➢ Primary sarcopenia- Age related loss of muscle mass, strength and physical
function, preventable and is not normal ageing.
➢ Secondary sarcopenia – sarcopenia following an event that alters pre-existing
levels of mobility such as hip fracture
➢ Medication induced sarcopenia – drugs such as corticosteroids and statins can
accelerate reductions in muscle mass and strength
➢ Sarcopenic obesity – low muscle mass and strength in addition to high body fat
➢ Cachexia - muscle wasting condition with inflammatory component accompanying
diseases such as cancer, COPD, renal disease
➢ Frailty - a syndrome resulting from age-related cumulative declines of multiple
physical & psychosocial factors that results in reduced resilience to stressors
Low levels of strength is a red Flag!
Patients under these thresholds
should be seen as a serious cause for
Increased risk of multi-
morbidity & mortality.
Limited physical performance,
reduced independence & reduced
quality of life.
Increased need of healthcare
support for ADL’s & increased
Grip Strength 5 Sit to Stands
M < 27kg
F < 16kg
> 15 seconds
Increased risk of falls and
Effectiveness of Strength Training for
Exercise Prevents Functional Decline in
Strength Training is a Countermeasure for
Deconditioning & Chronic Disease!
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