Stress Management

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A guide to understanding and combating stress for a higher quality of life.

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Stress Management

  1. 1. Stress Management Katherine Casey Karimah Al-Helew Heaven Chansky Amber Hedges
  2. 2. Definition of Stress <ul><li>“ The gap between how the world is and how we want it to be.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physiological Response <ul><li>The brain initiates the secretion of stress hormones that prepare us to combat threats to our survival. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mohr, 2006) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fight or Flight Response <ul><li>Heart rate and blood pressure increase </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows to the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing rate increases </li></ul><ul><li>Perspiration increases </li></ul><ul><li>(Mohr 2006) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pre-industrialized Societies <ul><li>People experienced the adrenal response to stress 2-10 times/day. </li></ul><ul><li>Response was adaptive : it allowed us to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Industrialized Societies <ul><li>People experience the adrenal response to stress 30 to 50 times per day! </li></ul><ul><li>No longer as adaptive : disease causation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Increase in Stress Responses Exhausts the Nervous System , Causing: <ul><li>Heart attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches / Backaches </li></ul><ul><li>Skin disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system weakness / Decrease in number of white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 60 – 90% of doctor's visits are caused by stress (Gamow, 2006)
  9. 9. Manifestations of Stress <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>(Diseases) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>(Anxiety, Irritability) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>(Changes in Eating/Sleep Patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>(Spiers, 2003) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stress and First Year Students <ul><li>#1 variable students attributed to difficulties in academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>(American College Health Association, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress levels increase upon arrival at college </li></ul><ul><li>(Cooke, Bewick, Barkham, & Audin, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress levels peak in the middle of the first semester </li></ul>
  11. 11. Causes of Stress
  12. 12. 3 Main Causes of Stress for Students <ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>* Notice that </li></ul><ul><li>these are external sources of stress </li></ul><ul><li>(Cooke et al., 2006) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Academic Stress for Students <ul><li>College work load </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of assignments and exams </li></ul>
  14. 14. Financial Stress for Students <ul><li>Less financial aid available now than in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of living and attending University are increasing </li></ul><ul><li>(Cooke et al., 2006) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Social Stress for Students <ul><li>Interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roommates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affect us on a personal and emotional level </li></ul><ul><li>Limited social support network in the new college environment </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Internal Sources of Stress for Students <ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul>
  17. 17. Perfectionism <ul><li>Excessive concerns about making mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Self-doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between perceived performance and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>(Rice, 2006) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Procrastination <ul><li>Procrastinators don’t work better under pressure, they only work when under pressure (Slatalla, 2007) . </li></ul><ul><li>Time management skills </li></ul><ul><li>are correlated with lower </li></ul><ul><li>stress levels </li></ul><ul><li>(Misra & McKean, 2000). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stress Management <ul><li>Techniques are as effective as cardiovascular exercise in lowering chances of heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive and Perceptual Techniques <ul><li>Changing the way you perceive events is the most effective way to eliminate unnecessary stress. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006; Seligman, 1992) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learned Optimism <ul><li>Adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction and/or Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Energization </li></ul><ul><li>(Seligman, 1992) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Meditation <ul><li>Decreases rates of heart disease, insomnia, chronic pain, hospitalization, aging, and addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the quality of mental health, children’s health, and productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gamow, 2006) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Positive Imagery <ul><li>Place you remember as peaceful, restful, and beautiful.  </li></ul><ul><li>Focus with all of your senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Mohr, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Stress Diaries <ul><li>Used to understand the causes of stress in your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Record information so you can analyze your sources of stress and manage them. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mohr, 2006) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Physical Techniques <ul><li>Deep breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular exercise </li></ul>
  26. 26. Deep Breathing <ul><li>Take slow, deep breaths and relax your body further and further with each breath. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mohr, 2006) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) <ul><li>Contract one group of muscles as tightly as possible and hold the tension for a few seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Relax the muscles normally. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously relax the muscles even further for complete relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mohr, 2006) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Other Techniques <ul><li>Yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Music Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Many others… </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Cooke, R., Bewick, B. M., Barkham, M., Bradley, M., & Audin, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring and managing the psychological well-being of first year university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 34 , 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamow, D. (2006). Freedom from stress . Colorado: Glenbridge Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relartion to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16 , 41-51. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Mohr, W. (2006). Psychiatric-mental health (6th ed.) . Philadelphia: Lippincott. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice, K. G., Leever, B. A., Christopher, J., & Porter, J. D. (2006). Perfectionism, stress, and social (dis)connection: A short-term study of hopelessness, depression, and academic adjustment among honors students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53 , 524-534. </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life . Australia: Random House. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiers, C. (2003). How does stress affect you? Retrieved April 04, 2007, from http://www.stressbusting.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li> articles/workplace_how_can_stress_affect_you.asp . </li></ul>

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