Race to space


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Race to space

  1. 1. Race to Space! U.S. vs. Soviet Union NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  2. 2. Wernher von Braun: Father of Space Exploration <ul><li>Along with other German scientists, developed the first rockets during and after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Came to the U.S. after WWII, lived and worked in Huntsville, AL from 1950 – 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Work provided the basis for all early NASA missions </li></ul><ul><li>First director of NASA </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  3. 3. Start of the “Space Race” <ul><li>October 4 th , 1957, Russia launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik , into orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Caused a wide-spread panic in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>People feared the Soviet Union would dominate the world in space exploration </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  4. 4. Formation of NASA <ul><li>Founded 1958 after Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in direct response to the launch of Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose to provide organization and direction of U.S. space program </li></ul><ul><li>First missions focused on getting humans into space, studying effects of space on humans, and returning astronauts safely to Earth </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  5. 5. Competitors in the Space Race <ul><li>After the launch of Sputnik, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. were in direct competition to have most advanced space program </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as contest between communism and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>National pride and fears for national defense played large roles in motivating space race </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 United States Soviet Union
  6. 6. First Human in Space NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Yuri and his spacecraft, Vostok 1 On April 12, 1961, the Soviets succeeded in launching the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, and returning him safely to Earth
  7. 7. First American in Space <ul><li>Alan Shepard becomes the first American astronaut to enter space, aboard the Freedom 7 spacecraft, on May 5, 1961 </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Alan and his spacecraft, Freedom 7
  8. 8. The Mercury Project <ul><li>NASA’s first mission </li></ul><ul><li>Mission goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>getting an astronaut into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completing an orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>returning astronaut to Earth safely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several preliminary Mercury launches were unmanned </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 The Mercury - Atlas I spacecraft Enos the chimpanzee, crew of the Mercury – Atlas V spacecraft
  9. 9. The Gemini Project <ul><li>Involved sending two astronauts into orbit for longer periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Paved the way and tested equipment for the Apollo missions to the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Astronaut Ed White, II performs the first spacewalk by an American during the Gemini IV mission </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Astronaut Ed White, II The rendezvous of the Gemini VI and Gemini VII spacecraft
  10. 10. President Kennedy’s Challenge <ul><li>May 21, 1961: President Kennedy challenged the United States to land astronauts on the moon and to return them safely to Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge provided a “finish line” for the space race </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 President John F. Kennedy
  11. 11. The Apollo Missions <ul><li>Apollo 11-17 involved landing men on the moon; Apollo 13 was aborted due to a malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>July 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong of Apollo 11 were first men on the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Each mission consisted of three astronauts: one stayed on Command Module in lunar orbit, two descended in Lunar Module to moon’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 12 men have walked on the moon </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Buzz Aldrin, in Apollo 11 and on the moon (above and right) The Apollo 11 launch Neil Armstrong
  12. 12. When did the space race end? <ul><li>Some historians believe the Space Race ended when Apollo 11 returned safely from the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Others believe that the Race ended when the United States’ Apollo 18 spacecraft docked with a Russian Soyuz spacecraft in 1975 </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 A drawing of the Apollo – Soyuz rendezvous (Apollo 18 is on the left)
  13. 13. Skylab: The First Space Station <ul><li>Launched by the U.S. in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Built from a modified Apollo command module </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied by 3 different teams of astronauts for a total of 171 days </li></ul><ul><li>Purposely burned up in the Earth’s atmosphere in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 2,000 hours of scientific and medical experiments performed onboard </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Two photographs of Skylab, taken by astronauts on their approach to the space station
  14. 14. Space Shuttles <ul><li>Originally spacecraft were used only once </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s, NASA developed reusable spacecraft, the space shuttles </li></ul><ul><li>Launched like rockets but land like modern-day airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the most complex machines ever built </li></ul><ul><li>Used to take satellites and instruments into space </li></ul><ul><li>Originally five shuttles, two of which have been destroyed ( Challenger, Columbia ), three remaining in service ( Atlantis, Endeavor, Discovery ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet of shuttles scheduled to be retired in 2010 </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  15. 15. The International Space Station (ISS) <ul><li>15 nations participating </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly began in 1998; should be completed by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Teams of astronauts have lived aboard the ISS since 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a permanent laboratory for conducting experiments in space </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Images of the ISS
  16. 16. Unmanned Missions: Space Probes and Landers <ul><li>Besides manned missions like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, NASA launched a series of unmanned missions </li></ul><ul><li>Probes sent to study the outer planets and to land on planets of the inner solar system like Mercury, Venus, and Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Probes also sent to gather information about the moon before astronauts ventured there </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  17. 17. Why send robotic probes instead of human? <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper: there’s no need to send along food, air, and living space for astronauts or fuel for a round-trip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer: there’s no danger to human life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotic probes can only do what they’re programmed to do; they cannot grow or adapt to face unforeseen changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotic probes often must be controlled remotely from Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some feel that robotic missions lack the romance of discovery and experience of manned missions </li></ul></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  18. 18. Voyager <ul><li>Launched in 1977, first spacecraft to visit the outer planets of our solar system and send back pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to function to this day </li></ul><ul><li>Now the farthest man-made objects in the solar system </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Images of Saturn (left) and Jupiter (below) from the Voyager spacecraft
  19. 19. The Hubble Telescope <ul><li>In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was placed in orbit by the shuttle Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Example of scientific instrument in space </li></ul><ul><li>Used to measure the age and size of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Able to take extremely clear images that are undistorted by Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 From left: Images from the Hubble telescope of the Sombrero Galaxy, Orion Nebula, Messier 101 Galaxy
  20. 20. The Cassini-Huygens Mission <ul><li>First spacecraft to explore Saturn and its rings and moons from orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Has been in orbit around Saturn since January 30, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>The Huygens probe was released from the Cassini spacecraft in January 2005 to study Titan, Saturn’s largest moon </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 An image of Saturn relayed to Earth by the Cassini – Huygens spacecraft
  21. 21. Mars Rovers <ul><li>Probes launched to Mars with robotic rovers to explore surface </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit landed on Mars January 4, 2004; Opportunity landed December 12, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary mission scheduled to last ~ 3 months, but mission has been active over two Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rovers remotely controlled by scientists on Earth </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8 Top and bottom: images of Mars from the rovers. Left: an artist’s vision of Spirit on Mars
  22. 22. President Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration <ul><li>Presented plan to NASA January 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>ISS to be completed by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Space shuttles to be retired from service by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new manned spacecraft by 2008 and complete manned mission by 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the moon by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually send humans to Mars </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  23. 23. Image Sources <ul><li>http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/history/VonBraun/VonBraun.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cohsoft.com.au/cohsoft/gene/images/1950map.png </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/exploration/missiontimeline/vostok1.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/shepard-alan.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nasm.si.edu/galleries/ATTM/atmimages/S61-01928.f.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_5 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceexploration/gemini.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/white-eh.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_5 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceexploration/gemini.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/white-eh.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001488.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/moon.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/vonBraun/vonbraun_4.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001488.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/moon.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/apollo11/ </li></ul>NSF North Mississippi GK-8
  24. 24. Sources Continued: NSF North Mississippi GK-8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Soyuz_Test_Project http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/skylab/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab http://www.ed.arizona.edu/ward/Sonic/shuttle.jpg http://www.clipartgallery.com/travel_trans/space/space_shuttle_blastoff2.html http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/science/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/01/ http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/galaxy_collection/pr2003028b/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/10/image/a http://www.pbs.org/spacestation/station/issfactsheet.htm http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/01/ http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/galaxy_collection/pr2003028b/ http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2006/10/image/a http://www.pbs.org/spacestation/station/issfactsheet.htm http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/iss/facts.asp http://www.issbabylon.com/html/cool_iss_pictures.html http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition13/exp13_dock.html http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/index.cfm http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/54572main_rover1_br.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mars_from_Spirit.jpg http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/spotlight/20060302.html http://www.astro.cz/clanek/tisk/1667 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/01/images/20040114-3_nasa1-515h.html