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Measuring Cytotoxicity On Cancer Cells

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Measuring Cytotoxicity On Cancer Cells
Measuring Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the Reduction of 3–(4, 5–dimethylthiazolyl–2)–2, 5–diphenyltetrazolium bromide to generate
NADH and NADPH
Abstract: Chemotherapy is a well–known treatment when it comes to treating cancer, however the drugs are often non–specific and can end up
damaging perfectly healthy cells, leaving the patient in agony, or not achieve anything. In this study we looks into the area of personalised medicine
where different drugs are used for different patients with the same cancer dependent upon the effects this drug will have. Two chemotherapeutic agents,
named A and B, were used to prevent the cell proliferating and therefore stop the cancer progressing and surviving as the cells starve to death. A...
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Radiotherapy was the first method non–surgical method used to cure cancer around 100 years ago and was, up until recently, the most common way to
do so (http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/21/8643.full.html). The basis is simple, an ionising beam is fired at the tumorous cells to alter
those cells DNA. The mutations are fatal and the cells die, therefore curing the cancer, however many healthy cells around that tumour also get
mutated and can also die in the process so there can be some severe side effects from radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was invented around 40 years later
(same guy unfortunately to link) in 1935 but due to lack of progress it was dismissed until the 1960's when there was proof that it actually could cure
cancer and not just relieve certain symptoms but do nothing else. Whilst radiotherapy is still the most common treatment of cancers chemotherapy is
now a treatment almost everyone will have heard of and is a growing field in an attempt to cure cancer with various drugs while minimising the side
effects some of these drugs can have. However vary rarely are these treatments used as standalone treatments nowadays, combining the above
techniques in different ways to ensure total removal of the cancerous cells. This method is called
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PAE Synthesis Lab Report
2.2 Materials and Methods: Polyamino–ether was obtained from the collaborator Dr. Kaushal Rege lab in Arizona state University. All other chemicals
were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). 2.2.1 Synthesis of the bioreducible modified–PAE: The obtained PAE polymer was synthesized by
reacting neomycin with glycidyl ether at molar ratio of 1:2 as reported in detail by Rege et al. previously[14]. The modified bioreducible PAE(mPAE)
was synthesized by a simple one step reaction with Traut's reagent as described previously[15]. Briefly, 10g of PAE was dissolved in 1ml of ddH20
(Double distilled water) and was allowed to react with 1.85 g(5–times molar excess) of 2–iminothiolane hydrochloride (IH) at room temperature for 15
h[16]. The product was dialyzed using a dialysis membrane (MWCO = 1,000 Da) against 5 mM HCl for 24 h followed by dialysis against 1 mM HCl
solution for 24 h. The purified mPAE was lyophilized and stored at–20В°C for future use [17].... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The mPAE was collected after extensive dialysis and freeze dried for future use. The modification of amino groups (–NH2) is shown as representative
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Free Radicals And Oxidative Stress
Nowadays, oxidative stress is the major risk factor for several health complications. Free radicals are the normal byproduct of cellular metabolism that
leads to oxidative stress, resulting in damage to nucleic acids, lipids and proteins, and is an underlying cause of various diseases in the human system,
including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory conditions, diabetic complications, Alzheimer's disease and ageing [4–8].
Free radicals promote tumor growth by activating certain signal transduction pathways that induce the transcription of c–fos, c–jun and c–myc, the
proto–oncogenes that stimulate tumor development [1, 2]. Excessive free radicals produced during cellular metabolism can attack the deoxyribose DNA
backbone and bases, which causes mutation and in turn leads to cancer. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A dynamic balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function [4]. Natural antioxidants may be incompetent
in promoting complete protection from free radicals. Various synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydxoxyanisole, butylated hydxoxytoluene,
propyl gallate, tertiary butyl hydroquinone play a key role in scavenging of free radicals, and some of them have been shown to possess potent
scavenging ability than the natural antioxidants
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Breast Cancer Essay
Cancer lies resting in all of us; all the living organisms such as our bodies are consistently making defective cells1. This is how tumors are developed.
Our bodies are provided with a number of mechanisms that can detect and keep such cells in check1. Breast Cancer (BC), is the most common
malignancy found in women worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality2. These breast tumors are made up of different
characteristics of breast cancer cells3. However, toxicity and chemoresistance are the main reasons that limit the treatments in BC cases to become
successful4. Major treatment strategies for breast cancer consist of either radiotherapy, surgery and/or chemotherapy2. The chances of surviving when
patients receive ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Further data demonstrated that frankincense oil can induce apoptosis in breast cancer3. Whether or not frankincense oil influences apoptosis in breast
cancer remains unclear. This study will utilize breast cancer cells to determine if frankincense oil influences the viability of the cells and cytotoxicity.
Hypothesis:
Since scientists have been unable to find a cure for breast cancer, research is needed to lower the viability of breast cancer cells. Due to frankincense's
anti–inflammatory ability to reduce cancer, we hypothesize that frankincense oil will inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and promote apoptosis.
Methodology:
Breast cancer cells (MCF–7) will be kept at 37В° C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. The breast cancer cells are going to be treated by having a control
group with media only while the experimental groups will be treated with different concentrations of frankincense (5%, 10%, 20%, and 25%).
Breast cancer cells will be incubated for 24 hours. They will be treated with 30 ВµM concentration of frankincense and the cells will have a control
group of 0 ВµM; breast cancer cells will be observed for different time periods (0, 3, 6, and 12 hours).
Aim #1: Investigate the effect of Frankincense oil on Breast cancer cell viability
Based on previous studies, Frankincense oil's anti–inflammatory ability has suggested that it could possibly kill cancer
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Cancer Vs Immmunotherapy For Cancer
Immunotherapy for cancer treatment has had tremendous growth recently with increased awareness and knowledge of the immune system and
potential means to manipulate it for therapeutic intent. Progress in the treatment of viral infections including CMV, EBV, HHV
–6, utilization of
immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma, non–small cell lung cancer, and Hodgkin Lymphoma, as well as rapid emergence of genetically modified
T cells against CD19+ B cells have contributed to the growth in this area.Antibody–targeted therapy has now become standard of care for many
malignancies, and the multi–domain utilization of antigen–specific adoptive T–cell therapy has shown great promises. 4 While our understanding of B
cell and T cell and our ability to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The key role of NK cells in various aspects of immune response are now being recognized and have been attracting increased attention for their
potential clinical efficacy via immune–based therapies. As their name implies, this unique member of the innateimmune system can recognize targets
without being previously sensitized and thus kill cells that are deemed dangerous to the host. This is particularly important when evaluating biologic
studies of NK cells and factors that influence NK–cell effect in cancer immune–surveillance, viral immunity, and transplantation alloreactivity. In this
chapter, we will review NK cell biology, discuss their role in the alloHSCT setting, and review new advances in incorporating NK cells as
therapeutic options for malignancies. Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) can be divided broadly into two major lineages mainly T cells and natural
killer (NK) cells. While mature cells NK cells are morphologically identified as LGL, nearly a decade after their initial discovery, NK cells were
characterized as lymphocytes having an immuno–phenotype that lacked expression of CD3– but expressed CD56+. This characterization thereby
differentiated them from T–cells having CD3+ expression and thus NK cells do not express the CD3/T–cell receptor (TCR) complex or experience
TCR gene rearrangement. NK cells can be further divided into two distinct
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Difficile Infection
Introduction The increased rates of infection may be attributed to the 3 primary risk factors: hospitalization, changing patterns of antibiotics use, Age >
65 year and more susceptible population. Classically, any exposure to antibiotics (particularly clindamycin, ampicillin or amoxicillin, cephalosporins
and fluoroquinolones) was a major risk factor for the development of CDI. However, Hospitalization provides not only a reservoir, but also a vector for
transmission. Also, second risk factors may be attributed to the Manipulation of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., surgery), immunosuppressed state (e.g.,
chemotherapy, HIV+ patients, and medical comorbidities leading to immunosuppression) also make the patient more susceptible to developing... Show
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difficile infection, but all of these methods have limitations and some of them are now considered suboptimal(2). The ideal laboratory test for CDI
would be sensitive, specific, rapid, simple to perform, and inexpensive. Culture Just after the discovery of the pathogenic role of C. difficile
proposed a selective agar plate called CCFA (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar) for the isolation from stool specimens. The selective agents are
cycloserine at a concentration of 500 mg/L and cefoxitin at 16 mg/L. Culture is the most sensitive method but it is not very specific due to the
possibility of isolating non–toxigenic isolates (14). Fecal diagnostic tests anaerobic toxigenic culture of C. difficile and the cell culture cytotoxicity
assay, with neutralization with clostridial antitoxin, are the most sensitive for diagnosis of CDI but time–consuming (5). For many years, cell culture
cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCCNA) was the accepted gold standard. By this method, stool filtrates are inoculated onto a monolayer of a cell
culture in wells with and without C. difficile antitoxin. CCCNA is quite specific for CDI. However, the assay is expensive, lacks standardization
among laboratories and is generally unavailable outside the research setting (11). The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) became broadly used because of its
rapidity in performance, but EIA used for toxin detection lack sensitivity and are considered suboptimal for diagnosing C. Difficile infection (11). A
laboratory assay measuring the clostridial protein, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), represents a rapid,
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Bacosides And Bacopa Monnieri Extract Cell Viability
Cytotoxicity of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract cell viability:
Prior to testing the neuroprotective effect of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract, its direct effect on cell viability of neuro cell line was evaluated.
Cell viability was determined following incubation of cells with different concentrations (0.2 –1.0 mg/ml) of bacosides in cultured medium for 3h. The
results as shown in fig 1 demonstrated that cell viability was decreased in the presence of high concentration of bacosides. The concentration of
bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract at 0.4mg/ml did not affect the cell viability of the neuro cells and this concentration was used for later
experiment.
3.2 Cytoprotective property of bacosides:
Neuroprotective effects ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The oxidation of 2, 7– dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) originates 2–7– dichlorofluroescein (DCF), a flurorescent compound initially thought to be
a useful indicator for H2O2.DCFH is oxidized by other ROS such as HOВє and ROOВє. To investigate the antioxidant activities of bacosides and
Bacopa monnieri extracts, intracellular ROS of the cells were estimated using DCFHDA. In present study, to examine the protective effects of
bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts, neuro cells were post treated with the bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts upon H2O2 exposed cells.
Results were observed that fluorescence intensity of the DCFH decreased in N2a cells treated with bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts
compared to H2O2 treated cell (Fig. ). It was observed that bacosides A that is a mixture of four compound is less protective compared to individual
bacosides. The present study investigated that among four individual bacosides, bacoside A3 is more protective and significantly decrease the
production of ROS in N2a cells. As well as Bacopa monnieri extracts of different culture condition was also observed to decrease the ROS production
in N2a cells. MS– liquid culture condition extract is more protected compared to MS agar and field acclimatized Bacopa monnieri extracts.
3.4 Measurement of Phosphotidylserine exposure:
Annexin V FITC– PI double staining assay was used to further distinguish the features of apoptotic and necrotic cells in response to H2O2.
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5-Ima Lab
The present study investigates the cytogenetic changes that could be induced in cancer cells after treatment with PDT. In this work, we evaluated the
cytotoxic and genotoxic effects that could be induced by 5–ALA/PDT on two different cancer cell lines; adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF–7) and
hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2). When MCF–7 and HepG2 cell lines treated with 5–ALA (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mM) alone for 4h then incubated for 24h,
5–ALA did not induce cytotoxic effects on both cell lines. Also, laser irradiation alone did not induce a cytotoxic effect on MCF–7 or HepG2 cells
after exposure for 4min then incubation for 24h. These results are in agreement with the observations of Chu et al. [21], who found that both 5–ALA
and its... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The effectiveness of 5–ALA/PDT to destroy acne lesions was evaluated by obstructing innate immune response via the Toll–like receptors (TLR),
which overexpressed in human keratinocytes with acne [26].
Micronucleus test is considered as one of the main cytogenetic parameters, which record partial or whole chromosome breakage during mitosis [17].
Therefore, the efficacy of 5–ALA/PDT to induce DNA damage, and release chromatin during mitosis, was detected by MN test. When MCF–7 and
HepG2 cell lines were treated with 5–ALA/PDT at 633nm, the ratio of micronuclei was increased significantly in comparison to non–treated groups.
Some research studies demonstrated that not all sensitizers have the ability to induce DNA damage or even cause cytotoxicity when applied with laser
irradiation, such studies include the observations of Zenzen and Zankl [23] who demonstrated that h–ALA/PDT did not induce significant
chromosome aberrations or micronuclei neither in tumor cell line RPMI 2650 nor fibroblast cell line WS1, however, it caused cytotoxicity to RPMI
2650 tumor cell line. Also, the results of Horinouchi and Arimoto–Kobayashi [27] found that 5–ALA/PDT did not induce photogenotoxicity in
keratinocyte NCTC2544 cells as evaluated by MN test, but PpIX disodium salt–induced genotoxicity after exposing the cells to 5–ALA/PDT with UV
irradiation of 5J/cm2
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Natural Killer Cells Essay
Natural killer Cells
Key notes:
Definition: NK cell is a large granular lymphocyte, part of the innate immune system because it uses germ–line encoded receptors. It is found in the
blood, spleen and liver.
Life cycle: NK cells develop in the bone marrow from the same progenitor cells as T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and circulate in the blood. They
have cytoplasmic granules containing cytotoxic proteins and produce interferon so that apoptosis is stimulated. They rapidly migrate to sites of
inflammation and they have short lifespan.
Action: NK cells kill tumor cells, microbes and virus infected cells in vitro without prior exposure. NK cells are regulated by activating and inhibitory
receptors.
Other role: Uterine NK cells are present in early pregnancy and have the ability to provoke cell cytotoxicity in vitro, but at a lower level than the
peripheral NK cells.
Related topics: Innate immunity, MHC processing and presentation, Antibody presentation
Definition: NK cells are lymphoid cells that serve as an early defense against certain intracellular infections. Unlike lymphocytes, they lack
antigen–specific receptors. Killing by NK cells is triggered by germ–line encoded receptors that recognize molecules on the surface of ... Show more
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Like all leukocyte populations, NK cells ultimately derive from self–renewing pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells that reside in the bone marrow. NK
cell development is occurring through a series of coordinated differentiation and maturation steps. NK cells develop from bone marrow–derived
hematopoietic stem cells through a common lymphoid progenitor. Some surface antigens and receptors, such as CD56 in humans and the TNF family
receptor, CD27, are partially down regulated or lost at the final stages of NK cell development.
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Activity Of Egyptian Propolis Nanoparticles
Antiproliferative activity of Egyptian propolis nanoparticles/liposomes in cancer cell monolayers: multimode of action including apoptotsis and nitric
oxide production
Rehab T.A.a, Sherif S.M.b,c, Hamdia A.Z.a, Torchilin P. V.c aAin Shams University, College of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Cairo, Egypt,
bBiophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt and c Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and
Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, USA.
ABSTRACT
Natural products are invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery. They generally viewed as safe but weak, within the framework of
nanotechnology, they can serve as template for potent anticancer drugs. We first evaluated the cytotoxic activity of different propolis extracts (water,
hydroalcohol, ethanol and hexane) in many cancer cell lines, then the solid nanoparticles from the organic solvent extracts were prepared and their
cytotoxicity was evaluated as well. Finally, 1,2–dipalmitoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2–dioleoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine
(DOPC) liposomes were prepared from the most cytotoxic organic solvent extract and their cytotoxicity was also evaluated.
All results collectively showed that hexane extract and its solid nanoparticles as well as its liposomal form exhibited high cytotoxic activity. DPPC
/DOPC–hexane extract cytotoxicity was selectively depends on the cell line and
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Rituximab Research Paper
Rituximab, better known by its trade name RituxanВ®, is a monoclonal antibody medication administered intravenously. Genentech, Inc and IDEC
Pharmaceuticals manufacture Rituximab. 1,3 It is a drug used to treat several diseases including: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), along with other
prescribed medicines; Non–Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), either alone or with other chemotherapy medicines; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL),
along with other chemotherapy medicines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide; Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA); and Microscopic Polyangiitis
(MPA), along with glucocorticoids. 1,2 Cost of treatment varies on the disease. Rituximab costs are about $ per mg/l .
Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric human–murine antibody. 3,4 More specifically, Rituximab is composed of the ... Show more content on
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4 This antigen is present on more than 90 percent of B–cell NHL. However, it is not found on hematopoietic stem cells, normal plasma cells, pro
B–cells, or other normal tissues. CD20 has other key roles such as in the activation process for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and it is
suspected to function as a calcium ion channel as well. In RA, b–cells play an important role in the pathogenesis and associated chronic synovitis. In
RA, b–cells act on multiple sites to induce an autoimmune inflammatory response including the production of rheumatoid factor, other autoantibodies,
antigen presentation, t–cell activation, and pro–inflammatory cytokine production. The fab domain binds to the CD20 antigen on b lymphocytes and Fc
domain recruits immune effector function to mediate B–cell lysis in vitro. Potential mechanisms of cell lysis involve complement–dependent
cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody–dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, the antibody has been shown to induce apoptosis
primarily in the DHL–4 human B–cell lymphoma
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The Doping Of Semiconductor By Rare Earth Metal Nanoparticle
The doping of semiconductor by rare earth metal nanoparticle is an effective way for increasing photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum
doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel–combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity
and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various
spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The absorption edge shifts towards the visible region after
doping with La ions. This shift shows that the doping of La ions is favorable for absorbing the visible light. The comparative photocatalytic and
cytotoxicity activity revealed that La doped ZnO nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the ZnO nanoparticles. The outcome of
these studies offers valuable for planning La doped ZnO nanoparticles having cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of
anticancer product and wastewater remediation.
Keywords. Gel–combustion, Photocatalytic, Paracetamol, Cell lines and nanoparticles.
1. Introduction.
The presence of pharmaceutical compound even at low concentration in waste water effluents raised the environmental problems on aquatic and human
life in recent years [1]. Several drugs are extensively used as antibiotics, antiseptics, anti–inflammatory and disinfectants [2]. Out of which Paracetamol
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Elucidate The Potential Of 5-Ala Case Study
Therefore, we are aiming to elucidate the potential of 5–ALA/PDT to target the genetic materials of MCF–7 and HepG2 cancer cell lines effectively
after inducing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by two cytogenetic parameters; micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay.
In this experimental study, we will elucidate the potential of 5–ALA/PDT to target DNA and induce DNA damage to the genetic materials of MCF–7
and HepG2 cancer cells and record cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay.
2.Materials and Methods
All chemicals, including 5–ALA, were purchased from (Sigma/Aldrich, VA, USA), unless mentioned. Stock solution of 5–ALA (100mM) was
prepared in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and kept in dark at –20ВєC. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
after application of 5–ALA/PDT treatments, MCF–7 and HepG2 cells were incubated for 24h before harvesting.
2.3.Cytotoxicity
Cytotoxicity was carried out using the trypan blue staining/ exclusion method (5Г—105 cells/well). 20Вµl of cell suspension was added to 20Вµl of
0.4% trypan blue and then viable and dead cells were counted by Bio–Rad TC20в„ў Cell Automated Counter. The percentage of viability was
determined by the following equation and data were represented as the mean В± SD.
% of viability = (number of viable cells/ total cell number) x 100
2.4.Evaluation of DNA Damage
Assessment of DNA damage was evaluated by micronucleus test and comet assay after treating cells with 5–ALA and/or laser irradiation as PDT.
2.5.Micronucleus Test
The micronucleus (MN) test was carried out according to Fenech [17] with some modifications. MCF–7 and HepG2 cells were treated with
cytochalasin B (5Вµg/ml), 44h before the end of treatments, to block cytokinesis and stop cell division at the metaphase/anaphase transition of mitosis.
After applying different treatments with 5–ALA/PDT, cells suspensions were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 min and the supernatant were discarded.
Small drops of the resuspended cells pellets were spread upon clean
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Annotated Bibliography : Programmed Cell Death
By utilizing these two transgene expressions in a synchronized way, the adenovirus is granted the ability to replicate, specifically when it is within a
tumor cell. The promoter hTERT controls the specificity of E1a's ability for viral replication. This assures that the adenovirus only replicates within
cancer cells because the gene marker is only triggered where the hTERT expression is prevalent, which, as indicated earlier, is only within cancerous
cells.
Another impressive dimension that adds to the efficacy of Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a is the adenoviruses' ability to attack tumor cells through the
addition of the therapeutic transgene expression Apoptin. Apoptin is a protein that is known to induce the process of apoptosis specifically within
malignant cells, but not in regular cells [3]. Apoptosis is often called "programmed cell death" because it is a process in which cells that are no longer
needed within an organism are recognized and then destroyed. Inserting this transgene expression into the genome of Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a creates
a cancer specific adenovirus equipped with dual threat potential. With these transgene expressions inserted into the genome of an adenovirus,
Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a, is a genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus that has been created which can theoretically eradicate cancer cells through
both lysis and apoptosis, but not negatively effect normal cells within the host.
4.Case Study: Clinical Analysis of Oncolytic Adenovirus
A study by
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horizontal gel electrophoresis platform and covered with...
horizontal gel electrophoresis platform and covered with pH > 12 alkaline solution for 20 min without electrophoresis[15]. The slide were then
neutralized and stained with 50 Вµl of 20 Вµg /ml ethidium promide. This cytotoxicity method of cell growth following to pro–mutagen exposure was
detected under cytocharasin B and frequency binuclear cells. Fairbrain and co–workers reported the advantage of this technique include: i) high
sensitivity for detecting low levels of DNA damage; ii) ability to detect genotoxicity in the absence of mitotic activity; iii) the requirement for small
numbers of cells per sample; iv) flexibility; v) low costs; vi) easy application and vii) the relatively short time period needed to complete an experiment
[16].... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The plate was then read for absorbance at 540nm using the microplate reader. The neutral red assay was chosen because it assesses the lysosomal
integrity of cells. As the integrity of the lysosome in cells is dependent upon a very wide range of healthy internal machinery, as opposed to a single
or a few individual pathways, it provides a good overview of general cellular health as deficient systems inside the cell are likely to impact on the cells
ability to retain the neutralred stain [19] .
LDH release
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an oxidative enzyme that changes lactate into pyruvate during glycolysis. LDH widely exists in cell membranes and
cytoplasm, and is released from cells into culture supernatants immediately after cell damage. Therefore, photospectrometrical assessment for cell
viability through the extracellular leakage of LDH can be applied for the antiviral evaluation of compounds [20] .
The method using cell line and described previously. The LDH released from necrotic cells into the extracellular fluid was determined after 4 h of
treatment with the test agents by using the commercially available Cytotoxicity Detection Kit (LDH). The plates were centrifuged at 400 g and 4 в—¦C
for 4 min and an aliquot of 50 Ојl was taken to quantify the LDH[21].
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), that is present in all metabolically active cells, can be determined in a bioluminescent
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Cyytotoxicity Of Nannodisc
Cytotoxicity of nanodisc trapped/remodeled AпЃў1–40 intermediates The structural analysis of nanodisc bound AпЃў1–40 В¬suggests the formation
of intermediate conformation with typical пЃўпЂsheet structures driven by the PMA. We next characterized the toxicity of these AпЃў1–40
intermediates in human neuroblastoma (SH–SY5Y) cells. Results showed substantial cytotoxic behavior of PMA in solution with a cell viability loss of
≈ 40 % at 2.5 п
ЃM. The AпЃў1–40 monomer and fibers (2.5 пЃM) incubated with equimolar PMA also showed a nearly equivalent cell
cytotoxicity as that of the free PMA. In contrast, the PMA bound nanodiscs (Fig 5b) such as DMPC/GM1 (4:1) and DMPC (100 %) showed a
relatively low cytotoxicity (< ≈ 10 %). On the other hand, the anionic
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Our studies showed, all targeted nanodiscs despite of their membrane properties, significantly accelerates the AпЃў fibrillation at equimolar
concentration. At a molar concentration > 20%, the SM and GM1 showed counteractive aggregation kinetics for AпЃўпЂ®пЂ Higher percentage of
SM (50 %) containing nanodiscs inhibits AпЃў oligomerization, whereas GM1 proposed to play an important role in AD pathogenesis were shown to
accelerate the AпЃў fibrillation. The exact concentration of GM1 (~ 4 % in healthy neurons) in AD brain remains unclear, however, high–density GM1
clustering (higher GM1 concentrations induce clustering; ref– http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ja3054095) in AD brain has been reported (https:/
/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025365/). Previous studies correlates the association of gangliosides metabolism with aging and AD (https:
//jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/fullarticle/588755; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1814411). Likewise, an abnormal onset of SM
metabolism was observed in AD that results in the reduction in sphingomyelin and elevation of ceramide (ref–). Taken together, the present studies
compared the role of both SM and GM1 at equal concentration and reveled their counter protective behavior towards AD (Fig 1c). The
AпЃўпЂ aggregation has also been
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Electrospinning Essay
Electrospinning is a convenient method for fabricating various nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. In electrospinning process, a
conductive collector device plays a critical role in determining the shape and the structure of the nanofibrous scaffold; however, the preparation of the
collector is often complex. In this study, a novel, flexible, and inexpensive approach based on pencil–on–paper method was developed for preparing
collectors used in electrospinning. Graphite is a conductive material widely used as a component in the pencil core. A series of collectors were
prepared through drawing different patterns on folded and unfolded paper using a pencil, followed by successfully fabricating two–dimensional (2D)
nanofibrous ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
We believe that the method developed in this study would provide a convenient approach to fabricate complex collectors for producing ordered 2D or
3D nanofibrous structures.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Electrospinning
The collector was fabricated using a common 5B pencil and A4 paper. Paper was tailored to suitable size, and different patterns were drawn using a
pencil. Subsequently, the paper was folded in different shapes as collectors. Poly (Оµ–caprolactone) (PCL, MW = 60,000) was dissolved in
dichloromethane/ethanol (v:v =3:1) to form a homogeneous solution with a concentration of 15 wt%, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, MW =
1,300,000) was dissolved in ethanol at a concentration of 8 wt%. After that, the solution was transferred to a syringe fastened on an infusion pump.
The solution was pumped at a rate of 0.5 mL/h. 8 kV voltage was applied between the needle and the collecter placed 10 cm away to form an
electrospinning jet. The collectors and fibers were observed using a camera (Nikon, Japan) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (JSM–7011F,
Japan).
2.2. Cell experiment
Murine calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3–E1) were selected as the model cell to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the electrospun fibers. The nanofibrous
membranes and films after sterilization under UV radiation were cut into small pieces, placed in a cell culture plate, and soaked in the culture medium
(DMEM/F–12
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Material And Methods : Bm Mscs Cultivation
Material and Methods: BM–MSCs cultivation: BM–MSCs were obtained from Institute Pasture of Iran and were cultured in Low Glucose Dulbecco 's
modified Eagle 's medium (Low Glc–DMEM) (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) with 10% FBS (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) and 1%
penicillin and streptomycin (Sigma–Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany). Then, BM–MSCs were incubated in humified incubator at 37ЛљC and 5% CO2.
Cell's medium was replaced every two days. U266 cell line: Confirmed U266 cells, a human myeloma cell line, were purchased from Institute Pasture
of Iran. U266 cells were grown in RPMI–1640 (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) with 10% FBS (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) and
1% penicillin and streptomycin (Sigma–Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany) in T25 flask culture (Orange Scientific, Braine–l 'Alleud, Belgium). Then,
U266 cells incubated in humified incubator at 37ЛљC and 5% CO2. The medium was changed every day during all steps of experiments and Trypan
blue staining was used for viability analyzing. BM–MSCs derived C.M preparation: The BM–MSCs were cultured in T25 flask culture (Orange
Scientific, Braine–l 'Alleud, Belgium) with DMEM medium and incubated for reaching to 60–70% confluency. In the next step, DMEM medium was
replaced with RPMI–1640 medium without FBS and was incubated for 72 hours (hrs). After incubation; medium was collected, cells and debris were
removed by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated by 10 kDa MW cut–off ultrafiltration
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Fate Therapeutic: A Case Study
Fate therapeutic is a biotechnology company focusing on immunotherapy for cancer and immune disorder disease. This company has long history for
immune system research and their ultimate goal is to develop safe and effective off–the–shelf therapy for large amount of patients.
There is a strong pipeline in Fate therapeutic. Their pipeline can be divided into two areas: immuno–oncology, including 3 products named
FATE–NK100, engineered hnCD16 iNK and engineered CAR iTcell, and immuno–regulation, including 2 products named ProTmune and ToleraCyte. It
shows that Fate has a great interest in nature killer cells, T cells and CD34+ cells. This report will mainly introduce the technique in FATE
–NK100 and
ProTmune which are the only two products in clinical stage. In addition, the entire pipeline is built on the induced pluripotent stem cell technique. [7] ...
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Fate induced well differentiated cell back to pluripotent stem cell then modify the genome and expand them into a human pluripotent stem cell line.
After cell line is produced, IPSC is induced to CD34+ cells, nature killer cells and T cells as their source of pipeline.[5] To maintain effective
derivation and expansion of IPSC, Fate develops a IPSC plateform using small molecule pathway inhibitor and reprogramming factor (OCT4/SOX2
/SV40LT) to quickly produce identical IPSC and enable off–the–shelf
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The Effect Of Calcium On The Contribution Of Calcium...
This research utilized calcium channel blockers to measure the contribution of calcium uptake in relation to the vesicular glutamate released into the
extracellular space. After the calcium channels were blocked glutamate was applied directly to the extracellular space and the animals ability to remove
the glutamate was measured. The results showed that animals with traumatic brain injuries had significantly higher levels of extracellular glutamate
evidenced by a nearly 80% increase when compared to the healthy mice (Hinzman et. Al., 2012). This showed that calcium mediated neuronal
glutamate release may contribute to the cytotoxicity experienced by patients affected by traumatic brain injury. The second part of the study examined
the importance of excitatory amino acid transporters in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. To accomplish this, researchers applied an EAAT
blocker to both injured and normal rats to measure their ability to remove extracellular glutamate. The data suggested that mice subjected to a traumatic
brain injury had a more significant increase in extracellular glutamate after the EAAT blocker was applied. Additionally, mice in the traumatic brain
injury required a significantly longer time for the extracellular glutamate to return to pre–study levels (Hinzman et. Al., 2012). As such, it seems that
the major mechanism responsible for the cytotoxic levels of extracellular glutamate in traumatic brain injury is directly related to a
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CNTs Toxicity in Real Time Essay
Ever since their discovery in 1991, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have gained a lot of interest due to their many unique physical and chemical properties.
They are almost one dimensional structures with high mechanical strength (100 times stronger than Steel), ultra–light weight (1/6th the weight of steel)
and exhibit excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. Most importantly, CNTs have the ability to effectively cross biological barriers and cellular
membrane allowing their use in a wide spectrum of biomedical applications such as bio–imaging, disease targeting and the delivery of therapeutic
molecules, genes or drugs.
Currently, advances in the biomedical applications of CNTs are being hindered by many uncertainties regarding their... Show more content on
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Our approach relies on using the insulating nature of the cellular plasma membrane to monitor and analyze the cellular behavior of human lung
epithelial cells in real time. Using an electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) device, we can measure and quantify changes in the cellular behavior,
morphology, interactions in real time. These measurements will be further analyzed to derive structure–function relations that correlates the cellular
mechanisms with the cytotoxic and apoptotic events associated with CNTs exposure in real time.
The ECIS device, in principle, is an electrolytic circuit. It measures the changes in resistance value between an active electrode where the cells are
attached and a counter electrode using the growth media as an electrolyte (figure 1). Once the cells are seeded on the ECIS gold electrodes the current
is forced to flow either below, between or through the cells, thus providing measurement of three different parameters; barrier function (Rb), cell
membrane capacitance (Cm) and the height between cells and electrodes (h). These parameters are are further analyzed and correlated to many cellular
properties such as shape, morphology, attachment, size, cellular connections (tight and gap junctions), cell membrane integrity and many others.
By combining the standard cell based cytotoxicity assays with ECIS technique, we were able to study and analyze the underlying cellular
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Pectin Essay
The assay measured the ability of pectin to cause cell death. Both pectin samples induced necrotic cell death in HT–29 cells, both pectin concentration
and pectin type had a significant (p < 0.0001) effect on cell cytotoxicity. 400W treated pectin at 0.75 mg/ml concentration induced 14.41В±1.64%
LDH activity while 0.1mg/ml resulted in 6.40В± 0.59% cytotoxicity, on the other hand the 200W treated pectin at 0.1mg/ml concentration induced
3.09В±0.28% while 0.75mg/ml induced 6.83 В± 0.80 % cell cytotoxicity. The ability of modified pectin to induce cell cytotoxicity was recently
reported [23], 3mg/ml of heat modified citrus pectin induced over approximately 20% and 15% cell cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and A549 cells
respectively after 24hours exposure.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
400W sonicated pectin had small molecular weight pectin fractions compared to 200W pectin, which could have enhanced its transportation into the
cells, hence higher concentration of 400W sonicated pectin entered the cells leading to its higher activity than high molecular weight 200W treated
pectin. Moreover, 400W sonicated pectin had higher galactose and arabinose content which are known to play a role in pectin induced cell death. It
was reported that galactose rich pectin has higher biological activity than low galactose content pectin, for instance MCP is rich in galactose and
galacturonic acid which are attributed to its activity [16,42]. Measuring the release of the intracellular enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme
by cells after exposure to a compound is a reliable measure of compounds cytotoxicity to
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Neural Regeneration Through Nanotechnology : Nanotechnology
Keith Emert
Professors Hatch and Fowler
Chemistry 122
14 February 2016
Neural Regeneration through Nanotechnology There are many recent and exciting discoveries in the world of nanotechnology, and new studies
examining the possibilities of neural regeneration are not the least of them. The Central Nervous System – consisting of the brain and spinal cord – is
perhaps the structure most vital for life in the human body. Unfortunately, it also has one of the slowest and most limited rates of natural regeneration.
Damage to the brain or spinal cord or loss of nerve tissue due to degenerative diseases can create life–long physical, cognitive, and psychological
debilitation. The devastating implications of damage to the central nervous system have given rise to a field of scientists and clinicians aspiring to
understand the system and ultimately repair said damage. Meanwhile, technological innovations have brought us ever closer to actually finding a
workable cure. There have been developments in chemical and biochemical fields in this matter and the most promising of these approaches are
stem–cell–based therapies. Stem cells are simply undifferentiated cells that are capable of differentiating into specialized cells such as nervous tissue
and dividing to create more stem cells. Neural stem cells in particular are capable of differentiating into "neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes.1"
However, current approaches involving stem–cell–based therapy have proved unsuccessful
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The Painful Disease of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis is an inflammatory disease, affecting synovial joints, lined with synovium, its treatment includes non–steroidal
anti–inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs like chloroquine. In this study several dilutions of Ibuprofenand
Chloroquine were evaluated for their mutagenicity and cytotoxicity alone and in combination by using Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and MTT
[(3–(4, 5 dimethylthiazole –2 yl)–2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)] assay using BHK–21 cell lines. Result indicates that Chloroquine and Ibuprofen
showed non mutagenic behaviour at lower doses with both strains TA 100 and TA98 but Chloroquine at higher concentration (800ug/ml)showed
mutagenic potential with bacterial strain TA100 and a slight mutagenic potential against TA98.Whereas Ibuprofen at higher concentration (10,000ug
/ml)showed slight mutagenic potential against TA98. Furthermore, combination Chloroquine–Ibuprofen showed mutagenic potentialat higher
concentration (3200–40000Вµg/ml) with TA98, and a slight mutagenic potential at 1600–20000 and 3200–40000Вµg/ml with TA100. However,in
Cytotoxicity evaluation,chloroquine was cytotoxic at concentrations 200Вµg / ml, 400 Вµg / ml, 800Вµg / ml, 1600Вµg / ml and 3200Вµg / ml.
On contrast, Ibuprofen at concentrations 10000 Вµg / ml, 20000 Вµg / ml and 40000 Вµg / ml showed cytotoxic effects on BHK–1 cells, In
conclusion, the toxicity profiles of both the drugs were shown no mutagenic and cytotoxic potential at
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Muscle Stem Cell Lab Report
Mechanism of how antioxidants can preserve stem cell function:
LUO2014* Effects of antioxidants induced pluripotent stem cells:
They tested whether the addition of low–dose antioxidants influences the growth, quality, and genomic stability of induced pluripotent Stem cells (iPS
cells). They found that the iPS cells grew well and ''stemness'' was preserved up to 2 months with the addition of low–dose antioxidant. However, the
addition of low–dose antioxidants lowered the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in iPS cells, it did not influence the expression of
53BP1 and ATM (two molecules involved in DNA damage and repair .Moreover, CGH analysis showed that the levels of genetic aberrations were
lowered only by the supplements ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
DEM–treated MDSCs differentiated to a lower extent than did the untreated MDSCs. No difference in the proliferation of NAC–treated and untreated
MDSCs however, DEM treatment suppressed the MDSCs' proliferation rate as compared to that of the untreated and NAC treated MDSCs.
2_In vitro survival of NAC–/DEM–treated MDSCs under oxidative/inflammatory stress conditions:
An obvious suppressed level of survival was observed in MDSCs pretreated with DEM when exposed to either oxidative or inflammatory stressors in
comparison to the untreated and NAC–treated MDSCs . On the contrary , NAC–treated MDSCs showed a high level of survival under both stress
conditions than did either the untreated or the DEM–treated MDSCs.
3_ Regeneration and scar tissue formation in injured skeletal muscle: great increases in host regeneration were reported in skeletal muscles injected
with NAC–treated MDSCs in comparison to all other muscle injection groups. directions in scar tissue formation were the inverse of the directions in
host muscle regeneration.
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Gold Nanorods Essay
In the ever–advancing field of nanotechnology and materials science there has been a buzz in the air in recent years over Gold Nanorods (GNRs).
Their unique structure and ease of synthesis provides a range of optical properties that can be readily manipulated. These properties can be utilised in
various applications such as surface functionalisation, photothermal therapy to manage tumours and cancer cells. In this review, we will look at the
current research that analyses the toxicity of GNRs and what effects the surface chemistry and synthesis have on this. We will also discuss what effect
the size and shape of GNRs have on biological systems, reinforcing why they are making such a statement in the world of science.
Gold ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Gold nanorod (GNR) synthesis requires the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) [7], this process produces a high yield of GNRs with
surface plasmon resonances in the infra–red as well as visible light range. CTAB is the agent that drives anisotropic growth as well as provides the
stabilization needed to form the bilayers on the GNRs [8]. Quite a significant amount of CTAB is used in this synthesis and after the synthesis there is
still an amount of CTAB remaining on the surface of the GNRs [9]. The excess CTAB on the surface has both a lack of stability in biological systems
and presents a significant amount of cytotoxicity [3, 10, 11]. In the literature it has presented that GNR solutions that are CTAB–capped at a certain
concentration present a substantial amount of cytotoxicity at around 70% loss of cell viability [10]. In this paper published by Wiley, with over 600
citations was an extraordinary paper. It was well constructed and no faults could be found with it. With that amount of citations, it has clearly
influenced the further investigation of the cytotoxicity of GNRs. Now we have identified that CTAB is the problem, how have researchers attempted
to solve it? You're probably thinking, remove the CTAB, which is a very reasonable suggestion. Removing the CTAB from the surface of the GNRs
and replacing them with other viable biomolecules is not a simple process. By removing the CTAB from the surface of the GNRs the first issue
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Using Student 's T Test For Proper Statistical Evaluation
Experiments are reported as mean В± SD and were generated in multiples of triplicate for proper statistical evaluation. Comparisons between two
groups were made using Student's t–test and the significance level was determined by a p–value < 0.05. Spectral analysis was carried out with
OriginPro software (Origin 2015, OriginLab corporation, MA, USA). Results Characterization of propolis extracts UV spectra The Uv–Vis spectra of
all propolis extracts (Figure 1) showed strong absorption in the range 270–290 nm. Water extract showed one peak at 278 nm suggesting one principal
compound or group of closely related compounds. Both hydroalcohol (70 % ethanol) and ethanol extracts were characterized by two absorption peaks
at 270, 290 and shoulder at 365 nm; reflecting the possibility of three compounds/groups. On the other hand, hexane extract showed a broad absorption
peak that covers the range 270–290 nm. Infrared spectroscopy The characteristic infrared spectra of dried–water based extract and the other three
solvent extracts; hydroalcoholic (70 % ethanol), ethanol and hexane, are given in figure 2. The hexane extract shows a remarkable structural
differences relative to the other three extracts with reduced absorption intensity in the hydroxyl peak (4000–3000 cm–1), increased absorption intensity
in the stretching vibration of methyl and methylene CH (3000 – 2800 cm–1) and in the absorption peak that detected around 1710 cm–1 (Carbonyl
bond ). These absorption characteristics
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Synthesis And Biological Use As Potential Anticancer Agents
Norcantharidin and analogues: synthesis and biological use as potential anticancer agents
Norcantharidin (NCTD), the demethylated analogue of cantharidin, has been used to treat human cancers in China since 1984. It was recently found to
be capable of inducing apoptosis in human colon carcinoma, hepatoma and glioblastoma cells by way of an elusive mechanism.1 Norcantatharidins and
their analogues are synthetic anticancer agents which have been used in various different procedures for the inducing growth arrest and apoptosis of
tumour cells and also provide therapeutic and adjuvant therapeutic applications in the treatment of cancer agents.2 This report will discuss the various
different NCTD that are currently being studied, highlighting the synthesis of these NCTD and their various biological pathways that are taken in
order to inhibit the growth of the correspondent cancer cell. In particular NCTD induced apoptosis of the hepatoma cells will be considered and also
highlighting the different views with the synthesis of the particular NCTD and also the effectiveness of the methodology and its observations in
response to other NCTD and their mechanism in attacking the hepatoma cell site.
One study by Shuijun Zhanga et al had shown the ABT–737 induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) by the transcriptional
repression of Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl–1). Shuijun Zhanga et a. had shown that NCTD could affect apoptosis by the modification of the B–cell
lymphoma 2
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Journal Article Summary And Analysis
Journal Article Summary and Analysis:
Ji Su Chae, Nam–Su Heo et al. A biocompatible implant electrode capable of operating in body fluids for energy storage devices. Nano Energy, 34
(2017) 86–92.
Q1)
The authors propose a new form of energy storage in implantable electronic medical devices (IEMDs). Chae et. al. solution involves "using [the] body
fluids as unpackaged electrolytes" in a superconductor with a shared solar cell for energy storage and recharge capabilities. This proposition provides
numerous benefits over current passivation encapsulation methods such as its biocompatible and natural approach with an extended longevity. The
solution suggests a suitable composite material and a means to power an IEMD in vivo. This article ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The positive electrode is a composite of MnO2 nanoparticles inside multi–walled carbon nanotubes. This aims to reduce toxicity and minimise
capacitance loss with power transmitted by stable and reversible Faradaic reaction.
Q4)
Various characterisation techniques are used throughout the article to identify and quantify materials and processes to further understand what is
occurring. One such method used is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM uses electrons to form an image at a significantly higher resolution
and magnification than optical microscopes due to the smaller wavelength and stronger interaction. Furthermore, TEM's are versatile as diffraction
patterns are also obtainable within the same tool.
A TEM instrument is designed with an electron gun positioned at the top of the device as the source of electron generation. These electrons are then
accelerated to high voltage values to minimise divergence and then are focused into a continuous electron beam with magnetic lenses and apertures.
The chamber is in vacuum to protect the beam from scattering along with maintaining a clean working environment. This tool requires very small and
thin specimens for analysis such that electrons are able to penetrate through the material lattice without scattering at an angle. These transmitted
electrons that go through the sample can form an image at the
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Degradation Of The Paracetamol Drug Using Lanthanum Doped...
Photocatalytic degradation of the Paracetamol drug using Lanthanum doped ZnO nanoparticles and their in–vitro Cytotoxicity assay. M.Shakira*,
M.Faraza, Asif Sherwanib and Saud I. Al–Resayesc a. Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India. b. Interdisciplinary
Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India c. Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh
11451, Saudi Arabia. *To whom correspondence should be addressed Email: shakir078@yahoo.com Phone No. +91–9837430035 a Abstract. The
doping of semiconductor by rare earth metal nanoparticles is an effective way for increasing in photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum
doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel–combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity
and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various
spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The UV–vis spectroscopy displayed the absorption edge
shifts towards the visible region after doping with La which is extremely favorable for absorbing the visible light. We compared the enhancing effect of
La ions and found that La doped ZnO nanoparticles is more effective than ZnO nanoparticles in promoting the generation of hydroxyl radicals, holes
and the photocatalytic activity of
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The Use Of Nanopolymers For Biomedical Purposes
Statement of the problem:
The driving forces behind this work are related to the increased use of nanopolymers for biomedical purposes. Charged and neutral polymers are
routinely used for gene and drug delivery. However, limited studies are performed to test their safety. Therefore, the originality of this work lies in its
attempt to evaluate the toxicity of three widely used polymers for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, we aim to establish efficient
methods for nanotoxicity testing through comparing the results of three different models ( 2D, 3D invitro cell cultures and invivo zebrafish
embryo)preparing these materials for clinical application.
Abstract
Nanomaterials exhibit a wide range of applications in different aspects of human life . In biomedical fields, nanoparticles are packaged into different
nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery especially for improving the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. However, no sufficient data that
detect their toxicity. In the present study, the toxicity of three different polymers that represent promising drug carriers will be evaluated using 2D, 3D
cell cultures and zebrafish embryos. The polymers to be studie include the well–known cationic transfection agents Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and
poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for their established cytotoxicity as well as the uncharged drug carrier material pHPMA (i.e. poly(N–2–hydroxypropyl)
methacrylamide), Poly(ethylene glycol)–b–poly(N–(2–hydroxypropyl)
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Gastrointestinal Tissue Case Study
Gastrointestinal tract
Ingestion of NMs can potentially occur directly from food, water or orally administered medicines (Card et al. 2011). In addition, retrograde transfer
of NMs by mucocilliary clearance may result in the deposition of materials to the GIT by subsequent swallowing of materials. It is believed that the
vast majority of ingested NMs are rapidly passed through the GIT and lost via the faeces (Papp et al. 2008). However, the harsh environment of the
stomach and the small intestine, with its low pH and digestive enzymes might alter the characteristics of NMs and therefore their subsequent fate in the
human body. Surface properties of NMs play an important role in their translocation from the GIT. It has also been suggested... Show more content on
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In another study Fischer rats were exposed to a single intragastric dose of fullerene C60 (0.7 nm) or SWCNT (~ 2 nm (width) and < 1 Вµm (length)
(0.064 and 0.64 mg/kg/bw suspended in saline or corn oil). The authors showed that both doses of the SWCNT and C60 increased
8–oxo–7,8–dihydro–2'–deoxyguanosine (8–oxodG) levels in liver. The suspension of materials in saline or corn oil had no significant effect on the
genotoxicity of NMs in the liver. Finally, an increased mRNA expression of 8–oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in the liver was noted following C60
treatment, although no significant increase in DNA repair activity was detected. The data from this study indicated that low dose oral exposure to
the C60 and SWCNT NMs can result in direct genotoxic effects in the liver (Folkmann et al. 2009). However, the same NMs were not able to
induce genotoxicity in colonic mucosa cells. It can be argued that from an evolutionary perspective, enterocytes may be less susceptible to toxic
effects of exogenous materials. Another explanation could be related to the age of the rats used in the study (sacrificed at 9 weeks of age); it has
previously been shown that uptake of 1 Вµm labelled polystyrene particles was approximately nine times higher in adult (5 months) rats compared to
young (6–8 weeks) rats (Seifert et al. 1996). Another study in oral exposure of Sprague–Dawley rats to SiO2 (12 nm), iron
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Types And Types Of Diabetes Essay
Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic disease that is present around the world. Type 2 diabetes is generally chaacterised by decrease in
B cell mass function and decrease in the sensitivity of insulin in the peripheral tissues. Beta cell dysfunctioning decrease the release of amylin and
insulin in response to increased blood glucose levels and this is thought to be affected by misfolded amylin proteins where the cytotoxicity from amylin
oligomers affects the function of islet beta cells via several mechanisms and affecting the signaling pathway and apoptosis of beta cells.
Introduction:
There are 2 major types of diabetes in humans which revolves around the control of blood sugar level. These 2 types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by total destruction of insulin secreting cells which is the worst case scenario in terms of diabetes progression and
would normally require insulin replacement therapy. However type 2 diabetes might be characterized by a progressive deterioration of insulin
secreting cells which could secrete insulin however it might not be sufficient in glucose homeostasis or development of resistance to insulin in
peripheral tissues. Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases around the world which could be responsible for other complications such as
heart attack, stroke, blindness, renal failure etc. Type 2 diabetes has been hypothesized been caused by misfolded amylin species mediate
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Breast Cancer Essay
Cancer lies dormant in all of us; all living organisms such as our bodies are making defective cells all the time (1). This is how tumors are
developed. Our bodies are also equipped with a number of mechanisms that detect and keep such cells in check (1). Breast Cancer (BC), is the most
common malignancy in women worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality (2). These breast tumors are comprised of
phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells (3). However, chemoresistance and toxicity are the main causes that limit the success of
treatment in aggressive BC cases (4). Major treatment strategies for breast cancer consist, either separately or in combination of, radiotherapy, surgery
and chemotherapy (2). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell–specific
anti–proliferative and pro–apoptotic activities (5). Further data demonstrated that frankincense essential oil induced apoptosis (3). Frankincense oil
has been reported to play critical biological activities in cancer (3). However, to the best of our knowledge whether frankincense oil has an effect on
the progression of breast cancer remains unclear. This study will utilize breast cancer cells to determine if frankincense oil has an effect on the
viability of the cells and cytotoxicity.
Hypothesis:
Since scientists have been unable to find a cure for breast cancer, research is needed to lower the viability of breast cancer cells. Due to frankincense's
anti–inflammatory ability to reduce cancer, I hypothesize that frankincense oil will inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and ultimately kill them.
Methodology: Breast cancer cells (MCF–7) will be kept at 37В° C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. The breast cancer cells are going to be treated by
having a control group with media only while the experimental groups will be treated with different concentrations of frankincense (5%, 10%, 20%,
and 25%).
Aim #1: Investigate the effect of Frankincense oil on Breast cancer cell viability
From previous
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Ganoderma Research Paper
Macrophages:
Ganoderma derived polysaccharides have been shown to increase the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo [50, 51]. Apart from the
activated macrophages, IL–1ОІ, IL–6 and TNF–О± production have also been found to be up–regulated. Effects of polysaccharides on intracellular
calcium have further shown that Ganoderma can induce cellular as well as extracellular release or influx of Ca2+ ions [52].
2. Natural Killer Cells:
Natural Killer (NK) cells are immune cells which are kenned to exhibit cytotoxicity towards various types of cancer cells during metastasis (spread to
other organs) [53, 54]. Natural Killer (NK) cells cytotoxicity has been found to be enhanced by G. lucidum towards a variety of tumors [55].
3. Dendritic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The triterpenoids, ethanolic extract of Ganoderma appear to up–regulate IL–2, IL–4, IL–8 along with increases NF–kB activity in precancerous
uroepithelial cells [59].
5. 5О± Reductase:
The triterpenoids in Ganoderma possess 5О±–reductase inhibitory potential which further have been kenned to inhibit the conversion of testosterone
into dihydro testosterone (DHT) [60].
6. TLR4:
Toll–Like Receptor 4 is a receptor present on many immune cells that can mediate the immune response. Ganoderma derived polysaccharides and
proteoglycans are appeared to be act as a ligand and activator of TLR4 receptors [61]. Activation of TLR4 has further been found to be associated with
the activation of macrophages and their downstream molecules (Nitric Oxide, TNF–О±) [62,63].
7. NF–kB:
NF–kB, a key transcriptional factor which have been found to be activated in a variety of inflammatory disorders such as cardiovascular, cancer and
neurodegenration. Various research groups have reported the down–regulation of NF–kB by of Ganoderma in LPS induced immunological models [64,
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Monoclonal Antibody ( Magic Bullets ) : A Promising...
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ("MAGIC BULLETS")– A PROMISING TREATMENT FOR CANCER
ANURIMA MODI
TECHNO INDIA UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA
–700091
REVIEW PAPER
ABSTRACT
Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are an old immunological tool in the field of biotechnology, immunology, biochemistry and applied
biology. The use of monoclonal antibodies forcancer therapy is one of the most versatile, powerful and important strategies in the treatment of cancer.
Over a past couple of years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved more than a dozen mAb's to treat certain cancers (Brain cancer, Breast
cancer ,Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancers, Hodgkin 's lymphoma, Lung cancer, Melanoma, Non–Hodgkin 's
lymphoma, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the early stage of a drug discovery process, researchers may be faced with little or no structure activity relationship (SAR) information. The process
by which a new drug is brought to market stage is referred to by a number of names most commonly as the development chain or "pipeline" and
consists of a number of distinct stages. To design a rational drug, we must firstly find out which proteins can be the drug targets in pathogenesis.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Monoclonal antibodies achieve their therapeutic effect through various mechanisms. They can have direct effects in producing apoptosis or
programmed cell death. They can block growth factor receptors, effectively arresting proliferation of tumor cells. In cells that express monoclonal
antibodies, they can bring about anti–idiotype antibody formation. Indirect effects include recruiting cells that have cytotoxicity, such as monocytes and
macrophages. This type of antibody–mediated cell kill is called antibody–dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Monoclonal antibodies also
bind complement, leading to direct cell toxicity, known as complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC).
Antibody therapy can be used in a variety of ways to treat cancer. As described above, they may act through ADCC or CDC. An alternative approach is
to conjugate the monoclonal antibody to a toxin, a cytotoxic agent, or a radioisotope. With
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Efficient Delivery Of Cancer
The efficient delivery of drugs and energy to tumors faces several difficulties and obstacles that need to be overcome for effective cancer treatment.
Nanoparticles administrated through intravenous injections accumulate at a tumor site due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect,
but only a small quantity of the injected particles can actually "reach the tumor" (Su et al, 2016). The majority of the nanoparticles interact with "cancer
cells at the periphery of a tumor" which presents a "physiological barrier" that prevents most of the injected particles from reaching the tumor (Su et al,
2016). In addition to this barrier, there is also another significant obstacle, "cancer–associated fibroblasts", which can also ... Show more content on
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This conglomerate composed of protein–lipid, sponge–like carbon, and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was administrated by the researchers to mice in
order to study the material's ability to "transport the hydrophobic drug docetaxel (DTX) and perfluorohexane (PFH) for deep tumor penetration and
therapy" (Su et al, 2016). The Lf–lipo–GNS composite is capable of carrying large amounts of drugs in its pores which can be released through the
absorption of light by the GNS. By applying near–infrared (NIR) irradiation, the gasification of PFH occurs due to "an increase in local temperature" in
the graphene nanosponge which as a result "damages and ruptures tumor spheroids" (Su et al, 2016). Consequently, the combined effects of
"gasification and chemo– and thermotherapy" can substantially reduce tumors and even completely eliminate them without future reappearance. The
researchers conducted a study on in vitro photolytic therapy on "RG2 tumor spheroids incubated with the control group (PBS only), Lf–lipo–US–GNS
/DTX, Lf–lipo–US–GNS/DTX+NIR, and Lflipo–US–GNS/DTX–PFH+NIR" (Su et al, 2016). Due to its tumor penetration ability, the researchers used
"10 Ојg/mL of 40 nm Lf–lipo–US–GNS" to conduct the study. After the composite was administrated to the tumors, they were allowed to incubate for
"4 h" followed by NIR irradiation with "a power density of 2 W cm–2 for 10 min" and then were stained with propidium iodide to
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
A Summary Of Biogenic Te NR
In this study, the characterization of purified Te NRs produced by the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain of Te, as a biogenic source, provided a
relatively wide size range of 40–200nm (Fig. 1). The cytotoxity of biogenic Te NRs was compared to K2TeO3 by estimation of the IC50 value of the
PC–12 cell line. The cytotoxicity of biogenic Te NRs was assessed at three doses of 1, 2.5, and 5 ng/ml with the purpose of evaluating the occurrence of
cell apoptosis and possible underlying mechanisms that take place at the IC50 dose through flow cytometry and investigation of the expression of
caspase–3 protein by the western blot method in order to confirm flow cytometry analyses. OS events, as other cytotoxicity mechanisms after exposure
to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
NPs produced by nanotechnology methods have been developed for application in different pesticides (Nel et al., 2006). Therefore, methods used to
manufacture NPs are important criteria. Due to specific physiochemical properties, NPs may be used as fillers, semiconductors, opacifiers, catalysts,
and microelectronics, and also as cosmetics and drug carriers in pharmacology and pharmaceutics (Nel et al., 2006). Thereafter, we need to consider
risk assessment, establishment of safety manufacture, and the use of NPs in the marketplace and their potential toxicity (Nel et al., 2006; Medina et
al., 2007). Next, we investigated the underlying mechanism of biogenic Te NRs–induced cytotoxicity in the PC–12 cell line. As shown in Figure 2, cell
viability was reduced in a concentration–dependent manner. By increasing the concentration of biogenic Te NRs, cytotoxicity can be enhanced in
PC–12 cells. Significant reduction in rat hippocampal astrocytes viability was observed in exposure to 1.95–250 ОјM of diphenylditelluride (DPDT)
and 0.97–250 ОјM of TeCl4through MTT assay; lethal concentration (LC50) for both compounds was estimated at 62.5 ОјM (Roy and Hardej, 2011).
Studies have indicated that NPs may induce cytotoxicity by disrupting the cell structure and cause dysfunction in the cells by binding to survival
macromolecules (Navarro et al., 2008). It has been reported that these toxicities depend on particle size, surface properties, and then, on cellular uptake
of NPs
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Measuring Cytotoxicity On Cancer Cells

  • 1. Measuring Cytotoxicity On Cancer Cells Measuring Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the Reduction of 3–(4, 5–dimethylthiazolyl–2)–2, 5–diphenyltetrazolium bromide to generate NADH and NADPH Abstract: Chemotherapy is a well–known treatment when it comes to treating cancer, however the drugs are often non–specific and can end up damaging perfectly healthy cells, leaving the patient in agony, or not achieve anything. In this study we looks into the area of personalised medicine where different drugs are used for different patients with the same cancer dependent upon the effects this drug will have. Two chemotherapeutic agents, named A and B, were used to prevent the cell proliferating and therefore stop the cancer progressing and surviving as the cells starve to death. A... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Radiotherapy was the first method non–surgical method used to cure cancer around 100 years ago and was, up until recently, the most common way to do so (http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/21/8643.full.html). The basis is simple, an ionising beam is fired at the tumorous cells to alter those cells DNA. The mutations are fatal and the cells die, therefore curing the cancer, however many healthy cells around that tumour also get mutated and can also die in the process so there can be some severe side effects from radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was invented around 40 years later (same guy unfortunately to link) in 1935 but due to lack of progress it was dismissed until the 1960's when there was proof that it actually could cure cancer and not just relieve certain symptoms but do nothing else. Whilst radiotherapy is still the most common treatment of cancers chemotherapy is now a treatment almost everyone will have heard of and is a growing field in an attempt to cure cancer with various drugs while minimising the side effects some of these drugs can have. However vary rarely are these treatments used as standalone treatments nowadays, combining the above techniques in different ways to ensure total removal of the cancerous cells. This method is called ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. PAE Synthesis Lab Report 2.2 Materials and Methods: Polyamino–ether was obtained from the collaborator Dr. Kaushal Rege lab in Arizona state University. All other chemicals were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). 2.2.1 Synthesis of the bioreducible modified–PAE: The obtained PAE polymer was synthesized by reacting neomycin with glycidyl ether at molar ratio of 1:2 as reported in detail by Rege et al. previously[14]. The modified bioreducible PAE(mPAE) was synthesized by a simple one step reaction with Traut's reagent as described previously[15]. Briefly, 10g of PAE was dissolved in 1ml of ddH20 (Double distilled water) and was allowed to react with 1.85 g(5–times molar excess) of 2–iminothiolane hydrochloride (IH) at room temperature for 15 h[16]. The product was dialyzed using a dialysis membrane (MWCO = 1,000 Da) against 5 mM HCl for 24 h followed by dialysis against 1 mM HCl solution for 24 h. The purified mPAE was lyophilized and stored at–20В°C for future use [17].... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The mPAE was collected after extensive dialysis and freeze dried for future use. The modification of amino groups (–NH2) is shown as representative ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Free Radicals And Oxidative Stress Nowadays, oxidative stress is the major risk factor for several health complications. Free radicals are the normal byproduct of cellular metabolism that leads to oxidative stress, resulting in damage to nucleic acids, lipids and proteins, and is an underlying cause of various diseases in the human system, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory conditions, diabetic complications, Alzheimer's disease and ageing [4–8]. Free radicals promote tumor growth by activating certain signal transduction pathways that induce the transcription of c–fos, c–jun and c–myc, the proto–oncogenes that stimulate tumor development [1, 2]. Excessive free radicals produced during cellular metabolism can attack the deoxyribose DNA backbone and bases, which causes mutation and in turn leads to cancer. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A dynamic balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function [4]. Natural antioxidants may be incompetent in promoting complete protection from free radicals. Various synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydxoxyanisole, butylated hydxoxytoluene, propyl gallate, tertiary butyl hydroquinone play a key role in scavenging of free radicals, and some of them have been shown to possess potent scavenging ability than the natural antioxidants ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Breast Cancer Essay Cancer lies resting in all of us; all the living organisms such as our bodies are consistently making defective cells1. This is how tumors are developed. Our bodies are provided with a number of mechanisms that can detect and keep such cells in check1. Breast Cancer (BC), is the most common malignancy found in women worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality2. These breast tumors are made up of different characteristics of breast cancer cells3. However, toxicity and chemoresistance are the main reasons that limit the treatments in BC cases to become successful4. Major treatment strategies for breast cancer consist of either radiotherapy, surgery and/or chemotherapy2. The chances of surviving when patients receive ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Further data demonstrated that frankincense oil can induce apoptosis in breast cancer3. Whether or not frankincense oil influences apoptosis in breast cancer remains unclear. This study will utilize breast cancer cells to determine if frankincense oil influences the viability of the cells and cytotoxicity. Hypothesis: Since scientists have been unable to find a cure for breast cancer, research is needed to lower the viability of breast cancer cells. Due to frankincense's anti–inflammatory ability to reduce cancer, we hypothesize that frankincense oil will inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and promote apoptosis. Methodology: Breast cancer cells (MCF–7) will be kept at 37В° C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. The breast cancer cells are going to be treated by having a control group with media only while the experimental groups will be treated with different concentrations of frankincense (5%, 10%, 20%, and 25%). Breast cancer cells will be incubated for 24 hours. They will be treated with 30 ВµM concentration of frankincense and the cells will have a control group of 0 ВµM; breast cancer cells will be observed for different time periods (0, 3, 6, and 12 hours). Aim #1: Investigate the effect of Frankincense oil on Breast cancer cell viability Based on previous studies, Frankincense oil's anti–inflammatory ability has suggested that it could possibly kill cancer ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Cancer Vs Immmunotherapy For Cancer Immunotherapy for cancer treatment has had tremendous growth recently with increased awareness and knowledge of the immune system and potential means to manipulate it for therapeutic intent. Progress in the treatment of viral infections including CMV, EBV, HHV –6, utilization of immune checkpoint blockade for melanoma, non–small cell lung cancer, and Hodgkin Lymphoma, as well as rapid emergence of genetically modified T cells against CD19+ B cells have contributed to the growth in this area.Antibody–targeted therapy has now become standard of care for many malignancies, and the multi–domain utilization of antigen–specific adoptive T–cell therapy has shown great promises. 4 While our understanding of B cell and T cell and our ability to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The key role of NK cells in various aspects of immune response are now being recognized and have been attracting increased attention for their potential clinical efficacy via immune–based therapies. As their name implies, this unique member of the innateimmune system can recognize targets without being previously sensitized and thus kill cells that are deemed dangerous to the host. This is particularly important when evaluating biologic studies of NK cells and factors that influence NK–cell effect in cancer immune–surveillance, viral immunity, and transplantation alloreactivity. In this chapter, we will review NK cell biology, discuss their role in the alloHSCT setting, and review new advances in incorporating NK cells as therapeutic options for malignancies. Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) can be divided broadly into two major lineages mainly T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. While mature cells NK cells are morphologically identified as LGL, nearly a decade after their initial discovery, NK cells were characterized as lymphocytes having an immuno–phenotype that lacked expression of CD3– but expressed CD56+. This characterization thereby differentiated them from T–cells having CD3+ expression and thus NK cells do not express the CD3/T–cell receptor (TCR) complex or experience TCR gene rearrangement. NK cells can be further divided into two distinct ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6. Difficile Infection Introduction The increased rates of infection may be attributed to the 3 primary risk factors: hospitalization, changing patterns of antibiotics use, Age > 65 year and more susceptible population. Classically, any exposure to antibiotics (particularly clindamycin, ampicillin or amoxicillin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) was a major risk factor for the development of CDI. However, Hospitalization provides not only a reservoir, but also a vector for transmission. Also, second risk factors may be attributed to the Manipulation of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., surgery), immunosuppressed state (e.g., chemotherapy, HIV+ patients, and medical comorbidities leading to immunosuppression) also make the patient more susceptible to developing... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... difficile infection, but all of these methods have limitations and some of them are now considered suboptimal(2). The ideal laboratory test for CDI would be sensitive, specific, rapid, simple to perform, and inexpensive. Culture Just after the discovery of the pathogenic role of C. difficile proposed a selective agar plate called CCFA (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar) for the isolation from stool specimens. The selective agents are cycloserine at a concentration of 500 mg/L and cefoxitin at 16 mg/L. Culture is the most sensitive method but it is not very specific due to the possibility of isolating non–toxigenic isolates (14). Fecal diagnostic tests anaerobic toxigenic culture of C. difficile and the cell culture cytotoxicity assay, with neutralization with clostridial antitoxin, are the most sensitive for diagnosis of CDI but time–consuming (5). For many years, cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCCNA) was the accepted gold standard. By this method, stool filtrates are inoculated onto a monolayer of a cell culture in wells with and without C. difficile antitoxin. CCCNA is quite specific for CDI. However, the assay is expensive, lacks standardization among laboratories and is generally unavailable outside the research setting (11). The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) became broadly used because of its rapidity in performance, but EIA used for toxin detection lack sensitivity and are considered suboptimal for diagnosing C. Difficile infection (11). A laboratory assay measuring the clostridial protein, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), represents a rapid, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Bacosides And Bacopa Monnieri Extract Cell Viability Cytotoxicity of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract cell viability: Prior to testing the neuroprotective effect of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract, its direct effect on cell viability of neuro cell line was evaluated. Cell viability was determined following incubation of cells with different concentrations (0.2 –1.0 mg/ml) of bacosides in cultured medium for 3h. The results as shown in fig 1 demonstrated that cell viability was decreased in the presence of high concentration of bacosides. The concentration of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extract at 0.4mg/ml did not affect the cell viability of the neuro cells and this concentration was used for later experiment. 3.2 Cytoprotective property of bacosides: Neuroprotective effects ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The oxidation of 2, 7– dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) originates 2–7– dichlorofluroescein (DCF), a flurorescent compound initially thought to be a useful indicator for H2O2.DCFH is oxidized by other ROS such as HOВє and ROOВє. To investigate the antioxidant activities of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts, intracellular ROS of the cells were estimated using DCFHDA. In present study, to examine the protective effects of bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts, neuro cells were post treated with the bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts upon H2O2 exposed cells. Results were observed that fluorescence intensity of the DCFH decreased in N2a cells treated with bacosides and Bacopa monnieri extracts compared to H2O2 treated cell (Fig. ). It was observed that bacosides A that is a mixture of four compound is less protective compared to individual bacosides. The present study investigated that among four individual bacosides, bacoside A3 is more protective and significantly decrease the production of ROS in N2a cells. As well as Bacopa monnieri extracts of different culture condition was also observed to decrease the ROS production in N2a cells. MS– liquid culture condition extract is more protected compared to MS agar and field acclimatized Bacopa monnieri extracts. 3.4 Measurement of Phosphotidylserine exposure: Annexin V FITC– PI double staining assay was used to further distinguish the features of apoptotic and necrotic cells in response to H2O2. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. 5-Ima Lab The present study investigates the cytogenetic changes that could be induced in cancer cells after treatment with PDT. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects that could be induced by 5–ALA/PDT on two different cancer cell lines; adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF–7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2). When MCF–7 and HepG2 cell lines treated with 5–ALA (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mM) alone for 4h then incubated for 24h, 5–ALA did not induce cytotoxic effects on both cell lines. Also, laser irradiation alone did not induce a cytotoxic effect on MCF–7 or HepG2 cells after exposure for 4min then incubation for 24h. These results are in agreement with the observations of Chu et al. [21], who found that both 5–ALA and its... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The effectiveness of 5–ALA/PDT to destroy acne lesions was evaluated by obstructing innate immune response via the Toll–like receptors (TLR), which overexpressed in human keratinocytes with acne [26]. Micronucleus test is considered as one of the main cytogenetic parameters, which record partial or whole chromosome breakage during mitosis [17]. Therefore, the efficacy of 5–ALA/PDT to induce DNA damage, and release chromatin during mitosis, was detected by MN test. When MCF–7 and HepG2 cell lines were treated with 5–ALA/PDT at 633nm, the ratio of micronuclei was increased significantly in comparison to non–treated groups. Some research studies demonstrated that not all sensitizers have the ability to induce DNA damage or even cause cytotoxicity when applied with laser irradiation, such studies include the observations of Zenzen and Zankl [23] who demonstrated that h–ALA/PDT did not induce significant chromosome aberrations or micronuclei neither in tumor cell line RPMI 2650 nor fibroblast cell line WS1, however, it caused cytotoxicity to RPMI 2650 tumor cell line. Also, the results of Horinouchi and Arimoto–Kobayashi [27] found that 5–ALA/PDT did not induce photogenotoxicity in keratinocyte NCTC2544 cells as evaluated by MN test, but PpIX disodium salt–induced genotoxicity after exposing the cells to 5–ALA/PDT with UV irradiation of 5J/cm2 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Natural Killer Cells Essay Natural killer Cells Key notes: Definition: NK cell is a large granular lymphocyte, part of the innate immune system because it uses germ–line encoded receptors. It is found in the blood, spleen and liver. Life cycle: NK cells develop in the bone marrow from the same progenitor cells as T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and circulate in the blood. They have cytoplasmic granules containing cytotoxic proteins and produce interferon so that apoptosis is stimulated. They rapidly migrate to sites of inflammation and they have short lifespan. Action: NK cells kill tumor cells, microbes and virus infected cells in vitro without prior exposure. NK cells are regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors. Other role: Uterine NK cells are present in early pregnancy and have the ability to provoke cell cytotoxicity in vitro, but at a lower level than the peripheral NK cells. Related topics: Innate immunity, MHC processing and presentation, Antibody presentation Definition: NK cells are lymphoid cells that serve as an early defense against certain intracellular infections. Unlike lymphocytes, they lack antigen–specific receptors. Killing by NK cells is triggered by germ–line encoded receptors that recognize molecules on the surface of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Like all leukocyte populations, NK cells ultimately derive from self–renewing pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells that reside in the bone marrow. NK cell development is occurring through a series of coordinated differentiation and maturation steps. NK cells develop from bone marrow–derived hematopoietic stem cells through a common lymphoid progenitor. Some surface antigens and receptors, such as CD56 in humans and the TNF family receptor, CD27, are partially down regulated or lost at the final stages of NK cell development. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. Activity Of Egyptian Propolis Nanoparticles Antiproliferative activity of Egyptian propolis nanoparticles/liposomes in cancer cell monolayers: multimode of action including apoptotsis and nitric oxide production Rehab T.A.a, Sherif S.M.b,c, Hamdia A.Z.a, Torchilin P. V.c aAin Shams University, College of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Cairo, Egypt, bBiophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt and c Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, USA. ABSTRACT Natural products are invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery. They generally viewed as safe but weak, within the framework of nanotechnology, they can serve as template for potent anticancer drugs. We first evaluated the cytotoxic activity of different propolis extracts (water, hydroalcohol, ethanol and hexane) in many cancer cell lines, then the solid nanoparticles from the organic solvent extracts were prepared and their cytotoxicity was evaluated as well. Finally, 1,2–dipalmitoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2–dioleoyl–sn–glycero–3–phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes were prepared from the most cytotoxic organic solvent extract and their cytotoxicity was also evaluated. All results collectively showed that hexane extract and its solid nanoparticles as well as its liposomal form exhibited high cytotoxic activity. DPPC /DOPC–hexane extract cytotoxicity was selectively depends on the cell line and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Rituximab Research Paper Rituximab, better known by its trade name RituxanВ®, is a monoclonal antibody medication administered intravenously. Genentech, Inc and IDEC Pharmaceuticals manufacture Rituximab. 1,3 It is a drug used to treat several diseases including: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), along with other prescribed medicines; Non–Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), either alone or with other chemotherapy medicines; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), along with other chemotherapy medicines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide; Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA); and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA), along with glucocorticoids. 1,2 Cost of treatment varies on the disease. Rituximab costs are about $ per mg/l . Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric human–murine antibody. 3,4 More specifically, Rituximab is composed of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 4 This antigen is present on more than 90 percent of B–cell NHL. However, it is not found on hematopoietic stem cells, normal plasma cells, pro B–cells, or other normal tissues. CD20 has other key roles such as in the activation process for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and it is suspected to function as a calcium ion channel as well. In RA, b–cells play an important role in the pathogenesis and associated chronic synovitis. In RA, b–cells act on multiple sites to induce an autoimmune inflammatory response including the production of rheumatoid factor, other autoantibodies, antigen presentation, t–cell activation, and pro–inflammatory cytokine production. The fab domain binds to the CD20 antigen on b lymphocytes and Fc domain recruits immune effector function to mediate B–cell lysis in vitro. Potential mechanisms of cell lysis involve complement–dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody–dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, the antibody has been shown to induce apoptosis primarily in the DHL–4 human B–cell lymphoma ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. The Doping Of Semiconductor By Rare Earth Metal Nanoparticle The doping of semiconductor by rare earth metal nanoparticle is an effective way for increasing photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel–combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The absorption edge shifts towards the visible region after doping with La ions. This shift shows that the doping of La ions is favorable for absorbing the visible light. The comparative photocatalytic and cytotoxicity activity revealed that La doped ZnO nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the ZnO nanoparticles. The outcome of these studies offers valuable for planning La doped ZnO nanoparticles having cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of anticancer product and wastewater remediation. Keywords. Gel–combustion, Photocatalytic, Paracetamol, Cell lines and nanoparticles. 1. Introduction. The presence of pharmaceutical compound even at low concentration in waste water effluents raised the environmental problems on aquatic and human life in recent years [1]. Several drugs are extensively used as antibiotics, antiseptics, anti–inflammatory and disinfectants [2]. Out of which Paracetamol ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Elucidate The Potential Of 5-Ala Case Study Therefore, we are aiming to elucidate the potential of 5–ALA/PDT to target the genetic materials of MCF–7 and HepG2 cancer cell lines effectively after inducing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by two cytogenetic parameters; micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay. In this experimental study, we will elucidate the potential of 5–ALA/PDT to target DNA and induce DNA damage to the genetic materials of MCF–7 and HepG2 cancer cells and record cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay. 2.Materials and Methods All chemicals, including 5–ALA, were purchased from (Sigma/Aldrich, VA, USA), unless mentioned. Stock solution of 5–ALA (100mM) was prepared in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and kept in dark at –20ВєC. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... after application of 5–ALA/PDT treatments, MCF–7 and HepG2 cells were incubated for 24h before harvesting. 2.3.Cytotoxicity Cytotoxicity was carried out using the trypan blue staining/ exclusion method (5Г—105 cells/well). 20Вµl of cell suspension was added to 20Вµl of 0.4% trypan blue and then viable and dead cells were counted by Bio–Rad TC20в„ў Cell Automated Counter. The percentage of viability was determined by the following equation and data were represented as the mean В± SD. % of viability = (number of viable cells/ total cell number) x 100 2.4.Evaluation of DNA Damage Assessment of DNA damage was evaluated by micronucleus test and comet assay after treating cells with 5–ALA and/or laser irradiation as PDT. 2.5.Micronucleus Test The micronucleus (MN) test was carried out according to Fenech [17] with some modifications. MCF–7 and HepG2 cells were treated with cytochalasin B (5Вµg/ml), 44h before the end of treatments, to block cytokinesis and stop cell division at the metaphase/anaphase transition of mitosis. After applying different treatments with 5–ALA/PDT, cells suspensions were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 min and the supernatant were discarded. Small drops of the resuspended cells pellets were spread upon clean ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Annotated Bibliography : Programmed Cell Death By utilizing these two transgene expressions in a synchronized way, the adenovirus is granted the ability to replicate, specifically when it is within a tumor cell. The promoter hTERT controls the specificity of E1a's ability for viral replication. This assures that the adenovirus only replicates within cancer cells because the gene marker is only triggered where the hTERT expression is prevalent, which, as indicated earlier, is only within cancerous cells. Another impressive dimension that adds to the efficacy of Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a is the adenoviruses' ability to attack tumor cells through the addition of the therapeutic transgene expression Apoptin. Apoptin is a protein that is known to induce the process of apoptosis specifically within malignant cells, but not in regular cells [3]. Apoptosis is often called "programmed cell death" because it is a process in which cells that are no longer needed within an organism are recognized and then destroyed. Inserting this transgene expression into the genome of Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a creates a cancer specific adenovirus equipped with dual threat potential. With these transgene expressions inserted into the genome of an adenovirus, Ad–Apoptin–hTERT–E1a, is a genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus that has been created which can theoretically eradicate cancer cells through both lysis and apoptosis, but not negatively effect normal cells within the host. 4.Case Study: Clinical Analysis of Oncolytic Adenovirus A study by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. horizontal gel electrophoresis platform and covered with... horizontal gel electrophoresis platform and covered with pH > 12 alkaline solution for 20 min without electrophoresis[15]. The slide were then neutralized and stained with 50 Вµl of 20 Вµg /ml ethidium promide. This cytotoxicity method of cell growth following to pro–mutagen exposure was detected under cytocharasin B and frequency binuclear cells. Fairbrain and co–workers reported the advantage of this technique include: i) high sensitivity for detecting low levels of DNA damage; ii) ability to detect genotoxicity in the absence of mitotic activity; iii) the requirement for small numbers of cells per sample; iv) flexibility; v) low costs; vi) easy application and vii) the relatively short time period needed to complete an experiment [16].... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The plate was then read for absorbance at 540nm using the microplate reader. The neutral red assay was chosen because it assesses the lysosomal integrity of cells. As the integrity of the lysosome in cells is dependent upon a very wide range of healthy internal machinery, as opposed to a single or a few individual pathways, it provides a good overview of general cellular health as deficient systems inside the cell are likely to impact on the cells ability to retain the neutralred stain [19] . LDH release Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an oxidative enzyme that changes lactate into pyruvate during glycolysis. LDH widely exists in cell membranes and cytoplasm, and is released from cells into culture supernatants immediately after cell damage. Therefore, photospectrometrical assessment for cell viability through the extracellular leakage of LDH can be applied for the antiviral evaluation of compounds [20] . The method using cell line and described previously. The LDH released from necrotic cells into the extracellular fluid was determined after 4 h of treatment with the test agents by using the commercially available Cytotoxicity Detection Kit (LDH). The plates were centrifuged at 400 g and 4 в—¦C for 4 min and an aliquot of 50 Ојl was taken to quantify the LDH[21]. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), that is present in all metabolically active cells, can be determined in a bioluminescent ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. Cyytotoxicity Of Nannodisc Cytotoxicity of nanodisc trapped/remodeled AпЃў1–40 intermediates The structural analysis of nanodisc bound AпЃў1–40 В¬suggests the formation of intermediate conformation with typical пЃўпЂsheet structures driven by the PMA. We next characterized the toxicity of these AпЃў1–40 intermediates in human neuroblastoma (SH–SY5Y) cells. Results showed substantial cytotoxic behavior of PMA in solution with a cell viability loss of ≈ 40 % at 2.5 п ЃM. The AпЃў1–40 monomer and fibers (2.5 пЃM) incubated with equimolar PMA also showed a nearly equivalent cell cytotoxicity as that of the free PMA. In contrast, the PMA bound nanodiscs (Fig 5b) such as DMPC/GM1 (4:1) and DMPC (100 %) showed a relatively low cytotoxicity (< ≈ 10 %). On the other hand, the anionic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Our studies showed, all targeted nanodiscs despite of their membrane properties, significantly accelerates the AпЃў fibrillation at equimolar concentration. At a molar concentration > 20%, the SM and GM1 showed counteractive aggregation kinetics for AпЃўпЂ®пЂ Higher percentage of SM (50 %) containing nanodiscs inhibits AпЃў oligomerization, whereas GM1 proposed to play an important role in AD pathogenesis were shown to accelerate the AпЃў fibrillation. The exact concentration of GM1 (~ 4 % in healthy neurons) in AD brain remains unclear, however, high–density GM1 clustering (higher GM1 concentrations induce clustering; ref– http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ja3054095) in AD brain has been reported (https:/ /www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025365/). Previous studies correlates the association of gangliosides metabolism with aging and AD (https: //jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/fullarticle/588755; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1814411). Likewise, an abnormal onset of SM metabolism was observed in AD that results in the reduction in sphingomyelin and elevation of ceramide (ref–). Taken together, the present studies compared the role of both SM and GM1 at equal concentration and reveled their counter protective behavior towards AD (Fig 1c). The AпЃўпЂ aggregation has also been ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Electrospinning Essay Electrospinning is a convenient method for fabricating various nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. In electrospinning process, a conductive collector device plays a critical role in determining the shape and the structure of the nanofibrous scaffold; however, the preparation of the collector is often complex. In this study, a novel, flexible, and inexpensive approach based on pencil–on–paper method was developed for preparing collectors used in electrospinning. Graphite is a conductive material widely used as a component in the pencil core. A series of collectors were prepared through drawing different patterns on folded and unfolded paper using a pencil, followed by successfully fabricating two–dimensional (2D) nanofibrous ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We believe that the method developed in this study would provide a convenient approach to fabricate complex collectors for producing ordered 2D or 3D nanofibrous structures. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Electrospinning The collector was fabricated using a common 5B pencil and A4 paper. Paper was tailored to suitable size, and different patterns were drawn using a pencil. Subsequently, the paper was folded in different shapes as collectors. Poly (Оµ–caprolactone) (PCL, MW = 60,000) was dissolved in dichloromethane/ethanol (v:v =3:1) to form a homogeneous solution with a concentration of 15 wt%, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, MW = 1,300,000) was dissolved in ethanol at a concentration of 8 wt%. After that, the solution was transferred to a syringe fastened on an infusion pump. The solution was pumped at a rate of 0.5 mL/h. 8 kV voltage was applied between the needle and the collecter placed 10 cm away to form an electrospinning jet. The collectors and fibers were observed using a camera (Nikon, Japan) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (JSM–7011F, Japan). 2.2. Cell experiment Murine calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3–E1) were selected as the model cell to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the electrospun fibers. The nanofibrous membranes and films after sterilization under UV radiation were cut into small pieces, placed in a cell culture plate, and soaked in the culture medium (DMEM/F–12 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. Material And Methods : Bm Mscs Cultivation Material and Methods: BM–MSCs cultivation: BM–MSCs were obtained from Institute Pasture of Iran and were cultured in Low Glucose Dulbecco 's modified Eagle 's medium (Low Glc–DMEM) (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) with 10% FBS (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) and 1% penicillin and streptomycin (Sigma–Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany). Then, BM–MSCs were incubated in humified incubator at 37ЛљC and 5% CO2. Cell's medium was replaced every two days. U266 cell line: Confirmed U266 cells, a human myeloma cell line, were purchased from Institute Pasture of Iran. U266 cells were grown in RPMI–1640 (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) with 10% FBS (Gibco Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany) and 1% penicillin and streptomycin (Sigma–Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany) in T25 flask culture (Orange Scientific, Braine–l 'Alleud, Belgium). Then, U266 cells incubated in humified incubator at 37ЛљC and 5% CO2. The medium was changed every day during all steps of experiments and Trypan blue staining was used for viability analyzing. BM–MSCs derived C.M preparation: The BM–MSCs were cultured in T25 flask culture (Orange Scientific, Braine–l 'Alleud, Belgium) with DMEM medium and incubated for reaching to 60–70% confluency. In the next step, DMEM medium was replaced with RPMI–1640 medium without FBS and was incubated for 72 hours (hrs). After incubation; medium was collected, cells and debris were removed by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated by 10 kDa MW cut–off ultrafiltration ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Fate Therapeutic: A Case Study Fate therapeutic is a biotechnology company focusing on immunotherapy for cancer and immune disorder disease. This company has long history for immune system research and their ultimate goal is to develop safe and effective off–the–shelf therapy for large amount of patients. There is a strong pipeline in Fate therapeutic. Their pipeline can be divided into two areas: immuno–oncology, including 3 products named FATE–NK100, engineered hnCD16 iNK and engineered CAR iTcell, and immuno–regulation, including 2 products named ProTmune and ToleraCyte. It shows that Fate has a great interest in nature killer cells, T cells and CD34+ cells. This report will mainly introduce the technique in FATE –NK100 and ProTmune which are the only two products in clinical stage. In addition, the entire pipeline is built on the induced pluripotent stem cell technique. [7] ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Fate induced well differentiated cell back to pluripotent stem cell then modify the genome and expand them into a human pluripotent stem cell line. After cell line is produced, IPSC is induced to CD34+ cells, nature killer cells and T cells as their source of pipeline.[5] To maintain effective derivation and expansion of IPSC, Fate develops a IPSC plateform using small molecule pathway inhibitor and reprogramming factor (OCT4/SOX2 /SV40LT) to quickly produce identical IPSC and enable off–the–shelf ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. The Effect Of Calcium On The Contribution Of Calcium... This research utilized calcium channel blockers to measure the contribution of calcium uptake in relation to the vesicular glutamate released into the extracellular space. After the calcium channels were blocked glutamate was applied directly to the extracellular space and the animals ability to remove the glutamate was measured. The results showed that animals with traumatic brain injuries had significantly higher levels of extracellular glutamate evidenced by a nearly 80% increase when compared to the healthy mice (Hinzman et. Al., 2012). This showed that calcium mediated neuronal glutamate release may contribute to the cytotoxicity experienced by patients affected by traumatic brain injury. The second part of the study examined the importance of excitatory amino acid transporters in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. To accomplish this, researchers applied an EAAT blocker to both injured and normal rats to measure their ability to remove extracellular glutamate. The data suggested that mice subjected to a traumatic brain injury had a more significant increase in extracellular glutamate after the EAAT blocker was applied. Additionally, mice in the traumatic brain injury required a significantly longer time for the extracellular glutamate to return to pre–study levels (Hinzman et. Al., 2012). As such, it seems that the major mechanism responsible for the cytotoxic levels of extracellular glutamate in traumatic brain injury is directly related to a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. CNTs Toxicity in Real Time Essay Ever since their discovery in 1991, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have gained a lot of interest due to their many unique physical and chemical properties. They are almost one dimensional structures with high mechanical strength (100 times stronger than Steel), ultra–light weight (1/6th the weight of steel) and exhibit excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. Most importantly, CNTs have the ability to effectively cross biological barriers and cellular membrane allowing their use in a wide spectrum of biomedical applications such as bio–imaging, disease targeting and the delivery of therapeutic molecules, genes or drugs. Currently, advances in the biomedical applications of CNTs are being hindered by many uncertainties regarding their... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Our approach relies on using the insulating nature of the cellular plasma membrane to monitor and analyze the cellular behavior of human lung epithelial cells in real time. Using an electrical cell impedance sensing (ECIS) device, we can measure and quantify changes in the cellular behavior, morphology, interactions in real time. These measurements will be further analyzed to derive structure–function relations that correlates the cellular mechanisms with the cytotoxic and apoptotic events associated with CNTs exposure in real time. The ECIS device, in principle, is an electrolytic circuit. It measures the changes in resistance value between an active electrode where the cells are attached and a counter electrode using the growth media as an electrolyte (figure 1). Once the cells are seeded on the ECIS gold electrodes the current is forced to flow either below, between or through the cells, thus providing measurement of three different parameters; barrier function (Rb), cell membrane capacitance (Cm) and the height between cells and electrodes (h). These parameters are are further analyzed and correlated to many cellular properties such as shape, morphology, attachment, size, cellular connections (tight and gap junctions), cell membrane integrity and many others. By combining the standard cell based cytotoxicity assays with ECIS technique, we were able to study and analyze the underlying cellular ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. Pectin Essay The assay measured the ability of pectin to cause cell death. Both pectin samples induced necrotic cell death in HT–29 cells, both pectin concentration and pectin type had a significant (p < 0.0001) effect on cell cytotoxicity. 400W treated pectin at 0.75 mg/ml concentration induced 14.41В±1.64% LDH activity while 0.1mg/ml resulted in 6.40В± 0.59% cytotoxicity, on the other hand the 200W treated pectin at 0.1mg/ml concentration induced 3.09В±0.28% while 0.75mg/ml induced 6.83 В± 0.80 % cell cytotoxicity. The ability of modified pectin to induce cell cytotoxicity was recently reported [23], 3mg/ml of heat modified citrus pectin induced over approximately 20% and 15% cell cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and A549 cells respectively after 24hours exposure.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 400W sonicated pectin had small molecular weight pectin fractions compared to 200W pectin, which could have enhanced its transportation into the cells, hence higher concentration of 400W sonicated pectin entered the cells leading to its higher activity than high molecular weight 200W treated pectin. Moreover, 400W sonicated pectin had higher galactose and arabinose content which are known to play a role in pectin induced cell death. It was reported that galactose rich pectin has higher biological activity than low galactose content pectin, for instance MCP is rich in galactose and galacturonic acid which are attributed to its activity [16,42]. Measuring the release of the intracellular enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme by cells after exposure to a compound is a reliable measure of compounds cytotoxicity to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Neural Regeneration Through Nanotechnology : Nanotechnology Keith Emert Professors Hatch and Fowler Chemistry 122 14 February 2016 Neural Regeneration through Nanotechnology There are many recent and exciting discoveries in the world of nanotechnology, and new studies examining the possibilities of neural regeneration are not the least of them. The Central Nervous System – consisting of the brain and spinal cord – is perhaps the structure most vital for life in the human body. Unfortunately, it also has one of the slowest and most limited rates of natural regeneration. Damage to the brain or spinal cord or loss of nerve tissue due to degenerative diseases can create life–long physical, cognitive, and psychological debilitation. The devastating implications of damage to the central nervous system have given rise to a field of scientists and clinicians aspiring to understand the system and ultimately repair said damage. Meanwhile, technological innovations have brought us ever closer to actually finding a workable cure. There have been developments in chemical and biochemical fields in this matter and the most promising of these approaches are stem–cell–based therapies. Stem cells are simply undifferentiated cells that are capable of differentiating into specialized cells such as nervous tissue and dividing to create more stem cells. Neural stem cells in particular are capable of differentiating into "neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes.1" However, current approaches involving stem–cell–based therapy have proved unsuccessful ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. The Painful Disease of Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis is an inflammatory disease, affecting synovial joints, lined with synovium, its treatment includes non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs like chloroquine. In this study several dilutions of Ibuprofenand Chloroquine were evaluated for their mutagenicity and cytotoxicity alone and in combination by using Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and MTT [(3–(4, 5 dimethylthiazole –2 yl)–2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)] assay using BHK–21 cell lines. Result indicates that Chloroquine and Ibuprofen showed non mutagenic behaviour at lower doses with both strains TA 100 and TA98 but Chloroquine at higher concentration (800ug/ml)showed mutagenic potential with bacterial strain TA100 and a slight mutagenic potential against TA98.Whereas Ibuprofen at higher concentration (10,000ug /ml)showed slight mutagenic potential against TA98. Furthermore, combination Chloroquine–Ibuprofen showed mutagenic potentialat higher concentration (3200–40000Вµg/ml) with TA98, and a slight mutagenic potential at 1600–20000 and 3200–40000Вµg/ml with TA100. However,in Cytotoxicity evaluation,chloroquine was cytotoxic at concentrations 200Вµg / ml, 400 Вµg / ml, 800Вµg / ml, 1600Вµg / ml and 3200Вµg / ml. On contrast, Ibuprofen at concentrations 10000 Вµg / ml, 20000 Вµg / ml and 40000 Вµg / ml showed cytotoxic effects on BHK–1 cells, In conclusion, the toxicity profiles of both the drugs were shown no mutagenic and cytotoxic potential at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Muscle Stem Cell Lab Report Mechanism of how antioxidants can preserve stem cell function: LUO2014* Effects of antioxidants induced pluripotent stem cells: They tested whether the addition of low–dose antioxidants influences the growth, quality, and genomic stability of induced pluripotent Stem cells (iPS cells). They found that the iPS cells grew well and ''stemness'' was preserved up to 2 months with the addition of low–dose antioxidant. However, the addition of low–dose antioxidants lowered the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in iPS cells, it did not influence the expression of 53BP1 and ATM (two molecules involved in DNA damage and repair .Moreover, CGH analysis showed that the levels of genetic aberrations were lowered only by the supplements ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... DEM–treated MDSCs differentiated to a lower extent than did the untreated MDSCs. No difference in the proliferation of NAC–treated and untreated MDSCs however, DEM treatment suppressed the MDSCs' proliferation rate as compared to that of the untreated and NAC treated MDSCs. 2_In vitro survival of NAC–/DEM–treated MDSCs under oxidative/inflammatory stress conditions: An obvious suppressed level of survival was observed in MDSCs pretreated with DEM when exposed to either oxidative or inflammatory stressors in comparison to the untreated and NAC–treated MDSCs . On the contrary , NAC–treated MDSCs showed a high level of survival under both stress conditions than did either the untreated or the DEM–treated MDSCs. 3_ Regeneration and scar tissue formation in injured skeletal muscle: great increases in host regeneration were reported in skeletal muscles injected with NAC–treated MDSCs in comparison to all other muscle injection groups. directions in scar tissue formation were the inverse of the directions in host muscle regeneration. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Gold Nanorods Essay In the ever–advancing field of nanotechnology and materials science there has been a buzz in the air in recent years over Gold Nanorods (GNRs). Their unique structure and ease of synthesis provides a range of optical properties that can be readily manipulated. These properties can be utilised in various applications such as surface functionalisation, photothermal therapy to manage tumours and cancer cells. In this review, we will look at the current research that analyses the toxicity of GNRs and what effects the surface chemistry and synthesis have on this. We will also discuss what effect the size and shape of GNRs have on biological systems, reinforcing why they are making such a statement in the world of science. Gold ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Gold nanorod (GNR) synthesis requires the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) [7], this process produces a high yield of GNRs with surface plasmon resonances in the infra–red as well as visible light range. CTAB is the agent that drives anisotropic growth as well as provides the stabilization needed to form the bilayers on the GNRs [8]. Quite a significant amount of CTAB is used in this synthesis and after the synthesis there is still an amount of CTAB remaining on the surface of the GNRs [9]. The excess CTAB on the surface has both a lack of stability in biological systems and presents a significant amount of cytotoxicity [3, 10, 11]. In the literature it has presented that GNR solutions that are CTAB–capped at a certain concentration present a substantial amount of cytotoxicity at around 70% loss of cell viability [10]. In this paper published by Wiley, with over 600 citations was an extraordinary paper. It was well constructed and no faults could be found with it. With that amount of citations, it has clearly influenced the further investigation of the cytotoxicity of GNRs. Now we have identified that CTAB is the problem, how have researchers attempted to solve it? You're probably thinking, remove the CTAB, which is a very reasonable suggestion. Removing the CTAB from the surface of the GNRs and replacing them with other viable biomolecules is not a simple process. By removing the CTAB from the surface of the GNRs the first issue ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Using Student 's T Test For Proper Statistical Evaluation Experiments are reported as mean В± SD and were generated in multiples of triplicate for proper statistical evaluation. Comparisons between two groups were made using Student's t–test and the significance level was determined by a p–value < 0.05. Spectral analysis was carried out with OriginPro software (Origin 2015, OriginLab corporation, MA, USA). Results Characterization of propolis extracts UV spectra The Uv–Vis spectra of all propolis extracts (Figure 1) showed strong absorption in the range 270–290 nm. Water extract showed one peak at 278 nm suggesting one principal compound or group of closely related compounds. Both hydroalcohol (70 % ethanol) and ethanol extracts were characterized by two absorption peaks at 270, 290 and shoulder at 365 nm; reflecting the possibility of three compounds/groups. On the other hand, hexane extract showed a broad absorption peak that covers the range 270–290 nm. Infrared spectroscopy The characteristic infrared spectra of dried–water based extract and the other three solvent extracts; hydroalcoholic (70 % ethanol), ethanol and hexane, are given in figure 2. The hexane extract shows a remarkable structural differences relative to the other three extracts with reduced absorption intensity in the hydroxyl peak (4000–3000 cm–1), increased absorption intensity in the stretching vibration of methyl and methylene CH (3000 – 2800 cm–1) and in the absorption peak that detected around 1710 cm–1 (Carbonyl bond ). These absorption characteristics ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. Synthesis And Biological Use As Potential Anticancer Agents Norcantharidin and analogues: synthesis and biological use as potential anticancer agents Norcantharidin (NCTD), the demethylated analogue of cantharidin, has been used to treat human cancers in China since 1984. It was recently found to be capable of inducing apoptosis in human colon carcinoma, hepatoma and glioblastoma cells by way of an elusive mechanism.1 Norcantatharidins and their analogues are synthetic anticancer agents which have been used in various different procedures for the inducing growth arrest and apoptosis of tumour cells and also provide therapeutic and adjuvant therapeutic applications in the treatment of cancer agents.2 This report will discuss the various different NCTD that are currently being studied, highlighting the synthesis of these NCTD and their various biological pathways that are taken in order to inhibit the growth of the correspondent cancer cell. In particular NCTD induced apoptosis of the hepatoma cells will be considered and also highlighting the different views with the synthesis of the particular NCTD and also the effectiveness of the methodology and its observations in response to other NCTD and their mechanism in attacking the hepatoma cell site. One study by Shuijun Zhanga et al had shown the ABT–737 induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) by the transcriptional repression of Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl–1). Shuijun Zhanga et a. had shown that NCTD could affect apoptosis by the modification of the B–cell lymphoma 2 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Journal Article Summary And Analysis Journal Article Summary and Analysis: Ji Su Chae, Nam–Su Heo et al. A biocompatible implant electrode capable of operating in body fluids for energy storage devices. Nano Energy, 34 (2017) 86–92. Q1) The authors propose a new form of energy storage in implantable electronic medical devices (IEMDs). Chae et. al. solution involves "using [the] body fluids as unpackaged electrolytes" in a superconductor with a shared solar cell for energy storage and recharge capabilities. This proposition provides numerous benefits over current passivation encapsulation methods such as its biocompatible and natural approach with an extended longevity. The solution suggests a suitable composite material and a means to power an IEMD in vivo. This article ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The positive electrode is a composite of MnO2 nanoparticles inside multi–walled carbon nanotubes. This aims to reduce toxicity and minimise capacitance loss with power transmitted by stable and reversible Faradaic reaction. Q4) Various characterisation techniques are used throughout the article to identify and quantify materials and processes to further understand what is occurring. One such method used is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM uses electrons to form an image at a significantly higher resolution and magnification than optical microscopes due to the smaller wavelength and stronger interaction. Furthermore, TEM's are versatile as diffraction patterns are also obtainable within the same tool. A TEM instrument is designed with an electron gun positioned at the top of the device as the source of electron generation. These electrons are then accelerated to high voltage values to minimise divergence and then are focused into a continuous electron beam with magnetic lenses and apertures. The chamber is in vacuum to protect the beam from scattering along with maintaining a clean working environment. This tool requires very small and thin specimens for analysis such that electrons are able to penetrate through the material lattice without scattering at an angle. These transmitted electrons that go through the sample can form an image at the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Degradation Of The Paracetamol Drug Using Lanthanum Doped... Photocatalytic degradation of the Paracetamol drug using Lanthanum doped ZnO nanoparticles and their in–vitro Cytotoxicity assay. M.Shakira*, M.Faraza, Asif Sherwanib and Saud I. Al–Resayesc a. Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India. b. Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India c. Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. *To whom correspondence should be addressed Email: shakir078@yahoo.com Phone No. +91–9837430035 a Abstract. The doping of semiconductor by rare earth metal nanoparticles is an effective way for increasing in photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel–combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The UV–vis spectroscopy displayed the absorption edge shifts towards the visible region after doping with La which is extremely favorable for absorbing the visible light. We compared the enhancing effect of La ions and found that La doped ZnO nanoparticles is more effective than ZnO nanoparticles in promoting the generation of hydroxyl radicals, holes and the photocatalytic activity of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. The Use Of Nanopolymers For Biomedical Purposes Statement of the problem: The driving forces behind this work are related to the increased use of nanopolymers for biomedical purposes. Charged and neutral polymers are routinely used for gene and drug delivery. However, limited studies are performed to test their safety. Therefore, the originality of this work lies in its attempt to evaluate the toxicity of three widely used polymers for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, we aim to establish efficient methods for nanotoxicity testing through comparing the results of three different models ( 2D, 3D invitro cell cultures and invivo zebrafish embryo)preparing these materials for clinical application. Abstract Nanomaterials exhibit a wide range of applications in different aspects of human life . In biomedical fields, nanoparticles are packaged into different nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery especially for improving the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. However, no sufficient data that detect their toxicity. In the present study, the toxicity of three different polymers that represent promising drug carriers will be evaluated using 2D, 3D cell cultures and zebrafish embryos. The polymers to be studie include the well–known cationic transfection agents Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for their established cytotoxicity as well as the uncharged drug carrier material pHPMA (i.e. poly(N–2–hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide), Poly(ethylene glycol)–b–poly(N–(2–hydroxypropyl) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Gastrointestinal Tissue Case Study Gastrointestinal tract Ingestion of NMs can potentially occur directly from food, water or orally administered medicines (Card et al. 2011). In addition, retrograde transfer of NMs by mucocilliary clearance may result in the deposition of materials to the GIT by subsequent swallowing of materials. It is believed that the vast majority of ingested NMs are rapidly passed through the GIT and lost via the faeces (Papp et al. 2008). However, the harsh environment of the stomach and the small intestine, with its low pH and digestive enzymes might alter the characteristics of NMs and therefore their subsequent fate in the human body. Surface properties of NMs play an important role in their translocation from the GIT. It has also been suggested... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In another study Fischer rats were exposed to a single intragastric dose of fullerene C60 (0.7 nm) or SWCNT (~ 2 nm (width) and < 1 Вµm (length) (0.064 and 0.64 mg/kg/bw suspended in saline or corn oil). The authors showed that both doses of the SWCNT and C60 increased 8–oxo–7,8–dihydro–2'–deoxyguanosine (8–oxodG) levels in liver. The suspension of materials in saline or corn oil had no significant effect on the genotoxicity of NMs in the liver. Finally, an increased mRNA expression of 8–oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in the liver was noted following C60 treatment, although no significant increase in DNA repair activity was detected. The data from this study indicated that low dose oral exposure to the C60 and SWCNT NMs can result in direct genotoxic effects in the liver (Folkmann et al. 2009). However, the same NMs were not able to induce genotoxicity in colonic mucosa cells. It can be argued that from an evolutionary perspective, enterocytes may be less susceptible to toxic effects of exogenous materials. Another explanation could be related to the age of the rats used in the study (sacrificed at 9 weeks of age); it has previously been shown that uptake of 1 Вµm labelled polystyrene particles was approximately nine times higher in adult (5 months) rats compared to young (6–8 weeks) rats (Seifert et al. 1996). Another study in oral exposure of Sprague–Dawley rats to SiO2 (12 nm), iron ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Types And Types Of Diabetes Essay Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic disease that is present around the world. Type 2 diabetes is generally chaacterised by decrease in B cell mass function and decrease in the sensitivity of insulin in the peripheral tissues. Beta cell dysfunctioning decrease the release of amylin and insulin in response to increased blood glucose levels and this is thought to be affected by misfolded amylin proteins where the cytotoxicity from amylin oligomers affects the function of islet beta cells via several mechanisms and affecting the signaling pathway and apoptosis of beta cells. Introduction: There are 2 major types of diabetes in humans which revolves around the control of blood sugar level. These 2 types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by total destruction of insulin secreting cells which is the worst case scenario in terms of diabetes progression and would normally require insulin replacement therapy. However type 2 diabetes might be characterized by a progressive deterioration of insulin secreting cells which could secrete insulin however it might not be sufficient in glucose homeostasis or development of resistance to insulin in peripheral tissues. Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases around the world which could be responsible for other complications such as heart attack, stroke, blindness, renal failure etc. Type 2 diabetes has been hypothesized been caused by misfolded amylin species mediate ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Breast Cancer Essay Cancer lies dormant in all of us; all living organisms such as our bodies are making defective cells all the time (1). This is how tumors are developed. Our bodies are also equipped with a number of mechanisms that detect and keep such cells in check (1). Breast Cancer (BC), is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality (2). These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells (3). However, chemoresistance and toxicity are the main causes that limit the success of treatment in aggressive BC cases (4). Major treatment strategies for breast cancer consist, either separately or in combination of, radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy (2). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell–specific anti–proliferative and pro–apoptotic activities (5). Further data demonstrated that frankincense essential oil induced apoptosis (3). Frankincense oil has been reported to play critical biological activities in cancer (3). However, to the best of our knowledge whether frankincense oil has an effect on the progression of breast cancer remains unclear. This study will utilize breast cancer cells to determine if frankincense oil has an effect on the viability of the cells and cytotoxicity. Hypothesis: Since scientists have been unable to find a cure for breast cancer, research is needed to lower the viability of breast cancer cells. Due to frankincense's anti–inflammatory ability to reduce cancer, I hypothesize that frankincense oil will inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and ultimately kill them. Methodology: Breast cancer cells (MCF–7) will be kept at 37В° C and 5% CO2 in an incubator. The breast cancer cells are going to be treated by having a control group with media only while the experimental groups will be treated with different concentrations of frankincense (5%, 10%, 20%, and 25%). Aim #1: Investigate the effect of Frankincense oil on Breast cancer cell viability From previous ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Ganoderma Research Paper Macrophages: Ganoderma derived polysaccharides have been shown to increase the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo [50, 51]. Apart from the activated macrophages, IL–1ОІ, IL–6 and TNF–О± production have also been found to be up–regulated. Effects of polysaccharides on intracellular calcium have further shown that Ganoderma can induce cellular as well as extracellular release or influx of Ca2+ ions [52]. 2. Natural Killer Cells: Natural Killer (NK) cells are immune cells which are kenned to exhibit cytotoxicity towards various types of cancer cells during metastasis (spread to other organs) [53, 54]. Natural Killer (NK) cells cytotoxicity has been found to be enhanced by G. lucidum towards a variety of tumors [55]. 3. Dendritic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The triterpenoids, ethanolic extract of Ganoderma appear to up–regulate IL–2, IL–4, IL–8 along with increases NF–kB activity in precancerous uroepithelial cells [59]. 5. 5О± Reductase: The triterpenoids in Ganoderma possess 5О±–reductase inhibitory potential which further have been kenned to inhibit the conversion of testosterone into dihydro testosterone (DHT) [60]. 6. TLR4: Toll–Like Receptor 4 is a receptor present on many immune cells that can mediate the immune response. Ganoderma derived polysaccharides and proteoglycans are appeared to be act as a ligand and activator of TLR4 receptors [61]. Activation of TLR4 has further been found to be associated with the activation of macrophages and their downstream molecules (Nitric Oxide, TNF–О±) [62,63]. 7. NF–kB: NF–kB, a key transcriptional factor which have been found to be activated in a variety of inflammatory disorders such as cardiovascular, cancer and neurodegenration. Various research groups have reported the down–regulation of NF–kB by of Ganoderma in LPS induced immunological models [64, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Monoclonal Antibody ( Magic Bullets ) : A Promising... MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ("MAGIC BULLETS")– A PROMISING TREATMENT FOR CANCER ANURIMA MODI TECHNO INDIA UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA –700091 REVIEW PAPER ABSTRACT Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are an old immunological tool in the field of biotechnology, immunology, biochemistry and applied biology. The use of monoclonal antibodies forcancer therapy is one of the most versatile, powerful and important strategies in the treatment of cancer. Over a past couple of years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved more than a dozen mAb's to treat certain cancers (Brain cancer, Breast cancer ,Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancers, Hodgkin 's lymphoma, Lung cancer, Melanoma, Non–Hodgkin 's lymphoma, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the early stage of a drug discovery process, researchers may be faced with little or no structure activity relationship (SAR) information. The process by which a new drug is brought to market stage is referred to by a number of names most commonly as the development chain or "pipeline" and consists of a number of distinct stages. To design a rational drug, we must firstly find out which proteins can be the drug targets in pathogenesis. MECHANISM OF ACTION Monoclonal antibodies achieve their therapeutic effect through various mechanisms. They can have direct effects in producing apoptosis or programmed cell death. They can block growth factor receptors, effectively arresting proliferation of tumor cells. In cells that express monoclonal antibodies, they can bring about anti–idiotype antibody formation. Indirect effects include recruiting cells that have cytotoxicity, such as monocytes and macrophages. This type of antibody–mediated cell kill is called antibody–dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Monoclonal antibodies also bind complement, leading to direct cell toxicity, known as complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Antibody therapy can be used in a variety of ways to treat cancer. As described above, they may act through ADCC or CDC. An alternative approach is to conjugate the monoclonal antibody to a toxin, a cytotoxic agent, or a radioisotope. With
  • 37. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Efficient Delivery Of Cancer The efficient delivery of drugs and energy to tumors faces several difficulties and obstacles that need to be overcome for effective cancer treatment. Nanoparticles administrated through intravenous injections accumulate at a tumor site due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) eп¬Ђect, but only a small quantity of the injected particles can actually "reach the tumor" (Su et al, 2016). The majority of the nanoparticles interact with "cancer cells at the periphery of a tumor" which presents a "physiological barrier" that prevents most of the injected particles from reaching the tumor (Su et al, 2016). In addition to this barrier, there is also another significant obstacle, "cancer–associated fibroblasts", which can also ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This conglomerate composed of protein–lipid, sponge–like carbon, and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was administrated by the researchers to mice in order to study the material's ability to "transport the hydrophobic drug docetaxel (DTX) and perfluorohexane (PFH) for deep tumor penetration and therapy" (Su et al, 2016). The Lf–lipo–GNS composite is capable of carrying large amounts of drugs in its pores which can be released through the absorption of light by the GNS. By applying near–infrared (NIR) irradiation, the gasification of PFH occurs due to "an increase in local temperature" in the graphene nanosponge which as a result "damages and ruptures tumor spheroids" (Su et al, 2016). Consequently, the combined effects of "gasification and chemo– and thermotherapy" can substantially reduce tumors and even completely eliminate them without future reappearance. The researchers conducted a study on in vitro photolytic therapy on "RG2 tumor spheroids incubated with the control group (PBS only), Lf–lipo–US–GNS /DTX, Lf–lipo–US–GNS/DTX+NIR, and Lflipo–US–GNS/DTX–PFH+NIR" (Su et al, 2016). Due to its tumor penetration ability, the researchers used "10 Ојg/mL of 40 nm Lf–lipo–US–GNS" to conduct the study. After the composite was administrated to the tumors, they were allowed to incubate for "4 h" followed by NIR irradiation with "a power density of 2 W cm–2 for 10 min" and then were stained with propidium iodide to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. A Summary Of Biogenic Te NR In this study, the characterization of purified Te NRs produced by the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain of Te, as a biogenic source, provided a relatively wide size range of 40–200nm (Fig. 1). The cytotoxity of biogenic Te NRs was compared to K2TeO3 by estimation of the IC50 value of the PC–12 cell line. The cytotoxicity of biogenic Te NRs was assessed at three doses of 1, 2.5, and 5 ng/ml with the purpose of evaluating the occurrence of cell apoptosis and possible underlying mechanisms that take place at the IC50 dose through flow cytometry and investigation of the expression of caspase–3 protein by the western blot method in order to confirm flow cytometry analyses. OS events, as other cytotoxicity mechanisms after exposure to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... NPs produced by nanotechnology methods have been developed for application in different pesticides (Nel et al., 2006). Therefore, methods used to manufacture NPs are important criteria. Due to specific physiochemical properties, NPs may be used as fillers, semiconductors, opacifiers, catalysts, and microelectronics, and also as cosmetics and drug carriers in pharmacology and pharmaceutics (Nel et al., 2006). Thereafter, we need to consider risk assessment, establishment of safety manufacture, and the use of NPs in the marketplace and their potential toxicity (Nel et al., 2006; Medina et al., 2007). Next, we investigated the underlying mechanism of biogenic Te NRs–induced cytotoxicity in the PC–12 cell line. As shown in Figure 2, cell viability was reduced in a concentration–dependent manner. By increasing the concentration of biogenic Te NRs, cytotoxicity can be enhanced in PC–12 cells. Significant reduction in rat hippocampal astrocytes viability was observed in exposure to 1.95–250 ОјM of diphenylditelluride (DPDT) and 0.97–250 ОјM of TeCl4through MTT assay; lethal concentration (LC50) for both compounds was estimated at 62.5 ОјM (Roy and Hardej, 2011). Studies have indicated that NPs may induce cytotoxicity by disrupting the cell structure and cause dysfunction in the cells by binding to survival macromolecules (Navarro et al., 2008). It has been reported that these toxicities depend on particle size, surface properties, and then, on cellular uptake of NPs ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...