness
 • Tones of specific frequency are referred to as Musical Notes and have associated names.
   E.g. Notes, C, D, E, F in western music

                                              6
Melody – Musical Scales

                  Overview
 • A Musical Scale consists of a collection of                C5                523 Hz
   Notes with pre defined Pitch distances                     B


 • Notes with Frequency difference of two
                                                              A
   times are said to be an Octave apart.                                        440 Hz


 • In a commonly used ‘Equal Tempered’                       G                  392 Hz
   scale, the Notes are divided equally into
   several parts, usually 12
                                                              F                 349 Hz
                                                                        S
 • The Ratio of Frequencies of adjacent                       E
   intervals is fixed – 1.059 approx (12th
   root of 2)
                                                              D

 • Each Step is referred to as a Semitone (S)                               T

   and 2 steps as Tone (T)                                  Middle C            261.5 Hz
                                                            (C4)

 • The Note A above middle C with
   frequency of 440 Hz is used as Tuning             Music Scale shown over 12 Equal Temperaments

   Standard in Western Music

                                                 7
Melody – Musical Scales
Most of the Music systems in the world use Diatonic Scale as the basic framework for musical
Compositions which follows same pattern of Pitch distances T T S T T T S

             8      C                                   C       D     E F         G        A       B C
             7                        Guitar
                    B



            6       A

                                      Piano
            5       G                                    C      D    E     F          G    A       B     C


             4      F                 Staff
                            S         Notation
             3      E


                                      English Notes         C   D      E    F         G        A   B     C
            2       D

                                T     Indian Notes          Sa Re Ga Ma               Pa Dha Ni Sa

             1      C
                                      Spanish Notes         Do Re Me         Fa       So       La Ti     Do

     Pitch gaps in a Diatonic Scale                  Diatonic Notes Names in various Music Systems


                                              8
Instrument Ranges
                                          Human Voice

                                             Concert Piano

                                                                  Violin

                            Bass Guitar

                                            Guitar




 C0         C1         C2          C3         C4             C5            C6   C7 Octave C8
                                            Middle C



 • Every Instrument has a limited Range of Pitches it can play

 • Most Vocalists have a Vocal Range of 2-3 Octaves. Some people can go upto 3.5 or even 4

 • Sound of same frequency from different Sources sounds very similar even if tone quality
   (or timbre) is very different. Sound of Frequency in factors of 2 (Octaves) sounds very
   similar

                                            9
Musical Phrases

• Melody is created using different patterns of Notes in a Musical Scale

• Musical phrase is a unit in Composition which has complete musical sense

• A melody typically consists of several consecutive musical phrases.

• Phrases usually culminate into a more or less definite cadence.

• Cadence is musical melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of Resolution




        Twin   kle   Twin kle   lit   tle   star        how   I    won der   what you are

                                      Example of a common Melody




                                                   10
Harmony

• Combinations of certain notes sound pleasant and certain others sound annoying
  (dissonant) based on harmonic interaction between different frequencies

• Simultaneous notes of different pitches produce Chords, which provide fundamental
  building block for Harmony in Western Music

• The study of Harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions.


           Consonance and Dissonance

• Consonance is a chord or Interval that sounds
  pleasant to most people and appears to be at Rest.

• Consonances are generally points of
  arrival, Resolution or Rest. Most Harmonies and                C Chord = C + E + G
  Melodies end on Consonance Chords
                                                                  Example of C Chord on
• Dissonance appears to be Unpleasant and at Unrest                  Piano and guitar



                                         11
Chord Progressions


• Series of Chords that establish a Tonal Function for each Chord to produce Harmonic Flow

• Change of Chord, or "chord change", generally occurs on an accented Beat,

• Most Common Chords consist of Triads (3 notes) Formed using alternate notes. E.g. CEG
  = C Chord, GBD = G Chord

• Chords created using Bass notes of various Scale Degrees of the Tonic (Key) are often
  referred to with equivalent Roman Numerals. E.g. in the Key of C, C Chord = I, F Chord =
  IV, G Chord = V


     3 Chord Progressions           Circle Progressions                Blues Changes
 •   I - IV - V – V
                                 • I-V-I                         • I-I-I-I
 •   I - I - IV – V
                                                                 • IV - IV - I – I
 •   I - IV - I – V
                                 • I - IV - V - I                • V-V-I-I
 •   I - IV - V - IV

                                Examples of Chord Progressions


                                             12
Rhythm

                                                     Rhythm
• Rhythm is regulated succession of strong and weak elements and made up of sounds and silences.
• The strong and weak elements (sounds and silences) are put together to form a pattern of sounds which
  gets repeated
• A rhythm has a steady beat, but it may also have different kinds of beats.


           Tempo                                    Metric Level                           Meter
                                                                                • Organization of music into
• Speed or Pace of a given piece          • Basic Unit of time that can           regularly recurring measures
• Can affect the mood and                   be audible                            of stressed and unstressed
  difficulty of a piece.                  • Also called Beat level                "beats“
• Usually expressed in Beats per          • Repeating series of                 • Indicated in Western music
  minute                                    identical distinct periods            notation by a time signature
                                                                                  and bar-lines.




         Whole note                     Half note                  Quarter note                Eighth note
         4 Beats                        2 Beats                    1 Beat                      1/2 Beat


                                                                   Beat Level                   Division Level
                      Multiple Levels


                                                       13
Expressing Emotions through Music

Emotion            Melody                 Rhythm                  Harmony (Chord/
                                                                  Tonality)

Happiness,         Wide Range             Consistent,             Major
Excitement                                Strong, Loud, Fast
Love, Affection,   Medium                 Gentle,                 Major
Tenderness                                Medium Tempo

Sadness            flat                   Slow                    Minor


Tranquillity       flat                   Smooth, Gentle          Major/Minor


Triumph,           Wide Jumps             Energetic,              Power Chord
Ecstasy                                   Loud,
                                          Fast



This is only a Rough Guideline. The infinitely complex musical structures and patterns allow
Infinitely Complex Emotions to be Expressed with Music



                                            14
We welcome your involvement in living music




THANK YOU



www.muziclub.com



                              15

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An introduction to music

  • 1. An Introduction to Music www.muziclub.com
  • 2. Contents Why living Music is so Important What is Music Fundamental Blocks for Music – Melody – Harmony – Rhythm – Lyrics* Mapping between key terms in Indian and western music Expressing Emotions through Music 2
  • 3. Why live Music Music - Essential Life Component • Human Brain has natural affinity towards music. A musical activity improves intellectual brain activity. • Music skills enhance Self Confidence, Social Bonding and Success in society . • Playing music helps in bringing down Stress levels and improves overall health and well being. From Loving to Living Music • Actively playing music (living music) is infinitely more enjoyable than passively listening to it • Every Human being has the potential to evolve into a Musical genius with proper training and Practice 3
  • 4. Music – Organized Sound evoking Emotions Organized Sound Rhythmic patterns Pitch / Frequency Melodic Phrases Timbre / Voice Harmonic Progressions Loudness / Dynamics evoking Emotions Wide melodic range, Consistent strong rhythm, Major Chords Narrow melodic range, Slow rhythm, Minor Chords Wide melodic range, Rhythm variations, Mixed Chords 4
  • 5. Building Blocks of Music Song / Lyrics Rhythm Composition Rhymes Syllables Meter Tempo Melody Harmony Scale Phrase Chord Progressions Musical Note Duration Pitch Intensity Timbre Beats Frequency 5
  • 6. Musical Note Duration • Duration tells how long the note lasts or the Time Value of the note Whole note Half Note Quarter Note Eighth Note • This is usually expressed in Beats 4 Beats 2 Beats 1 Beat half Beat (measure of time in music) Time value of Notes Pitch • Auditory property helping sound to Higher Notes be perceived as higher or lower Lower Notes • Depends on Frequency, expressed in Quarter Note A on Staff = 440 Hz Hertz (cycles per second) Tone and Note • A sound of a specific frequency and pitch is referred to as a Musical Tone. In addition to these Tone has following Attributes Intensity: A measure of loudness • Tones of specific frequency are referred to as Musical Notes and have associated names. E.g. Notes, C, D, E, F in western music 6
  • 7. Melody – Musical Scales Overview • A Musical Scale consists of a collection of C5 523 Hz Notes with pre defined Pitch distances B • Notes with Frequency difference of two A times are said to be an Octave apart. 440 Hz • In a commonly used ‘Equal Tempered’ G 392 Hz scale, the Notes are divided equally into several parts, usually 12 F 349 Hz S • The Ratio of Frequencies of adjacent E intervals is fixed – 1.059 approx (12th root of 2) D • Each Step is referred to as a Semitone (S) T and 2 steps as Tone (T) Middle C 261.5 Hz (C4) • The Note A above middle C with frequency of 440 Hz is used as Tuning Music Scale shown over 12 Equal Temperaments Standard in Western Music 7
  • 8. Melody – Musical Scales Most of the Music systems in the world use Diatonic Scale as the basic framework for musical Compositions which follows same pattern of Pitch distances T T S T T T S 8 C C D E F G A B C 7 Guitar B 6 A Piano 5 G C D E F G A B C 4 F Staff S Notation 3 E English Notes C D E F G A B C 2 D T Indian Notes Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa 1 C Spanish Notes Do Re Me Fa So La Ti Do Pitch gaps in a Diatonic Scale Diatonic Notes Names in various Music Systems 8
  • 9. Instrument Ranges Human Voice Concert Piano Violin Bass Guitar Guitar C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 Octave C8 Middle C • Every Instrument has a limited Range of Pitches it can play • Most Vocalists have a Vocal Range of 2-3 Octaves. Some people can go upto 3.5 or even 4 • Sound of same frequency from different Sources sounds very similar even if tone quality (or timbre) is very different. Sound of Frequency in factors of 2 (Octaves) sounds very similar 9
  • 10. Musical Phrases • Melody is created using different patterns of Notes in a Musical Scale • Musical phrase is a unit in Composition which has complete musical sense • A melody typically consists of several consecutive musical phrases. • Phrases usually culminate into a more or less definite cadence. • Cadence is musical melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of Resolution Twin kle Twin kle lit tle star how I won der what you are Example of a common Melody 10
  • 11. Harmony • Combinations of certain notes sound pleasant and certain others sound annoying (dissonant) based on harmonic interaction between different frequencies • Simultaneous notes of different pitches produce Chords, which provide fundamental building block for Harmony in Western Music • The study of Harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions. Consonance and Dissonance • Consonance is a chord or Interval that sounds pleasant to most people and appears to be at Rest. • Consonances are generally points of arrival, Resolution or Rest. Most Harmonies and C Chord = C + E + G Melodies end on Consonance Chords Example of C Chord on • Dissonance appears to be Unpleasant and at Unrest Piano and guitar 11
  • 12. Chord Progressions • Series of Chords that establish a Tonal Function for each Chord to produce Harmonic Flow • Change of Chord, or "chord change", generally occurs on an accented Beat, • Most Common Chords consist of Triads (3 notes) Formed using alternate notes. E.g. CEG = C Chord, GBD = G Chord • Chords created using Bass notes of various Scale Degrees of the Tonic (Key) are often referred to with equivalent Roman Numerals. E.g. in the Key of C, C Chord = I, F Chord = IV, G Chord = V 3 Chord Progressions Circle Progressions Blues Changes • I - IV - V – V • I-V-I • I-I-I-I • I - I - IV – V • IV - IV - I – I • I - IV - I – V • I - IV - V - I • V-V-I-I • I - IV - V - IV Examples of Chord Progressions 12
  • 13. Rhythm Rhythm • Rhythm is regulated succession of strong and weak elements and made up of sounds and silences. • The strong and weak elements (sounds and silences) are put together to form a pattern of sounds which gets repeated • A rhythm has a steady beat, but it may also have different kinds of beats. Tempo Metric Level Meter • Organization of music into • Speed or Pace of a given piece • Basic Unit of time that can regularly recurring measures • Can affect the mood and be audible of stressed and unstressed difficulty of a piece. • Also called Beat level "beats“ • Usually expressed in Beats per • Repeating series of • Indicated in Western music minute identical distinct periods notation by a time signature and bar-lines. Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note 4 Beats 2 Beats 1 Beat 1/2 Beat Beat Level Division Level Multiple Levels 13
  • 14. Expressing Emotions through Music Emotion Melody Rhythm Harmony (Chord/ Tonality) Happiness, Wide Range Consistent, Major Excitement Strong, Loud, Fast Love, Affection, Medium Gentle, Major Tenderness Medium Tempo Sadness flat Slow Minor Tranquillity flat Smooth, Gentle Major/Minor Triumph, Wide Jumps Energetic, Power Chord Ecstasy Loud, Fast This is only a Rough Guideline. The infinitely complex musical structures and patterns allow Infinitely Complex Emotions to be Expressed with Music 14
  • 15. We welcome your involvement in living music THANK YOU www.muziclub.com 15