Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
Concepts of Stress <ul><li>Stress  is the body’s response to the demands </li></ul><ul><li>A  stressor  is the demand itse...
Stress and Perception <ul><li>The way you respond to an event is based upon how you perceive it </li></ul><ul><li>Percepti...
General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye, 1974) <ul><li>3 Stages of GAS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alarm (fight or flight) </li...
Stress Response Figure 5.2
Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>This is activated by the posterior section of the hhypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS...
Stress and “Dis-ease” <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Kidn...
Stress Amenorrhea <ul><li>Menstruation stops because of physical or mental stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also can cause ...
Migraine <ul><li>Migraines affect 28 million Americans, 75% of them are women (NINDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms occur in ...
Stress and Pregnancy <ul><li>Maternal stress can be harmful for both mother and expected child </li></ul><ul><li>High leve...
Stress and Lifestyle <ul><li>The following events can create significant stress in your life, resulting in possible health...
Impact of Multiple Roles on Today’s Woman <ul><li>A woman is expected to play multiple roles in her life which is demandin...
Destructive Qualities of Stress <ul><li>Women described stress as the predictor of marital violence </li></ul><ul><li>A nu...
Multicultural Issues <ul><li>The following multicultural issues can cause stress levels to rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spir...
Financial Stress <ul><li>Attempting to stay current with the use of modern technology is very expensive and very stressful...
Environmental Stress <ul><li>Many elements in the environment can produce stress, especially with women who tend to be sen...
Coping Skills for Stress: Prevention, Management, and Treatment <ul><li>Cognitive appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </...
Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Womens Health 5

1,296 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Womens Health 5

  1. 1. Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
  2. 2. Concepts of Stress <ul><li>Stress is the body’s response to the demands </li></ul><ul><li>A stressor is the demand itself </li></ul><ul><li>Debilitating or excessive stress is known as distress </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive stress is known as eustress </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, as stress increases, so does health, performance, and general well-being ( optimal stress ) </li></ul>Maximum stress (beyond optimal stress) will deteriorate health and well-being
  3. 3. Stress and Perception <ul><li>The way you respond to an event is based upon how you perceive it </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are based upon your life experiences and immediate consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Experts believe that expectations come from social environments you integrate into your value system </li></ul><ul><li>These expectations can be less than, equal to, or exceed the demands of a particular situation </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye, 1974) <ul><li>3 Stages of GAS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alarm (fight or flight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistance (homeostasis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exhaustion (illness, emotional/psychological breakdown) </li></ul></ul>Research suggests that women and men respond to stress differently hormonally
  5. 5. Stress Response Figure 5.2
  6. 6. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>This is activated by the posterior section of the hhypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS excites and inhibits various bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS stimulates the production of catecholamines (stress hormones) such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in changes of bodily functions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stress and “Dis-ease” <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Gastro-intestinal </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-immune disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunctions </li></ul>Prolonged stress can lead to these disorders
  8. 8. Stress Amenorrhea <ul><li>Menstruation stops because of physical or mental stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also can cause irregular menstrual cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting, irregular eating habits, or too much exercise can cause amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your health care provider if your experience any of the above symptoms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migraine <ul><li>Migraines affect 28 million Americans, 75% of them are women (NINDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms occur in various combination and is often described as an intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head </li></ul><ul><li>Female sufferers report that migraines affect their ability to control their life </li></ul><ul><li>Causes are unknown, however, there is a strong genetic connection </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can trigger migraine headaches </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stress and Pregnancy <ul><li>Maternal stress can be harmful for both mother and expected child </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of stress can cause the following (March of Dimes, 1999): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of preterm labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low infant birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor and delivery complications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miscarriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relaxation therapy such as biofeedback can be helpful </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress and Lifestyle <ul><li>The following events can create significant stress in your life, resulting in possible health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major Life Events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College Stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undergrad women students are more likely than men to report an unacceptable stress level (Campbell et al. 1992) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Life Hassles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Impact of Multiple Roles on Today’s Woman <ul><li>A woman is expected to play multiple roles in her life which is demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Society views the woman as the “giver” vs. the “receiver” of assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors are greater for those women employed with children in comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Middle aged women have a unique multiple role which can have a negative impact on her health </li></ul><ul><li>The “hurried woman syndrome” described a modernized stress-laden lifestyle which results in fatigue, weight gain, and low libido </li></ul>
  13. 13. Destructive Qualities of Stress <ul><li>Women described stress as the predictor of marital violence </li></ul><ul><li>A number of women turn to alcohol and cigarettes as a means of relieving stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, anxiety and depression are among the reported health problems of women which are due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower socioeconomic status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex family structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of family relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of the labor market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Multicultural Issues <ul><li>The following multicultural issues can cause stress levels to rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to Acculturate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Factors </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Financial Stress <ul><li>Attempting to stay current with the use of modern technology is very expensive and very stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Women receive lower pay, offer fewer opportunities for advancement, and have less gains from experience and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Many women are expected to be caregivers and have a job to support the family </li></ul><ul><li>This burden affects relationships with added stress and reduces quality time for many families </li></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental Stress <ul><li>Many elements in the environment can produce stress, especially with women who tend to be sensitive towards stressors vs. men </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of environmental stressors are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical toxins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Coping Skills for Stress: Prevention, Management, and Treatment <ul><li>Cognitive appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Massage and Reflexology </li></ul><ul><li>Acupressure and Acupuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Tai Chi </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Body Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation Exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life

×