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The rise of nationalism
Introduction
The rise of nationalism poses a threat to globalization and
the set of values that the international community has sought to
develop in the past. The election of President Donald Trump
and Brexit threatened the neoliberal agenda that has promoted
free enterprise and globalization. Understanding the rise of
nationalism provides an effective instrument for identifying
effective intervention measures.
Research Question
· What has caused the resurgence of nationalism?
Research Hypothesis
· If the USA focuses on electing competent leaders, the
resurgence of nationalism will be resolved Comment by
angela parham: When the word “will” is used it is predicting the
future, which we cannot predict. Please rephrase and email me
your new hypothesis.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
The literature review aimed at developing a holistic
understanding of nationalism and its resurgence in the modern
society. As a result, past and present incidences of nationalism
were examined in the research process. The findings of the
study form the basis for understanding the psychology of the
modern nationalist and the factors that cause it to be prevalent
among different parts of the society.
Search Description
The search terms comprised of ‘nationalism’, ‘causes of
nationalism’, ‘causes of Brexit’ and ‘Trumpism’. The search
results produced leads that the researcher used to identify other
literature material on the subject. The focused research played
an important role in enabling the researcher to identify the
literature that could be used in the study. In addition, the
internet search involved ‘resurgence of nationalism’ and
‘nationalists’.
(
Cultural factors
)Theoretical Framework
(
Nationalism
) (
Patriotism
) (
Social-economic factors
)
(
Political factors
)
Fig. 1: Theoretical framework for the resurgence of nationalism
The theoretical framework demonstrates the impact that
environmental factors have on the inherent patriotism of an
individual. Each person has a close relationship with their
nation that forms part of their identity. The cultural factors in
the society may affect how people perceive others. Part of the
opposition towards nationalism can be linked to cultural issues,
which affect how the people perceive each other. In addition,
social-economic factors may affect the sense of security that a
person has about their future (Spencer & Wollman, 2005).
Political actors may exploit social-economic and cultural factors
to stir interest in nationalism. The resurgence of nationalism
can be linked to the cultural and social-economic factors in the
American society. Consequently, it is evident that the adoption
of nationalism is a response to threats to the identity or survival
of an individual. The push for nationalism is a reactive response
to the fear and anxiety caused by the potential loss of the
identity of a person (BBC, 2018).
Review of the literature Comment by angela parham: This
is the second time this term mentioned.
The turn of the new millennium held the hope that most
countries around the world would turn away from nationalism as
globalization and technological advancements created new
opportunities for the young generation to interact with others. It
was expected that young people would be less nationalistic than
their parents would as they recognized the shared value in the
connection of different cultures and societies (Helleiner, &
Pickel, 2005). The political future of many communities seemed
to lie in super nations such as the European Union. However,
nationalism started to enjoy a large resurgence across the world
as the promise of globalization failed to result in shared
prosperity.
Populists from Venezuela to Poland, the United States and
Britain have exploited nationalism by casting themselves as
opponents of globalists. The appeal of nationalism is evident in
the need to project the fears and anxiety of a people to the other
(Serwer, 2017). In China, Russia and Turkey authoritarian
regimes have played the nationalism card to entrench their hold
on power by concentrating economic and political control in
their hands. Institutions such as the European Union have found
that they are being held back by the increased resistance against
the centralization of decision-making authority in the society.
The latest wave of nationalism seems set to endure for a long
period as changes in the world economy continue to increase
anxiety over the economic viability of many communities and
their members. The success of nationalism can be linked to its
immense power. It plays an important role in giving people an
identity in a multicultural world where immigration threatens to
break down the traditional conceptualization of nation states.
The definition of a nation over the years has been anchored in
common ancestry (Gans, 2003). This view is responsible for the
inability of many people to accept immigrants and assimilated
persons as part of them. For instance, it explains the reluctance
of people to accept Muslims as capable of becoming real
Britons or Germans. In spite of the increased willingness among
the people to accept that people with different skin colors and
ethnicity as being part of themselves, the adoption of multi-
ethnic nations has always been a social experiment that was
bound to face some fierce resistance from the target population.
Many people are keen to hold onto their mono-ethnic identities
because it aligns with what they know about the role of
nationhood in their lives.
The resurgence of nationalism in Canada and the United States
in spite of the countries having experienced immigration for
many decades demonstrates the enduring need for mono-ethnic
identities and the endurance of their rigid racial structures. The
progress that has been made towards reducing the injustices and
inequality caused by the societal challenges in the society has
threatened those who view the concept of a nation as being
synonymous with Christianity and whiteness (Sharma, 2006).
Changes in the society have threatened the status of many
people who relied on their race or religion to access privilege in
the society. Consequently, the pushback against immigration
and racial equality could be driven in large part by concerns
over the impact that it will have on the privilege, which is
available to members of the community (Sabato, 2017).
The association of nationalism with one ethnic group risks
enhancing the tensions and inequality that have defined the
society in the past. As a result, it is imperative for communities
to embrace effective intervention measures to enhance their
ability to reach new groups and embrace a more inclusive form
of nationalism (Waldron, 2002). The approach will be integral
in creating opportunities for the society to benefit from the
adoption of a collective identity. Presently, nationalism evokes
a negative response, which undermines the ability of the people
to have an honest conversation about nationalism (Sin, 2006). It
is evident that each human being has an emotional connection
with their identity. In a fast-changing world, the concept of
nationhood provides not only an identity, but is also an
important function of the hopes and aspirations of individuals.
As a result, it is important for members of the society to
empathize with those who have expressed support for
nationalism because they believe in one form of nationalism.
The liberal reaction to nationalism has been flawed and only
served to entrench the resistance of some groups against
globalization. The view involves recognition of the inherent
weakness in the continued attempt to encourage the power to
abandon any collective identity in favor of transcending tribal
allegiances (Brubaker, 1997). The approach fails to recognize
the need for identity in a rapidly changing world. Nationalism
has achieved a lot of power by expanding the circle of sympathy
among a people who are concerned over their place in a rapidly
changing world (Miščević, 2000). Globalists have contributed
towards the rise of globalization by failing to recognize the
adverse effects of globalization. However, it fails to recognize
the impact that such a system has on the individual persons who
are forced to compete with cheaper labor from around the
world. As a result, nationalism has a flawed overall strategy but
a more compassionate individual framework while universalism
has a holistic and open overall strategy but fails to account for
the needs of individual persons (Lomnitz-Adler, 2001).
The liberal response to nationalism has been a rush towards the
protection of minorities. However, this approach has failed to
embrace intersectionality theory in understanding how sub-
groups may act as agents of victimization. It is evident that
even small groups may be instruments of oppression for some of
their members. The observation is evident in the failure by the
Muslim community to embrace gender equality, a practice that
continues to cause friction with other communities where they
immigrate. As a result, the most effective way for the modern
society to allow the exercise of individual freedom is to provide
a political identity that allows them to live their lives and is
independent of the interests of particular cultural groups.
The biggest problem is that liberals gave up on their attempt to
define nationalism. Instead, extremist right-wing groups who
have an ultra-conservative view of the concept of a nation and
its role in the identity of a person now drive the movement. The
experiences that Germany and the United States have had with
prejudice have led to the view that any form of nationalism may
result in the excesses that mar their histories. Instead of
inspiring patriots to hold the values and aspirations of their
nations, many activists have been content in denouncing past
injustices. The narrow approach has failed to provide a path for
the future even as it seeks to deconstruct the history of their
nations. The approach has surrendered the role of defining
nationalism to bigots and racists in the society.
The example of a few political leaders demonstrates that many
liberals recognize that active involvement in the continued
effort to define nation states is important in enabling countries
to achieve their goals. The observation is evident in the speech
that President Barack Obama gave in Selma, Alabama in
memory of the civil rights march and the sacrifices that were
borne in the pursuit of racial equality in the United States
(Sabato, 2017). President Obama noted the importance of
continued engagement, in forging a common political identity,
when he stated, ‘What greater expression of faith in the
American experiment than this…What greater form of
patriotism is there than the belief that America is not yet
finished, that we are strong enough to be self-critical, that each
successive generation can look upon our imperfections and
decide that it is in our power to remake this nation to more
closely align with our highest ideals?” (Sabato, 2017).
However, the strong performance of the party and the fact that
President Obama was succeeded by Trumpism demonstrated that
more needs to be done to expand the participation of different
groups in the continued effort of defining nationhood and
determining its values.
The United States and Europe has a rich history of inclusive
patriotism. However, more needs to be done to increase the
engagement of different groups in nationalism and in forming
the nations that they belong to. It is evident that a lot needs to
be done to provide a sense of shared ownership of the society.
The election of President Donald Trump and the continued rise
of the European Parliament made some people to feel that their
identity and understanding of their nation was being threatened
(Serwer, 2017). The people felt that they were losing their way
of life considering social-cultural changes in the world. The
election of Donald Trump was in large part the consequence of
the rise of the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queering
(LGBTQ) community after a Supreme Court ruling upheld same
sex marriage, the election of a black President and the possible
succession by a female president. The activities sought to break
social, gender, racial and cultural practices that had defined
white America for many years (Sabato, 2017). In addition, the
continued growth of the Latina population across the United
States presented the fear that white Americans would become a
majority in the United States. The failure of the nationalism
movement to create an inclusive definition of nationhood means
that many people view their political identity as being tied to
their cultural one.
The United States has consistently sought to define itself as a
melting pot of different cultures and ethnicities. However, the
approach seeks to force people to embrace a unified Culture. In
Canada, the model is that of a salad where different cultures are
believed to enrich the whole. However, the idealized approach
is overly optimistic of a group with members who share little
across their cultural and ethnic divide. The metaphor may
provide a view of the ideal nation that nationalists would wish
to create. However, it has features that are inherently abused by
the movement. It is defined by shared and equal rights among
all the groups in the nation. Achieving the model will require
taking pride in the collective desire for shared ownership of the
destiny of the nation and a responsibility towards helping
others. It requires humility in accepting the prejudices of the
past and forging a common future.
Many observers have noted that compassionate patriotism is
different from nationalism. They note that it requires
cooperative abroad and an innocent love of one’s country. In
contrast, nationalism seeks to exclude other societies and to
place the interests of one’s country above those of others.
Achieving compassionate patriotism requires the exclusion of
the exclusionary politics that are prevalent from Washington to
Moscow to Beijing. The global nature of nationalism
demonstrates a shared interest among the people of the world
for a retreat from the world to their countries (Serwer, 2017).
Although this approach is a conservative and anxious response
to the uncertainty of the modern age, it is evident that it is
fueled by existing prejudices that have merely been silenced but
not overcome in the past.
Individuals who believe in liberalism have a responsibility to
take responsibility for the control of nationalism because of the
importance of shared engagement with each other. It is
imperative for members of the society to recognize the
importance of investing in the well-being and success of each
other. The failure to manage nationalism could result in the
resurgence of philosophies similar to those of the Nazi
movement. Consequently, the society has a responsibility to
demonstrate greater responsibility in managing the threat posed
by nationalism.
The military parade that was proposed by President Donald
Trump highlights the enduring threats posed by a retreat to
nationalism. Military parades are an instrument of totalitarian
regimes, which seek to use them to arouse national pride. The
reliance on a show of might as a marker of the identity of a
people fails to recognize the inherent value in embracing a more
robust response to the opportunities provided in the society
(Serwer, 2017). It fails to account for the benefits that could be
derived from a shared ownership of the tasks facing the nation.
The success of nationalism in the twentieth century was
dependent on the instability in the world. However, the modern
age is characterized by relative stability in large parts of the
world. Consequently, nationalism can be the consequence of the
inability of political leaders to take responsible stewardship of
modern day challenges. It is evident that the prevailing
environment does not favor the long-term survival of
nationalism as increased prosperity around the world and the
sharing of information increases the desire among the people for
immigration and shared experiences (Nairn, 1997). The political
leaders across the world have a moral responsibility to meet the
modern-day challenges facing their nations with boldness of
vision to create an enduring identity for their nations. In
contrast, the embrace of nationalism highlights a weak response
to the challenges of leadership.
The success of modern day nationalist in the United States lies
in the use of economic theory to highlight the willingness of
some members of the society to embrace the vision that is
offered by isolationists who view the other as a threat to the
continued prosperity of their nations. Individuals such as
Donald Trump have sought to portray themselves as the savior
of the working class who are being left behind by the changing
economic and political environment, which fails to provide
opportunities for inclusive prosperity. They rely on attacks on
the broken system to appeal to the emotions of the common
person without proposing tangible solutions.
They also attack foreign aid as an attempt at diverting the
resources of the nation to other people. The zero-sum approach
to governance employs an insular view of the role of the nation
in the world and fails to recognize the responsibility that a
nation has to others (Zimmer, 2003). The misadventures of
Japan during the Second World War highlight the consequences
of unbridled nationalism. The retreat of Japan from nationalism
serves as a cautionary tale for any country that would seek to
follow the same path.
White nationalists have an effective appeal to a large segment
of the American population because they provide a voice to a
largely forgotten group in the society. In the fight for civil
rights and equality in the society, the needs of the white man
have been neglected by the state. The loss of blue-collar jobs
that were a source of pride and opportunities for social-
economic development for many white men across the rustbelt
and the American inland is the straw that broke the camel’s
back. A review of the areas where the opioid crisis is most
rampant demonstrates that white Americans are the most
affected. In effect, in spite of their enduring numerical
advantage, it is visible that the white man is quickly becoming a
minority whose interests and needs are being neglected. White
nationalism has provided a consistent platform for this group to
highlight their plight and their needs. The resurgence of the
movement in the recent past is a factor of the growing neglect
of white men and the impact that it has had on their
communities.
Theories of governance Comment by angela parham: Is this
still your Literature Review?
The literature review surveys publications (books, journals and
sometimes conference papers) on works that has already been
done on the topic of your research paper. It should only include
studies that have direct relevance to your research.
The evaluation of governance requires a consideration of
two leading narratives on the subject. The first narrative is
neoliberal and involves a consideration of the role of choice in
the decision-making processes of an individual. The other
approach involves a consideration of networks associated with
institutionalism (Ansell & Torfing, 2016). The decentered
theory of governance seeks to address the weaknesses of the two
narratives because of the positivism recognition of the inability
of persons to make informed rational choices. The agency
theory postulates that the goals of an agent may be different
from those of the principal. As a result, it is evident that elected
leaders may have other incentives to pursue policy outcomes
that are inconsistent with the needs of their electorate. For
instance, the influence of donors and lobbyists has resulted in a
division between the electorate and their elected leaders.
Stewardship theories argue that leaders serve as agents of the
principal. In addition, it holds that both the principal and the
agent have shared goals. Resource-Dependence theories argue
that leaders have the responsibility to allocate the limited
resources that are provided by agents to enhance the ability of
the group to achieve shared outcomes. The theories highlight
the role of elected leaders in the governance of a modern
society. However, they also recognize the factors that determine
the performance of the elected leaders. For instance, it is
evident that the resources available to the country and the
interests of individual leaders have a consequential impact on
their ability to represent the needs of their people. The
international “relations” theory captures the increased
integration in the modern age (Ansell & Torfing, 2016). As a
result, individual countries are increasingly required to
implement policies that recognize respect for shared norms and
goals among the international community.
Representative democracy versus other systems
In representative democracy, people exercise indirect
control in the decision making process by identifying
individuals who can represent them. The people vote in regular
periodic elections to elect their leaders. Political leaders are
expected to share their ideas with the people who determine the
ones that they are most comfortable with (Urbinati, 2006). In a
representative democracy, the politicians have to continually
seek a renewal of their mandate from the voters. In contrast, in
a republic the state holds a lot of control over each stage in the
decision-making process. Dictatorships prohibit alternate
political ideas and contests. As a result, the people are locked
out from the decision-making process. In communism,
politicians are expected to champion a set of values and ideas
that serve to strengthen their country. In a monarchy, the
political process is left to the King and his advisors who assist
the King to make a wide range of choices.
Governance data
The government relies on large volumes of data the
formulation of policies. The government utilizes census data to
determine both the current and emerging needs of the
population. The government relies on the data provided by the
private sector to determine the economic performance of the
country. In addition, the government uses official records such
as immigration data and other records from its institutions to
understand different phenomena in the country. It also uses data
from international institutions such as the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund, which have a lot of experience in
the management of public data. They play an important role in
ensuring that the government is able to make informed choices
about the needs of its population. The political leaders rely on
public opinion to measure the feelings of a majority of the
population on relevant issues. Consequently, the policies that
are implemented in a country are a function of both the needs of
the society as highlighted by public data, public opinion and the
aspirations of key stakeholders in the society.
Actors and processes in policymaking
Different countries across the world are facing a wide
range of challenges that require effective policy responses. The
challenges may have social, economic and environmental effects
on the society. Policy is one of the tools that are used by
governments at different levels to address the challenges that
people may be facing. Policy is a purposive set of actions that
are intended to achieve a desirable outcome in a target
population (Anderson, 1979). It is chosen from the available
alternatives in response to the set of challenges that the people
are facing.
Public policy comprises of a series of interconnected
smaller processes. It involves formulation, implementation and
evaluation to determine its effects on the society. Policy actors
can be categorized into two key players; official and non-
official ones (Ikelegbe, 2006). Unofficial policy makers do not
have to hold political positions. Instead, they enjoy a lot of
influence over the actors who are directly involved in the public
policy formulation process. For instance, donors and interest
groups can influence the positions that politicians hold on key
policy positions because of the influence that they have
(Tantivees & Walt, 2008). In contrast, official policy makers
possess the legal authority to formulate the policies.
Official policy makers can be further subdivided into
primary policy makers and supplementary policy makers
(Poopola, 2016). Primary policy makers have the constitutional
authority to engage in the policy making process. They have a
responsibility of formulating policies such as Congress.
Supplementary policy makers receive their authority to enact
policies from the primary policy makers (Poopola, 2016). They
include agencies and institutions such as the Environmental
Protection Authority that have the authority to design policies
in their sectors.
The executive plays a crucial and integral role in the
public policy formulation process. The term ‘executive centered
era’ is used to refer to the influence and leadership of the
Executive in the public policy formulation process. The
Executive determines the rules and laws that are implemented in
the country. The priorities of the Executive determine the
policies that are implemented. The increasing power of the
Executive in the modern age requires that all policies that are
implemented should reflect the will and spirit of the head of
state and government.
The Legislative is used in the deliberation of policies to
ensure that they reflect the will of the people. The Judiciary
plays an important role in the interpretation of laws to
determine if they are consistent with the national constitution
and international human rights. Administrators are tasked with
the implementation of policies. They ensure that the enacted
policies are implemented within their jurisdiction.Unofficial
policy makers include individual citizens whose participation is
integral in ensuring that the process yields desirable outcomes
and meets constitutional provisions. In addition, public parties
hold values and ideologies that determine their position on
proposed policies. Interest groups have an important role in
ensuring that the proposed policies address the concerns of the
stakeholders who will be affected by them.
Policy implementation outcomes
The implementation of policies may have a wide range of
immediate and long-term effects on the target population. For
instance, the free trade agreements that were championed in the
1990s and early 2000s led to increased competition. It also
created an enabling framework for companies to outsource their
labor to countries with the cheapest labor while protecting
professionals. The result led to increased disenfanchisement
among the people because it undermined the ability of blue
collar employees to have sustainable growth. The rise of
nationalism has been fueled by concerns over the negative
effects of free trade agreements on the welfare of the people.
Public policy may have many non-intended effects in both the
short-term and long-term (Koduah, van & Agyepong, 2015).
Consequently, the participation of all stakeholders in the policy
making process is critical in ensuring at their interests are
addressed. Furthermore, it is imperative for policies to be
changed to respond to changing circumstances in the society.
Policies in a country can be changed as the outcomes are felt to
address emerging issues.
Conclusion
To sum up, the rise of nationalism can be linked to the
failure of the neoliberal movement in ensuring there is inclusive
growth. The movement is motivated by economic concerns over
the welfare of the natives in a country. The failure of past
policies in creating shared prosperity is responsible for the rise
of nationalism. Consequently, understanding the rise of
nationalism and the most effective containment measures will
be essential in protecting the globalization movement.
Comment by angela parham: You did not provide a step by
step methods section that describes how data will be collected
and analyzed.
Please revise this assignment with a methods section and
provide an updated hypothesis and email me the corrections.
References
Anderson, J.E. (1979). Public Policy-Making. New York, USA:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Ansell, C. K., & In Torfing, J. (2016). Handbook on theories of
governance. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing.
Ikelegbe, A.O. (2006). Public Policy Analysis. Concepts, Issues
and Cases. Lagos: Imprint Services.
Koduah, A., van Dijk, H., & Agyepong, I. A. (2015). The role
of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting
and formulation: maternal fee exemption policies in Ghana over
four and a half decades. Health Research Policy and
Systems, 13 (27): 1-20.
Poopola, O O. (2016). Actors in Decision Making and Policy
Process. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary studies, 5(1):47-51.
Tantivees, S & Walt, G. (2008). The role of state and non-state
actors in the policy process: the contribution of policy networks
to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand. Health
Policy and Planning, 23 (5): 328-338.
Urbinati, N. (2006). Representative democracy: Principles and
genealogy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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The rise of nationalismIntroduction The rise of nationa.docx

  • 1. The rise of nationalism Introduction The rise of nationalism poses a threat to globalization and the set of values that the international community has sought to develop in the past. The election of President Donald Trump and Brexit threatened the neoliberal agenda that has promoted free enterprise and globalization. Understanding the rise of nationalism provides an effective instrument for identifying effective intervention measures. Research Question · What has caused the resurgence of nationalism? Research Hypothesis · If the USA focuses on electing competent leaders, the resurgence of nationalism will be resolved Comment by angela parham: When the word “will” is used it is predicting the future, which we cannot predict. Please rephrase and email me your new hypothesis. LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The literature review aimed at developing a holistic understanding of nationalism and its resurgence in the modern society. As a result, past and present incidences of nationalism were examined in the research process. The findings of the study form the basis for understanding the psychology of the modern nationalist and the factors that cause it to be prevalent among different parts of the society. Search Description The search terms comprised of ‘nationalism’, ‘causes of nationalism’, ‘causes of Brexit’ and ‘Trumpism’. The search results produced leads that the researcher used to identify other literature material on the subject. The focused research played
  • 2. an important role in enabling the researcher to identify the literature that could be used in the study. In addition, the internet search involved ‘resurgence of nationalism’ and ‘nationalists’. ( Cultural factors )Theoretical Framework ( Nationalism ) ( Patriotism ) ( Social-economic factors ) ( Political factors ) Fig. 1: Theoretical framework for the resurgence of nationalism The theoretical framework demonstrates the impact that environmental factors have on the inherent patriotism of an individual. Each person has a close relationship with their nation that forms part of their identity. The cultural factors in the society may affect how people perceive others. Part of the opposition towards nationalism can be linked to cultural issues, which affect how the people perceive each other. In addition, social-economic factors may affect the sense of security that a person has about their future (Spencer & Wollman, 2005). Political actors may exploit social-economic and cultural factors to stir interest in nationalism. The resurgence of nationalism can be linked to the cultural and social-economic factors in the American society. Consequently, it is evident that the adoption
  • 3. of nationalism is a response to threats to the identity or survival of an individual. The push for nationalism is a reactive response to the fear and anxiety caused by the potential loss of the identity of a person (BBC, 2018). Review of the literature Comment by angela parham: This is the second time this term mentioned. The turn of the new millennium held the hope that most countries around the world would turn away from nationalism as globalization and technological advancements created new opportunities for the young generation to interact with others. It was expected that young people would be less nationalistic than their parents would as they recognized the shared value in the connection of different cultures and societies (Helleiner, & Pickel, 2005). The political future of many communities seemed to lie in super nations such as the European Union. However, nationalism started to enjoy a large resurgence across the world as the promise of globalization failed to result in shared prosperity. Populists from Venezuela to Poland, the United States and Britain have exploited nationalism by casting themselves as opponents of globalists. The appeal of nationalism is evident in the need to project the fears and anxiety of a people to the other (Serwer, 2017). In China, Russia and Turkey authoritarian regimes have played the nationalism card to entrench their hold on power by concentrating economic and political control in their hands. Institutions such as the European Union have found that they are being held back by the increased resistance against the centralization of decision-making authority in the society. The latest wave of nationalism seems set to endure for a long period as changes in the world economy continue to increase anxiety over the economic viability of many communities and their members. The success of nationalism can be linked to its immense power. It plays an important role in giving people an identity in a multicultural world where immigration threatens to break down the traditional conceptualization of nation states. The definition of a nation over the years has been anchored in
  • 4. common ancestry (Gans, 2003). This view is responsible for the inability of many people to accept immigrants and assimilated persons as part of them. For instance, it explains the reluctance of people to accept Muslims as capable of becoming real Britons or Germans. In spite of the increased willingness among the people to accept that people with different skin colors and ethnicity as being part of themselves, the adoption of multi- ethnic nations has always been a social experiment that was bound to face some fierce resistance from the target population. Many people are keen to hold onto their mono-ethnic identities because it aligns with what they know about the role of nationhood in their lives. The resurgence of nationalism in Canada and the United States in spite of the countries having experienced immigration for many decades demonstrates the enduring need for mono-ethnic identities and the endurance of their rigid racial structures. The progress that has been made towards reducing the injustices and inequality caused by the societal challenges in the society has threatened those who view the concept of a nation as being synonymous with Christianity and whiteness (Sharma, 2006). Changes in the society have threatened the status of many people who relied on their race or religion to access privilege in the society. Consequently, the pushback against immigration and racial equality could be driven in large part by concerns over the impact that it will have on the privilege, which is available to members of the community (Sabato, 2017). The association of nationalism with one ethnic group risks enhancing the tensions and inequality that have defined the society in the past. As a result, it is imperative for communities to embrace effective intervention measures to enhance their ability to reach new groups and embrace a more inclusive form of nationalism (Waldron, 2002). The approach will be integral in creating opportunities for the society to benefit from the adoption of a collective identity. Presently, nationalism evokes a negative response, which undermines the ability of the people to have an honest conversation about nationalism (Sin, 2006). It
  • 5. is evident that each human being has an emotional connection with their identity. In a fast-changing world, the concept of nationhood provides not only an identity, but is also an important function of the hopes and aspirations of individuals. As a result, it is important for members of the society to empathize with those who have expressed support for nationalism because they believe in one form of nationalism. The liberal reaction to nationalism has been flawed and only served to entrench the resistance of some groups against globalization. The view involves recognition of the inherent weakness in the continued attempt to encourage the power to abandon any collective identity in favor of transcending tribal allegiances (Brubaker, 1997). The approach fails to recognize the need for identity in a rapidly changing world. Nationalism has achieved a lot of power by expanding the circle of sympathy among a people who are concerned over their place in a rapidly changing world (Miščević, 2000). Globalists have contributed towards the rise of globalization by failing to recognize the adverse effects of globalization. However, it fails to recognize the impact that such a system has on the individual persons who are forced to compete with cheaper labor from around the world. As a result, nationalism has a flawed overall strategy but a more compassionate individual framework while universalism has a holistic and open overall strategy but fails to account for the needs of individual persons (Lomnitz-Adler, 2001). The liberal response to nationalism has been a rush towards the protection of minorities. However, this approach has failed to embrace intersectionality theory in understanding how sub- groups may act as agents of victimization. It is evident that even small groups may be instruments of oppression for some of their members. The observation is evident in the failure by the Muslim community to embrace gender equality, a practice that continues to cause friction with other communities where they immigrate. As a result, the most effective way for the modern society to allow the exercise of individual freedom is to provide a political identity that allows them to live their lives and is
  • 6. independent of the interests of particular cultural groups. The biggest problem is that liberals gave up on their attempt to define nationalism. Instead, extremist right-wing groups who have an ultra-conservative view of the concept of a nation and its role in the identity of a person now drive the movement. The experiences that Germany and the United States have had with prejudice have led to the view that any form of nationalism may result in the excesses that mar their histories. Instead of inspiring patriots to hold the values and aspirations of their nations, many activists have been content in denouncing past injustices. The narrow approach has failed to provide a path for the future even as it seeks to deconstruct the history of their nations. The approach has surrendered the role of defining nationalism to bigots and racists in the society. The example of a few political leaders demonstrates that many liberals recognize that active involvement in the continued effort to define nation states is important in enabling countries to achieve their goals. The observation is evident in the speech that President Barack Obama gave in Selma, Alabama in memory of the civil rights march and the sacrifices that were borne in the pursuit of racial equality in the United States (Sabato, 2017). President Obama noted the importance of continued engagement, in forging a common political identity, when he stated, ‘What greater expression of faith in the American experiment than this…What greater form of patriotism is there than the belief that America is not yet finished, that we are strong enough to be self-critical, that each successive generation can look upon our imperfections and decide that it is in our power to remake this nation to more closely align with our highest ideals?” (Sabato, 2017). However, the strong performance of the party and the fact that President Obama was succeeded by Trumpism demonstrated that more needs to be done to expand the participation of different groups in the continued effort of defining nationhood and determining its values. The United States and Europe has a rich history of inclusive
  • 7. patriotism. However, more needs to be done to increase the engagement of different groups in nationalism and in forming the nations that they belong to. It is evident that a lot needs to be done to provide a sense of shared ownership of the society. The election of President Donald Trump and the continued rise of the European Parliament made some people to feel that their identity and understanding of their nation was being threatened (Serwer, 2017). The people felt that they were losing their way of life considering social-cultural changes in the world. The election of Donald Trump was in large part the consequence of the rise of the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queering (LGBTQ) community after a Supreme Court ruling upheld same sex marriage, the election of a black President and the possible succession by a female president. The activities sought to break social, gender, racial and cultural practices that had defined white America for many years (Sabato, 2017). In addition, the continued growth of the Latina population across the United States presented the fear that white Americans would become a majority in the United States. The failure of the nationalism movement to create an inclusive definition of nationhood means that many people view their political identity as being tied to their cultural one. The United States has consistently sought to define itself as a melting pot of different cultures and ethnicities. However, the approach seeks to force people to embrace a unified Culture. In Canada, the model is that of a salad where different cultures are believed to enrich the whole. However, the idealized approach is overly optimistic of a group with members who share little across their cultural and ethnic divide. The metaphor may provide a view of the ideal nation that nationalists would wish to create. However, it has features that are inherently abused by the movement. It is defined by shared and equal rights among all the groups in the nation. Achieving the model will require taking pride in the collective desire for shared ownership of the destiny of the nation and a responsibility towards helping others. It requires humility in accepting the prejudices of the
  • 8. past and forging a common future. Many observers have noted that compassionate patriotism is different from nationalism. They note that it requires cooperative abroad and an innocent love of one’s country. In contrast, nationalism seeks to exclude other societies and to place the interests of one’s country above those of others. Achieving compassionate patriotism requires the exclusion of the exclusionary politics that are prevalent from Washington to Moscow to Beijing. The global nature of nationalism demonstrates a shared interest among the people of the world for a retreat from the world to their countries (Serwer, 2017). Although this approach is a conservative and anxious response to the uncertainty of the modern age, it is evident that it is fueled by existing prejudices that have merely been silenced but not overcome in the past. Individuals who believe in liberalism have a responsibility to take responsibility for the control of nationalism because of the importance of shared engagement with each other. It is imperative for members of the society to recognize the importance of investing in the well-being and success of each other. The failure to manage nationalism could result in the resurgence of philosophies similar to those of the Nazi movement. Consequently, the society has a responsibility to demonstrate greater responsibility in managing the threat posed by nationalism. The military parade that was proposed by President Donald Trump highlights the enduring threats posed by a retreat to nationalism. Military parades are an instrument of totalitarian regimes, which seek to use them to arouse national pride. The reliance on a show of might as a marker of the identity of a people fails to recognize the inherent value in embracing a more robust response to the opportunities provided in the society (Serwer, 2017). It fails to account for the benefits that could be derived from a shared ownership of the tasks facing the nation. The success of nationalism in the twentieth century was dependent on the instability in the world. However, the modern
  • 9. age is characterized by relative stability in large parts of the world. Consequently, nationalism can be the consequence of the inability of political leaders to take responsible stewardship of modern day challenges. It is evident that the prevailing environment does not favor the long-term survival of nationalism as increased prosperity around the world and the sharing of information increases the desire among the people for immigration and shared experiences (Nairn, 1997). The political leaders across the world have a moral responsibility to meet the modern-day challenges facing their nations with boldness of vision to create an enduring identity for their nations. In contrast, the embrace of nationalism highlights a weak response to the challenges of leadership. The success of modern day nationalist in the United States lies in the use of economic theory to highlight the willingness of some members of the society to embrace the vision that is offered by isolationists who view the other as a threat to the continued prosperity of their nations. Individuals such as Donald Trump have sought to portray themselves as the savior of the working class who are being left behind by the changing economic and political environment, which fails to provide opportunities for inclusive prosperity. They rely on attacks on the broken system to appeal to the emotions of the common person without proposing tangible solutions. They also attack foreign aid as an attempt at diverting the resources of the nation to other people. The zero-sum approach to governance employs an insular view of the role of the nation in the world and fails to recognize the responsibility that a nation has to others (Zimmer, 2003). The misadventures of Japan during the Second World War highlight the consequences of unbridled nationalism. The retreat of Japan from nationalism serves as a cautionary tale for any country that would seek to follow the same path. White nationalists have an effective appeal to a large segment of the American population because they provide a voice to a largely forgotten group in the society. In the fight for civil
  • 10. rights and equality in the society, the needs of the white man have been neglected by the state. The loss of blue-collar jobs that were a source of pride and opportunities for social- economic development for many white men across the rustbelt and the American inland is the straw that broke the camel’s back. A review of the areas where the opioid crisis is most rampant demonstrates that white Americans are the most affected. In effect, in spite of their enduring numerical advantage, it is visible that the white man is quickly becoming a minority whose interests and needs are being neglected. White nationalism has provided a consistent platform for this group to highlight their plight and their needs. The resurgence of the movement in the recent past is a factor of the growing neglect of white men and the impact that it has had on their communities. Theories of governance Comment by angela parham: Is this still your Literature Review? The literature review surveys publications (books, journals and sometimes conference papers) on works that has already been done on the topic of your research paper. It should only include studies that have direct relevance to your research. The evaluation of governance requires a consideration of two leading narratives on the subject. The first narrative is neoliberal and involves a consideration of the role of choice in the decision-making processes of an individual. The other approach involves a consideration of networks associated with
  • 11. institutionalism (Ansell & Torfing, 2016). The decentered theory of governance seeks to address the weaknesses of the two narratives because of the positivism recognition of the inability of persons to make informed rational choices. The agency theory postulates that the goals of an agent may be different from those of the principal. As a result, it is evident that elected leaders may have other incentives to pursue policy outcomes that are inconsistent with the needs of their electorate. For instance, the influence of donors and lobbyists has resulted in a division between the electorate and their elected leaders. Stewardship theories argue that leaders serve as agents of the principal. In addition, it holds that both the principal and the agent have shared goals. Resource-Dependence theories argue that leaders have the responsibility to allocate the limited resources that are provided by agents to enhance the ability of the group to achieve shared outcomes. The theories highlight the role of elected leaders in the governance of a modern society. However, they also recognize the factors that determine the performance of the elected leaders. For instance, it is evident that the resources available to the country and the interests of individual leaders have a consequential impact on their ability to represent the needs of their people. The international “relations” theory captures the increased integration in the modern age (Ansell & Torfing, 2016). As a result, individual countries are increasingly required to implement policies that recognize respect for shared norms and goals among the international community. Representative democracy versus other systems In representative democracy, people exercise indirect control in the decision making process by identifying individuals who can represent them. The people vote in regular periodic elections to elect their leaders. Political leaders are expected to share their ideas with the people who determine the ones that they are most comfortable with (Urbinati, 2006). In a representative democracy, the politicians have to continually seek a renewal of their mandate from the voters. In contrast, in
  • 12. a republic the state holds a lot of control over each stage in the decision-making process. Dictatorships prohibit alternate political ideas and contests. As a result, the people are locked out from the decision-making process. In communism, politicians are expected to champion a set of values and ideas that serve to strengthen their country. In a monarchy, the political process is left to the King and his advisors who assist the King to make a wide range of choices. Governance data The government relies on large volumes of data the formulation of policies. The government utilizes census data to determine both the current and emerging needs of the population. The government relies on the data provided by the private sector to determine the economic performance of the country. In addition, the government uses official records such as immigration data and other records from its institutions to understand different phenomena in the country. It also uses data from international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which have a lot of experience in the management of public data. They play an important role in ensuring that the government is able to make informed choices about the needs of its population. The political leaders rely on public opinion to measure the feelings of a majority of the population on relevant issues. Consequently, the policies that are implemented in a country are a function of both the needs of the society as highlighted by public data, public opinion and the aspirations of key stakeholders in the society. Actors and processes in policymaking Different countries across the world are facing a wide range of challenges that require effective policy responses. The challenges may have social, economic and environmental effects on the society. Policy is one of the tools that are used by governments at different levels to address the challenges that people may be facing. Policy is a purposive set of actions that are intended to achieve a desirable outcome in a target
  • 13. population (Anderson, 1979). It is chosen from the available alternatives in response to the set of challenges that the people are facing. Public policy comprises of a series of interconnected smaller processes. It involves formulation, implementation and evaluation to determine its effects on the society. Policy actors can be categorized into two key players; official and non- official ones (Ikelegbe, 2006). Unofficial policy makers do not have to hold political positions. Instead, they enjoy a lot of influence over the actors who are directly involved in the public policy formulation process. For instance, donors and interest groups can influence the positions that politicians hold on key policy positions because of the influence that they have (Tantivees & Walt, 2008). In contrast, official policy makers possess the legal authority to formulate the policies. Official policy makers can be further subdivided into primary policy makers and supplementary policy makers (Poopola, 2016). Primary policy makers have the constitutional authority to engage in the policy making process. They have a responsibility of formulating policies such as Congress. Supplementary policy makers receive their authority to enact policies from the primary policy makers (Poopola, 2016). They include agencies and institutions such as the Environmental Protection Authority that have the authority to design policies in their sectors. The executive plays a crucial and integral role in the public policy formulation process. The term ‘executive centered era’ is used to refer to the influence and leadership of the Executive in the public policy formulation process. The Executive determines the rules and laws that are implemented in the country. The priorities of the Executive determine the policies that are implemented. The increasing power of the Executive in the modern age requires that all policies that are implemented should reflect the will and spirit of the head of state and government. The Legislative is used in the deliberation of policies to
  • 14. ensure that they reflect the will of the people. The Judiciary plays an important role in the interpretation of laws to determine if they are consistent with the national constitution and international human rights. Administrators are tasked with the implementation of policies. They ensure that the enacted policies are implemented within their jurisdiction.Unofficial policy makers include individual citizens whose participation is integral in ensuring that the process yields desirable outcomes and meets constitutional provisions. In addition, public parties hold values and ideologies that determine their position on proposed policies. Interest groups have an important role in ensuring that the proposed policies address the concerns of the stakeholders who will be affected by them. Policy implementation outcomes The implementation of policies may have a wide range of immediate and long-term effects on the target population. For instance, the free trade agreements that were championed in the 1990s and early 2000s led to increased competition. It also created an enabling framework for companies to outsource their labor to countries with the cheapest labor while protecting professionals. The result led to increased disenfanchisement among the people because it undermined the ability of blue collar employees to have sustainable growth. The rise of nationalism has been fueled by concerns over the negative effects of free trade agreements on the welfare of the people. Public policy may have many non-intended effects in both the short-term and long-term (Koduah, van & Agyepong, 2015). Consequently, the participation of all stakeholders in the policy making process is critical in ensuring at their interests are addressed. Furthermore, it is imperative for policies to be changed to respond to changing circumstances in the society. Policies in a country can be changed as the outcomes are felt to address emerging issues. Conclusion To sum up, the rise of nationalism can be linked to the failure of the neoliberal movement in ensuring there is inclusive
  • 15. growth. The movement is motivated by economic concerns over the welfare of the natives in a country. The failure of past policies in creating shared prosperity is responsible for the rise of nationalism. Consequently, understanding the rise of nationalism and the most effective containment measures will be essential in protecting the globalization movement. Comment by angela parham: You did not provide a step by step methods section that describes how data will be collected and analyzed. Please revise this assignment with a methods section and provide an updated hypothesis and email me the corrections. References Anderson, J.E. (1979). Public Policy-Making. New York, USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Ansell, C. K., & In Torfing, J. (2016). Handbook on theories of governance. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing. Ikelegbe, A.O. (2006). Public Policy Analysis. Concepts, Issues and Cases. Lagos: Imprint Services. Koduah, A., van Dijk, H., & Agyepong, I. A. (2015). The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation: maternal fee exemption policies in Ghana over four and a half decades. Health Research Policy and Systems, 13 (27): 1-20. Poopola, O O. (2016). Actors in Decision Making and Policy Process. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary studies, 5(1):47-51. Tantivees, S & Walt, G. (2008). The role of state and non-state actors in the policy process: the contribution of policy networks to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand. Health Policy and Planning, 23 (5): 328-338. Urbinati, N. (2006). Representative democracy: Principles and genealogy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.