Mars orbiter mission (Mangalyaan)The govt. of INDIA


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All details of the Mars orbiter mission of India. Also the details about ISRO who is carrying out this mission. Also Mp4 video of launch of PSLV-XL which was the launch vehicle for the spacecraft. I hope this presentation is useful for you.The video will work.

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Mars orbiter mission (Mangalyaan)The govt. of INDIA

  1. 1. Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). Headquartered in Bangalore, ISRO is under the administrative control of the Department of Space, Government of India. Since its establishment, ISRO has achieved numerous milestones. It built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April in 1975. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits.
  2. 2. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellite. On 22 October in 2008, Chandrayaan-1, India sent its first mission to the Moon. Over the years, ISRO has conducted a variety of operations for both Indian and foreign clients. ISRO's satellite launch capability is mostly provided by indigenous launch vehicles and launch sites. In 2008, ISRO successfully launched its first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, while future plans include indigenous development of GSLV, manned space missions, further lunar exploration, mars exploration and interplanetary probes. ISRO has several field installations as assets, and cooperates with the international community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements. 5 November 2013, ISRO launched its Mars Orbiter Mission, which is currently en route to Mars.
  3. 3. The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally called Mangalyaan (Sanskrit: मङ्गलयान, "Mars-Craft"), is a Mars orbiter launched into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is expected to enter orbit around Mars on 24 September 2014. The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project aiming to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission.
  4. 4. Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. The Mission is primarily technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft.
  5. 5. The Mars Orbiter Mission probe lifted-off from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25 at 09:08 UTC (2:38 PM IST) on 5 November 2013. The launch window was approximately 20 days long and started on 28 October 2013. The MOM probe spent about a month in Earth orbit, where it made a series of seven altitude-raising orbital manoeuvres before trans- Mars injection on 30 November 2013 (UTC).
  6. 6. Travelling at a speed of 1.55 km per second, Mangalyan crossed half way to Mars on 9 April 2014. It is India's first interplanetary mission and, if successful, ISRO would become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and European Space Agency. The spacecraft is being currently monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre at ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu.
  7. 7. One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. Following are the major objectives of the mission: A. Technological Objectives: 1. Design and realisation of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and perform Earth bound manoeuvres, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars. 2. Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management. 3. Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations. B. Scientific Objectives: 1. Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.
  8. 8. The MOM mission concept began with a feasibility study in 2010, after the launch of lunar satellite Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. The government of India approved the project on 3 August 2012, after the Indian Space Research Organisation completed ₹1.25 billion (US $21 million) of required studies for the orbiter. The total project cost may be up to ₹4.54 billion (US $77 million). The satellite costs ₹1.53 billion (US$26 million) and the rest of the budget has been attributed to ground stations and relay upgrades that will be used for other ISRO projects. The space agency had initially planned the launch on 28 October 2013 but was postponed to 5 November 2013 following the inability of ISRO's spacecraft tracking ships to take up pre-determined positions due to poor weather in the Pacific Ocean. Launch opportunities for a fuel-saving Hohmann transfer orbit occur about every 26 months, in this case, 2016 and 2018. The Mars Orbiter's on-orbit mission life will be between six and ten months.
  9. 9. Assembly of the PSLV-XL launch vehicle, designated C25, started on 5 August 2013. The mounting of the five scientific instruments was completed at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, and the finished spacecraft was shipped to Sriharikota on 2 October 2013 for integration to the PSLV-XL launch vehicle. The satellite's development was fast-tracked and completed in a record 15 months. Despite the US federal government shutdown, NASA reaffirmed on 5 October 2013 it would provide communications and navigation support to the mission. ISRO chairman stated in November 2013 that if the MOM and NASA's orbiter MAVEN were successful, they would complement each other in findings and help understand Mars better.
  10. 10. Some of the scientists working on the Mars Orbiter Mission project are: 1. K. Radhakrishan – Chairman, ISRO 2. A. S. Kiran Kumar – Director, SAC 3. Mylswamy Annadurai – Programme Director, MOM 4. B. S. Chandrashekar – Director, ISTRAC 5. P. Robert – Operations Director, MOM 6. Subbiah Arunan – Project Director, MOM 7. V. Kesavaraju – Post-Launch Mission Director, MOM 8. P. Ekambaram – Operations Director, MOM 9. P. Kunhikrishnan – Launch Mission Director, PSLV-XL 10. S. K. Shivkumar – Orbiting payload Director, ISAC 11. B. Jayakumar – Launch Vehicle Director, PSLV
  11. 11. The lift-off mass was 1,350 kg (2,980 lb), including 852 kg (1,878 lb) of propellant mass. Cuboid in shape of approximately 1.5 m (4 feet 11 inches).
  12. 12. The spacecraft's bus is a modified I-1 K structure and propulsion hardware configurations similar to Chandrayaan 1, India's lunar orbiter that operated from 2008 to 2009, with specific improvements and upgrades needed for a Mars mission.[31] The satellite structure is of aluminium and composite fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) sandwich construction.
  13. 13. Electric power is generated by three solar array panels of 1.8 m × 1.4 m (5 ft. 11 in × 4 ft. 7 in) each (7.56 m2 (81.4 sq. ft.) total), for a maximum of 840 W generation in Martian orbit. Electricity is stored in a 36 Ah Li-ion battery. Liquid fuel engine of 440 N thrust is used for orbit raising and insertion in Martian orbit. The orbiter also has eight 22 N thrusters for attitude control or orientation. Two 230 W TWTAs and two coherent transponders. The antenna array consists of a low-gain antenna, a medium-gain antenna and a high-gain antenna. The High- gain antenna system is based on a single 2.2-metre reflector illuminated by a feed at S-band. It is used to transmit and receive the telemetry, tracking, commanding and data to and from the Indian Deep Space Network.
  14. 14. LAP Lyman-Alpha Photometer 1.97 kg MSM Methane Sensor For Mars 2.94 kg MENCA Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser 3.56 kg TIS Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer 3.20 kg MCC Mars Colour Camera 1.27 kg The 15 kg (33 lb) scientific payload consists of five instruments:
  15. 15. Lyman-Alpha Photometer (LAP) – a photometer that measures the relative abundance of deuterium and hydrogen from Lyman-alpha emissions in the upper atmosphere. Measuring the deuterium/hydrogen ratio will allow an estimation of the amount of water loss to outer space. Methane Sensor For Mars (MSM) – will measure methane in the atmosphere of Mars, if any, and map its sources. Particle environment studies. Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) – is a quadruple mass analyser capable of analysing the neutral composition of particles in the exosphere. Surface imaging studies Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS) – will measure the temperature and emissivity of the Martian surface, allowing for the mapping of surface composition and mineralogy of Mars. Mars Colour Camera (MCC) – will provide images in the visual spectrum, providing context for the other instruments.
  16. 16. Nov 05, 2013 o PSLV-C25, in its twenty fifth flight successfully launches Mars Orbiter Mission Spacecraft from SDSC SHAR. o PSLV-C25 lifted off at 14:38 hrs. o Automatic sequencing of launch initiated. o Launch authorised by Mission Director for GO at 14:24 hrs. o Mobile Service Tower (MST) withdrawal to final parking (150m) completed. Countdown is normal. o All vehicle systems are switched ON for the final eight and half hour countdown starting at 6:08 hrs (IST). o Second Stage (PS2) Propellant filling operations completed.
  17. 17. Nov 04, 2013 • Second Stage (PS2) Propellant filling commenced. • Mobile Service Tower (MST) withdrawal up to 50m is completed. • Mandatory Checks and Preparations for Propellant filling operations of Second Stage (PS2) are in progress. Nov 03, 2013  Propellant filling of PS4 stage and RCT completed.  Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON) filling of PS4 completed at 17:00 hrs. (IST).  Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON) filling of PS4 under progress.  Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) filling of Reaction Control Thrusters (RCT) completed.  Mono Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) filling completed.  Propellant filling operations of Fourth Stage (PS4) are in progress.  The 56 hr. 30 min countdown of Mission commenced at 06:08 hrs. (IST).
  18. 18. Nov 02, 2013  All the pre-countdown activities have been completed satisfactorily and the 56 and half hr. countdown of Mission will commence tomorrow at 06:08 hrs. (IST).  Pre-count down activities of Mission commenced at 08:45 hrs. Nov 01, 2013  Launch Authorisation Board has approved & cleared the PSLV- C25/Mars Orbiter Mission launch on Nov 05, 2013 at 14:38 hrs. (IST)  56 and half hr. countdown for launch will begin on Nov 03, 2013 at 06:08 hrs. (IST)
  19. 19. Oct 31, 2013  Launch Rehearsal of PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission has been completed successfully in the afternoon on Oct 31, 2013.  Launch Rehearsal of PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission commenced at 06:08 hrs. (IST) on Oct 31, 2013 at First Launch Pad, SDSC SHAR.  Vehicle systems powered and health is normal. Oct 30, 2013 • Spacecraft & Launch Vehicle integrated level checks completed. • Preparations for Launch Rehearsal are under progress. Oct 22, 2013 • Spacecraft Integration with the Launcher PSLV-C25 Completed. • Heat Shield Closure Activity is completed.
  20. 20. The 18-metre diameter dish-antenna will be used for communication with craft till April 2014, after which the larger 32-metre antenna will be used. NASA's Deep Space Network is providing position data through its three stations located in Canberra, Madrid and Goldstone on the US West Coast during the non-visible period of ISRO's network. The South African National Space Agency's (SANSA) Hartebeesthoek (HBK) ground station is also providing satellite tracking, telemetry and command services. Additional monitoring is provided by technicians on board two leased ships from the Shipping Corporation of India, SCI Nalanda and SCI Yamuna which are currently in position in the South Pacific near Fiji.
  21. 21. PSLV-C25 carrying the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft was launched from Sriharikota on 5 November 2013. As originally conceived, ISRO would have launched MOM on its new Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), but the GSLV has failed twice in two space missions in 2010, ISRO is still sorting out issues with its cryogenic engine, and it was not advisable to wait for the new batch of rockets since that would have delayed the MOM project for at least three years. ISRO had to make a choice between delaying the Mars Orbiter Mission and switching to the less-powerful PSLV. They opted for the latter. There is no way to launch on a direct-to-Mars trajectory with the PSLV as it does not have the power. Instead, ISRO launched it into Earth orbit first and slowly boosted it into an interplanetary trajectory with the help of gravity assist manoeuvres.
  22. 22. The Launch Vehicle - PSLV-C25 will inject the Spacecraft into an Elliptical Parking Orbit with a perigee of 250 km and an apogee of 23,500 km. With six Liquid Engine firing, the spacecraft is gradually maneuvered into a hyperbolic trajectory with which it escapes from the Earth’s Sphere of Influence (SOI) and arrives at the Mars Sphere of Influence. When spacecraft reaches nearest point of Mars (Peri-apsis), it is maneuvered in to an elliptical orbit around Mars by firing the Liquid Engine. The spacecraft then moves around the Mars in an orbit with Peri-apsis of 366 km and Apo-apsis of about 80000 km.
  23. 23. 1. Geo Centric Phase The spacecraft is injected into an Elliptic Parking Orbit by the launcher. With six main engine burns, the spacecraft is gradually maneuvered into a departure hyperbolic trajectory with which it escapes from the Earth’s Sphere of Influence (SOI) with Earth’s orbital velocity + V boost. The SOI of earth ends at 918347 km from the surface of the earth beyond which the perturbing force on the orbiter is mainly due to the Sun. One primary concern is how to get the spacecraft to Mars, on the least amount of fuel. ISRO uses a method of travel called a Hohmann Transfer Orbit – or a Minimum Energy Transfer Orbit – to send a spacecraft from Earth to Mars with the least amount of fuel possible.
  24. 24. 2. Helio Centric Phase The spacecraft leaves Earth in a direction tangential to Earth’s orbit and encounters Mars tangentially to its orbit. The flight path is roughly one half of an ellipse around sun. Eventually it will intersect the orbit of Mars at the exact moment when Mars is there too. This trajectory becomes possible with certain allowances when the relative position of Earth, Mars and Sun form an angle of approximately 44o. Such an arrangement recur periodically at intervals of about 780 days. Minimum energy opportunities for Earth-Mars occur in November 2013, January 2016, May2018 etc.
  25. 25. 3. Martian Phase The spacecraft arrives at the Mars Sphere of Influence (around 573473 km from the surface of Mars) in a hyperbolic trajectory. At the time the spacecraft reaches the closest approach to Mars (Periapsis), it is captured into planned orbit around mars by imparting ∆V retro which is called the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) manoeuvre. The Earth-Mars trajectory is shown in the above figure. ISRO plans to launch the Mars Orbiter Mission during the November 2013 window utilizing minimum energy transfer opportunity.
  26. 26. Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft being prepared for a prelaunch test at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Srihairkota.
  27. 27. Loading Spacecraft for Thermovacuum Test in Large Space Simulation Chamber
  28. 28. First image of the Earth by Mars Color Camera (MCC) of Mars Orbiter Spacecraft taken on Nov 19, 2013 at 13:50 hrs. (IST) from 67975 km altitude with a resolution of 3.53 km.
  29. 29. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, usually known by its abbreviation PSLV is the first operational launch vehicle of ISRO. PSLV is capable of launching 1600 kg satellites in 620 km sun- synchronous polar orbit and 1050 kg satellite in geo-synchronous transfer orbit. In the standard configuration, it measures 44.4 m tall, with a lift off weight of 295 tonnes. PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid propellant boosters in the world and carries 139 tonnes of propellant. A cluster of six strap- ones attached to the first stage motor, four of which are ignited on the ground and two are air- lit.
  30. 30. The reliability rate of PSLV has been superb. There had been 25 continuously successful flights of PSLV, till April 2014 . With its variant configurations, PSLV has proved its multi-payload, multi- mission capability in a single launch and its geosynchronous launch capability. In the Chandrayaan-mission, another variant of PSLV with an extended version of strap-on motors, PSOM-XL, the payload haul was enhanced to 1750 kg in 620 km SSPO. PSLV has rightfully earned the status of workhorse launch vehicle of ISRO. 1. Lift-off weight 295 tonne 2. Pay Load 1600 kg in to 620 km Polar Orbit, 1060 kg in to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) 3. Height 44 metre Typical Parameters of PSLV