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scaffold 2015

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osha scaffold standards cited in 2014

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scaffold 2015

  1. 1. Scaffold Safety Johnanewquist@gmail.com Draft 6 8 2015
  2. 2. • This presentation focuses on standards cited by OSHA in 2014 • Scaffold focus on standards cited at least ten times
  3. 3. 2015 Common OSHA Scaffolds • Fabricated Frame Scaffold • Pump Jack Scaffold • Ladder Jack Scaffold • Mobile Scaffold • Suspended scaffolds • Aerial Lifts • Work Platforms attached to forklifts • Mast Scaffolds • Top Plate Scaffold • Cuplok Scaffold • Layher Scaffold 3
  4. 4. Fabricated Frame 4
  5. 5. Pump Jack Scaffold 5
  6. 6. Ladder Jack Scaffold 6
  7. 7. Mobile Scaffold 7
  8. 8. Suspended Scaffold
  9. 9. Aerial Lifts
  10. 10. Mast Scaffolds • Follow Manufacturer’s Instruction
  11. 11. Top Plate Scaffold 11
  12. 12. Cuplok Scaffold
  13. 13. Layher Scaffold
  14. 14. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS • Capacity • Scaffold Platform Construction • Criteria For Supported Scaffolds • Criteria for Suspended Scaffolds • Access • Use • Fall Protection • Falling Object Protection • Training Requirements
  15. 15. #1 Most Cited - Scaffold • 1926.451(g)(1) – Fall Protection on Scaffolding • Fall protection starts at 10 feet. • Consider requiring fall protection on scaffolds over 4 feet since it is feasible. No guardrails on the levels where the workers are working.
  16. 16. #2 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.453(b)(2)(v) – Fall Protection in Aerial Lifts • Users must receive training in the manufacturer’s instruction. • http://www.ipaf.org/ has training material • These aerial lifts must be operated on level surfaces. • Consider requiring fall arrest in scissor lifts since so many fatalities. (see lower photo) Worker above is not wearing fall arrest
  17. 17. #3 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(e)(1) - Scaffold Access/Egress • Many citations involve climbing on the cross bracing. Worker will be exposed to fall to get to the scaffold.
  18. 18. #4 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(b)(1) – Scaffold not Fully Planked each working level Not fully planked, no guardrails, not fully cross braced.
  19. 19. #5 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.454(a) • Scaffold Training
  20. 20. #6 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(g)(1)(vii) • For all scaffolds not otherwise specified in paragraphs (g)(1)(i) through (g)(1)(vi) of this section, each employee shall be protected by the use of personal fall arrest systems or guardrail systems meeting the requirements of paragraph (g)(4) of this section.
  21. 21. #7 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(c)(2) • Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates and mud sills or other adequate firm foundation
  22. 22. #8 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451 (g)(1)(i) • Each employee on a boatswains' chair, catenary scaffold, float scaffold, needle beam scaffold, or ladder jack scaffold shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system
  23. 23. #9 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(f)(7) • Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration.
  24. 24. #10 Most Cited - Scaffolds • 1926.451(f)(3) • Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a competent person before each work shift, and after any occurrence which could affect a scaffold's structural integrity.
  25. 25. Capacity • Each scaffold platform and walkway shall be at least 18 inches • Ladderjack, pump jack 12 inches 1926.451(b)(2)
  26. 26. Capacity • Each end shall extend over the centerline of its support at least 6 inches or cleated 1926.451(b)(4)
  27. 27. Capacity • Each end of a platform 10 feet or less in length shall not extend over its support more than 12 inches 1926.451(b)(5)
  28. 28. Capacity • Overlap shall occur only over supports, and shall not be less than 12 inches unless the platforms are nailed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement. 1926.451(b)(7)
  29. 29. Capacity • Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers shall not be intermixed 1926.451(b)(10)
  30. 30. Supported Scaffold • Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units. 1926.451(c)(2)(ii)
  31. 31. Supported Scaffold • Front-end loaders and similar pieces of equipment shall not be used to support scaffold platforms 1926.451(c)(2)(iv)
  32. 32. Supported Scaffold • Fork-lifts shall not be used to support scaffold platforms 1926.451(c)(2)(v)
  33. 33. Supported Scaffold • Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall be plumb and braced to prevent swaying and displacement 1926.451(c)(3)
  34. 34. Suspended Scaffold • Under 10 citatioons 1926.451(d)
  35. 35. Access • Ramps and walkways 6 feet or more above lower levels shall have guardrail 1926.451(e)(5)(i)
  36. 36. Access • Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs • 3/14/2002 Interp “ However, it does not provide a minimum rung length of 8 inches on many others. ” 1926.451(e)(6)(i)
  37. 37. Use • Insulated lines safe distance • 3 feet less than 300 volts • 10 feet up to 50,000 volts 1926.451(f)(6)
  38. 38. Use • Makeshift devices, such as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platform 1926.451(f)(14)
  39. 39. Use • Ladders shall not be used on scaffolds to increase the working level height of employee 1926.451(f)(15)
  40. 40. Use • Each employee on a boatswains' chair, catenary scaffold, float scaffold, needle beam scaffold, or ladder jack scaffold shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system 1926.451(g)(1)(i)
  41. 41. Use • When midrails are used, they shall be installed at a height approximately midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the platform surface 1926.451(g)(4)(iv)
  42. 42. Use • Crossbracing is acceptable in place of a • Midrail when the crossing point of two braces is between 20 inches and 30 inches • Toprail when the crossing point of two braces is between 38 inches and 48 inches above the work platform. 1926.451(g)(4)(xv)
  43. 43. Falling Object Protection • In addition to wearing hardhats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects 1926.451(h)(1) 12/2/1991 Interp - Employees are susceptible to impact-type head injuries while handling scaffolding material at head level, bending and leaning between scaffolding members and from slips and falls. Therefore, protective helmets are required
  44. 44. Falling Object Protection • The area below the scaffold to which objects can fall shall be barricaded, and employees shall not be permitted to enter the hazard area or • Toeboard installed 1926.451(h)(2)(i)
  45. 45. Frame Scaffold • Frames and panels shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces • What’s wrong here? 1926.451(h)(2)(i)
  46. 46. Pump Jack Scaffold • Poles shall be secured to the structure by rigid triangular bracing or equivalent at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary. 1926.452(j)(2)
  47. 47. Ladderjack Scaffold • Platforms shall not exceed a height of 20 feet 1926.452(k)(1)
  48. 48. Mobile Scaffold • Scaffolds shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, to prevent racking or collapse of the scaffold 1926.452(w)(1)
  49. 49. Mobile Scaffold • Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked to prevent movement of the scaffold while the scaffold is used in a stationary manner. 1926.452(w)(2)
  50. 50. Summary • Competent person must know manufacturer’s manual • ANSI A10.8 is the industry standard • Mast scaffolds are several recent accidents • Scaffolds can be erected with 100% fall protection

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