Organic Chemistry Teacher

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Organic Chemistry Teacher

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry Objectives <ul><ul><li>To describe the difference between monomers and polymers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To list the basic elements found in living things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe the general structure of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe enzymes and discuss their importance to all living things. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Elements Found in Living Things <ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul>These are the most basic components of all living things. They can be combined in an infinite number of ways to form the major components of all living things!
  4. 4. Percentage of elements found in animals <ul><li>Hydrogen = 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen = 63% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon = 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen = 4% </li></ul>Why is there so much hydrogen and oxygen?
  5. 5. Percentage of elements found in Plants <ul><li>Hydrogen = 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen = 77% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon = 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen = <1% </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organic Compounds <ul><li>Compounds found in living things that contain Carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>May also contain Hydrogen, oxygen, and Nitrogen </li></ul>Methane Amino acid
  7. 7. Forming Organic Compounds <ul><li>Formed by the process of polymerization – the forming of large compounds with many smaller parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Small molecules = monomers </li></ul><ul><li>They combine to make… </li></ul><ul><li>Large molecules = polymers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Forming Organic Compounds through polymerization monomer monomer monomer monomer monomer polymer
  9. 9. Dehydration synthesis <ul><li>Joins monomers together by removing a water </li></ul><ul><li>“ De ” = loss “ hydration ” = water </li></ul><ul><li>Every time 2 monomers join a water is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is added to break molecules in a process called hydrolysis . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Did you know? Silly Putty is one big long polymer formed from many smaller monomers
  11. 11. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Commonly called sugars and starches. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Carbo” for carbon, “Hydrates” for water </li></ul><ul><li>Made of CHO </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 2:1 Ratio (twice much hydrogen as oxygen, just like H 2 O). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monomers = Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galatose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>They combine to make other, larger carbohydrates
  13. 13. Disaccharides <ul><li>Two monosaccharides combine to form Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + glucose  maltose (malt sugar) + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + fructose  sucrose(table sugar) + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + galactose  lactose (milk sugar) + water </li></ul></ul>What do you notice that all Carbohydrates have in common?
  14. 14. Disaccharides <ul><li>Two monosaccharide combine to form Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + gluc ose  malt ose (malt sugar) + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + fruct ose  sucr ose (table sugar) + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + galact ose  lact ose (milk sugar) + water </li></ul></ul>They all end in -ose
  15. 15. Polysaccharides <ul><li>“ poly” = many; “saccharides” = sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Formed by dehydration synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Storage form of glucose (energy) in organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>1000’s of glucose molecules join to form one polysaccharide! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Polysaccharides – glucose storage <ul><li>Plants = 2 forms </li></ul><ul><li>Starch – storage form , digestible by humans </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose - same as starch, but different bonds- can not be digested by humans </li></ul>The stringy part of celery is mostly cellulose
  17. 17. Polysaccharides – glucose storage <ul><li>Animals – store glucose as glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen is a highly branched molecule made of 1000+ molecules of glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>This is our short term storage of the glucose molecule </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lipids <ul><li>Organic compounds that are oily or waxy </li></ul><ul><li>Form cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical messengers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Formation of Lipids Monomers = fatty acids (2 or 3) and glycerol (1) Formed through dehydration synthesis
  20. 20. Fatty Acids <ul><li>2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated; solid fat; more tightly packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated; liquid fat; loosely packed; healthier; may prevent heart disease. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fats and Energy <ul><li>Fats are your bodies long term storage of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Produce more energy/gram than carbohydrates </li></ul>
  22. 22. Proteins <ul><li>Contain nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers = 20 different amino acids, combine to form 1000’s of different proteins! </li></ul><ul><li>The bond that joins two amino acids is a peptide bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a very specific shape when formed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Amino acids- monomers of proteins Four sample amino acids. What do they have in common? How are they different? What do you think is removed every time two amino acids are joined?
  24. 24. Protein Shapes Based upon their sequence of amino acids, proteins will fold into very intricate and unique shapes.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Protein’s are very sensitive to heat </li></ul><ul><li>If your body temperature gets above a certain level, your proteins “denature.” In other words they change shape, and stop working. </li></ul>Did You Know?
  26. 26. Protein in your body BONES HORMONES BLOOD ENZYMES LIGAMENTS
  27. 27. Enzymes – special proteins <ul><li>Facilitate all reactions that happen in cells </li></ul><ul><li>With out them reactions would occur very slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are reusable! </li></ul><ul><li>Diagramed in the lock and key model. </li></ul>

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