Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
Concepts of Stress <ul><li>Stress  is the body’s response to the demands </li></ul><ul><li>A  stressor  is the demand itse...
Stress and Perception <ul><li>The way you respond to an event is based upon how you perceive it </li></ul><ul><li>Percepti...
General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye, 1974) <ul><li>3 Stages of GAS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alarm (fight or flight) </li...
Stress Response Figure 5.2
Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>This is activated by the posterior section of the hhypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS...
Stress and “Dis-ease” <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Kidn...
Stress Amenorrhea <ul><li>Menstruation stops because of physical or mental stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also can cause ...
Migraine <ul><li>Migraines affect 28 million Americans, 75% of them are women (NINDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms occur in ...
Stress and Pregnancy <ul><li>Maternal stress can be harmful for both mother and expected child </li></ul><ul><li>High leve...
Stress and Lifestyle <ul><li>The following events can create significant stress in your life, resulting in possible health...
Impact of Multiple Roles on Today’s Woman <ul><li>A woman is expected to play multiple roles in her life which is demandin...
Destructive Qualities of Stress <ul><li>Women described stress as the predictor of marital violence </li></ul><ul><li>A nu...
Multicultural Issues <ul><li>The following multicultural issues can cause stress levels to rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spir...
Financial Stress <ul><li>Attempting to stay current with the use of modern technology is very expensive and very stressful...
Environmental Stress <ul><li>Many elements in the environment can produce stress, especially with women who tend to be sen...
Coping Skills for Stress: Prevention, Management, and Treatment <ul><li>Cognitive appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </...
Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
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Womens Health 5

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Womens Health 5

  1. 1. Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life
  2. 2. Concepts of Stress <ul><li>Stress is the body’s response to the demands </li></ul><ul><li>A stressor is the demand itself </li></ul><ul><li>Debilitating or excessive stress is known as distress </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive stress is known as eustress </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, as stress increases, so does health, performance, and general well-being ( optimal stress ) </li></ul>Maximum stress (beyond optimal stress) will deteriorate health and well-being
  3. 3. Stress and Perception <ul><li>The way you respond to an event is based upon how you perceive it </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are based upon your life experiences and immediate consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Experts believe that expectations come from social environments you integrate into your value system </li></ul><ul><li>These expectations can be less than, equal to, or exceed the demands of a particular situation </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye, 1974) <ul><li>3 Stages of GAS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alarm (fight or flight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistance (homeostasis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exhaustion (illness, emotional/psychological breakdown) </li></ul></ul>Research suggests that women and men respond to stress differently hormonally
  5. 5. Stress Response Figure 5.2
  6. 6. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>This is activated by the posterior section of the hhypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS excites and inhibits various bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>The ANS stimulates the production of catecholamines (stress hormones) such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in changes of bodily functions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stress and “Dis-ease” <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Gastro-intestinal </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-immune disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunctions </li></ul>Prolonged stress can lead to these disorders
  8. 8. Stress Amenorrhea <ul><li>Menstruation stops because of physical or mental stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also can cause irregular menstrual cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting, irregular eating habits, or too much exercise can cause amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your health care provider if your experience any of the above symptoms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migraine <ul><li>Migraines affect 28 million Americans, 75% of them are women (NINDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms occur in various combination and is often described as an intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head </li></ul><ul><li>Female sufferers report that migraines affect their ability to control their life </li></ul><ul><li>Causes are unknown, however, there is a strong genetic connection </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can trigger migraine headaches </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stress and Pregnancy <ul><li>Maternal stress can be harmful for both mother and expected child </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of stress can cause the following (March of Dimes, 1999): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of preterm labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low infant birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor and delivery complications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miscarriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relaxation therapy such as biofeedback can be helpful </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress and Lifestyle <ul><li>The following events can create significant stress in your life, resulting in possible health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major Life Events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College Stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undergrad women students are more likely than men to report an unacceptable stress level (Campbell et al. 1992) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Life Hassles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Impact of Multiple Roles on Today’s Woman <ul><li>A woman is expected to play multiple roles in her life which is demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Society views the woman as the “giver” vs. the “receiver” of assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors are greater for those women employed with children in comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Middle aged women have a unique multiple role which can have a negative impact on her health </li></ul><ul><li>The “hurried woman syndrome” described a modernized stress-laden lifestyle which results in fatigue, weight gain, and low libido </li></ul>
  13. 13. Destructive Qualities of Stress <ul><li>Women described stress as the predictor of marital violence </li></ul><ul><li>A number of women turn to alcohol and cigarettes as a means of relieving stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, anxiety and depression are among the reported health problems of women which are due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower socioeconomic status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex family structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of family relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of the labor market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Multicultural Issues <ul><li>The following multicultural issues can cause stress levels to rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to Acculturate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Factors </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Financial Stress <ul><li>Attempting to stay current with the use of modern technology is very expensive and very stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Women receive lower pay, offer fewer opportunities for advancement, and have less gains from experience and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Many women are expected to be caregivers and have a job to support the family </li></ul><ul><li>This burden affects relationships with added stress and reduces quality time for many families </li></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental Stress <ul><li>Many elements in the environment can produce stress, especially with women who tend to be sensitive towards stressors vs. men </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of environmental stressors are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical toxins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Coping Skills for Stress: Prevention, Management, and Treatment <ul><li>Cognitive appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Massage and Reflexology </li></ul><ul><li>Acupressure and Acupuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Tai Chi </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Body Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation Exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chapter Five Managing the Stress of Life

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