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OSHA regulations Fall protection

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An overview of OSHA's fall protection requirements

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OSHA regulations Fall protection

  1. 1. Fall Protection – The Problem • Falls are a serious safety concern in the jobsite. • Falls are the leading cause of worker deaths in construction. Scaffold in Dupage County 12 2 2013
  2. 2. Dec 2013 • MD • A man working in the garage level of a row of town houses under slipped on a small patch of ice, fell and struck his head and died.
  3. 3. September 2013
  4. 4. Jan 2013 • Three story • Roofer fell off edge • Saved by fall arrest
  5. 5. Falls • New OSHA standards in 1995 • 1954 ANSI Standards • Fatal injuries involving falls increased by 20 from the preliminary count to 700 cases.
  6. 6. Fall Sources
  7. 7. Heights Falling? Region V fatality data 2007-2011
  8. 8. What is Fall Protection? • Fall protection protects workers from fall hazards. Fall protection doesn’t mean bulky or cumbersome equipment. It doesn’t interfere with work tasks and it doesn’t get in the way of coworkers – when used properly Unguarded open-sided floor
  9. 9. Planning • Sometimes it takes a lot of work to do things wrong. • Elimination of fall hazards using the hierarchy of controls should be performed by all companies.
  10. 10. Hierarchy of Fall Protection • Elimination – such as Cameras to monitor work. Elimination through design • Passive Fall Protection – Guardrails, Covers • Travel Fall Restraint • Administrative Control – such as climber training, warning systems • Fall Arrest Cameras used to monitor locations.
  11. 11. Safety Program • 1926.20(b)(1) requires all construction companies to have an effective accident prevention program. • Identify where falls can occur to workers through Job Safety Analysis • Discuss the method of protection the worker must use.
  12. 12. What Is Job Safety Analysis? • Method used to break a job task into separate and distinct steps • Four basic stages in conducting a JSA are: • selecting the job to be analyzed • breaking the job down into a sequence of steps • identifying potential hazards • determining preventive measures to overcome these hazards • http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/job-haz.htm has usefull examples of JSA’s
  13. 13. Training Train workers: - When to use fall arrest - How to wear fall arrest - Inspection of anchorages, lanyards, and harnesses
  14. 14. Inspections • Conduct periodic inspections • Is fall arrest is worn? • Is fall protection is place? • Take pictures of people doing it right
  15. 15. Inspection • All fall protection equipment and anchorages must be inspected at the beginning of each eight-hour shift by an authorized person • At least once per year (or more frequently if required by manufacturer) by a competent person or a competent rescuer as appropriate to verify equipment is safe for use. • Written or electronic records of inspection should be kept on file for service life of product.
  16. 16. Enforcement • If people are not wearing the fall arrest, what is the consequence?
  17. 17. Passive Fall Protection • Guardrails • Strength = • Top rail height = • Mid-rail height = • Wire rope/chain deflection of 2 inches
  18. 18. Covers • Hold twice the weight • Secured • Marked Violation: 4' x 8' sheets of plywood covering a stairway opening to the basement of a house. Only four nails hold the two covers. The cover is not marked.
  19. 19. Fall Arrest • Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. Free fall of 30 inches needs fall arrest not positioning
  20. 20. Travel Restraint • 1000 lb anchorage • Cannot free fall to lower level • On flat surfaces.
  21. 21. Work Positioning • Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning. • Work Positioning free fall cannot exceed 24 inches • Max fall arrest force is 900 lbs. • Lanyards and harnesses used • Equipment must have minimum breaking strength of • 5,000 lbs.
  22. 22. Fall Arrest Components • Definition • Body Harness • Energy Absorbing Lanyard • Anchorage
  23. 23. Fall Arrest • Fall Arrest Force Maximum Allowed • Harness = 1800 lbs. • Belt = 900lb (banned) Workers wearing a body harness in an aerial lift
  24. 24. Fall Arrest • Harness are required for fall arrests • Belts are only for work positioning • Maximum Fall Arrest Force should be less 1800 lbs for a harness. One employee is not wearing fall arrest.
  25. 25. Lanyards • Use energy absorbing lanyards or retractable lanyards. • Check for ANSI Z359.1 or OSHA 1926.502 marking • Calculate free fall distance
  26. 26. Harness • Labeled meeting ANZI Z359 or OSHA 1926.502 • Use D-ring in back •Lanyard is not an energy absorbing lanyard. •This is a chest waist harness for work positioning. Not designed for fall arrest.
  27. 27. Anchorages • A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices • 5000 lbs or 2:1 Safety factor is calculated by a qualified person. • Anchorages may weaken over time due to weather or environment
  28. 28. Rescue • Must be planned • Following a fall, a worker may remain suspended in a harness. The sustained immobility may lead to a state of unconsciousness • http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib032404.html has more info on suspension trauma
  29. 29. Fall Prevention Techniques • Handrails • Slip resistant threads • Slip resistant shoes • Fall restraint systems • Enclosed barriers • Eliminate exposure for routine checks by cameras or instrumentation • Build scaffold for long term exposure
  30. 30. Scaffolds • OSHA 1926.451 • Training specific for erectors and users. • Inspections before use • Fall protection required above 10 feet. • Suspended scaffolds need independent fall arrest from the scaffold
  31. 31. Scaffold Footing • Baseplates always required. • Mudsills needed if on earth.
  32. 32. Scaffold Planking • Scaffolds must be fully planked, secured and overlapped. • Falling object protection required. • Inspect planks for damage or overloading.
  33. 33. Scaffold Guardrails • Guardrails must be provided on all working platforms.
  34. 34. Scaffold Access • Stairs are recommended • Scaffold access ladders must be secured
  35. 35. Metal Bracket Scaffold • What questions would you ask the scaffold erector for this job.?
  36. 36. Step Ladders • Used on stable surface • Not used as a ext. ladder • Inspected for defects • Never used on a scaffold
  37. 37. Extension Ladder • 4:1 Pitch • 3’ extension above landing • No defects • Not near electrical • Secured from slipping
  38. 38. Fixed Ladder • Stairs should be in place if used everyday. 1910.24 • Use fall arrest • Keep lanyard short to 12 inches if possible. • Inspect ladder for looseness and proper rails to roof
  39. 39. Flat Roofs • Inspect for damaged or rotten roof deck and components. • Parapet must meets guardrail requirements • Lifting at edge requires guardrail protection • Warning lines and monitor required if not using conventional fall protection
  40. 40. Skylights • Must cover them if working by them. • Will not hold a person’s weight
  41. 41. Opensided Floors • Need two rails or cables • Fall height of 6 or more • Cable rails allowed 2 inch deflection. • Several falls into improperly guarded elevator shafts
  42. 42. Floor Holes • Guardrails • Covers • Holes over 2”x2” are covered under the std. • Beware covers that are loose place over a hole.
  43. 43. Forklift Platforms • Platform slides off • Improper rails • Pushes worker into fixes object • Pallet unacceptable • Scissors point on many carriages • Platform construction
  44. 44. Sloped Roofs • Shinglers in residential must use fall arrest above 25’ or 8/12+ pitch • Slideguards is required otherwise above 6 feet
  45. 45. Residential • One of the most cited standards in construction • 1926.503 requires specific training • Falls from roofs, sheathing, truss erection, openings to basement are among many of the falls.
  46. 46. Sloped Roof • Sheathers can use a Controlled Access Zone, Monitor, and Slideguards in lieu of fall arrest. • Shinglers should use fall arrest and slideguards • OSHA 1926.501(b) (13)
  47. 47. Extensible Boom Aerial Lifts • Wear fall arrest • Must have smooth surface to operate • Many flip in mud • Train operator in manual instructions
  48. 48. Scissor Lifts • Workers must be trained in the operation manual • Full guardrails needed • Inspect area for holes that could flip the lift • Ensure proper lighting End chain is missing
  49. 49. Stairs • Guardrails on side with both top and mid- rails • Handrails • Evenly spaced threads • Foot clearance • Required if climbing daily One handrail needed if both sides are enclosed
  50. 50. Steel Erection • Ironworkers connecting out of an aerial lift. • Fall Protection required at 15/30 feet when decking or connecting.
  51. 51. Safety Nets Used for Decking Decking is the most common activity that historically killed iron workers Nets used to protect deckers
  52. 52. Suspended Platforms • Must follow 1926.550 (g) requirements • Often not wearing fall arrest • Platform must be proof tested
  53. 53. Metal Grating • Must be secured with clips • Guardrails provided on both sides.
  54. 54. Working Adjacent to Water • Fall Protection • Life vests • Ring Buoys • Skiff or boat
  55. 55. Rebar Walls • Work positioning • Rebar wall must have spacing similar to a ladder to climb • Rebar Walls must be adequately braced
  56. 56. Other Fall Surfaces • Tail gates • Riding equipment such as front end loaders and forklifts
  57. 57. Rescue • The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves. • 1926.502(b)(20)
  58. 58. Quick Quiz • Anchorages must be _____ lbs. • Fall arrest forces for harnessing shall not exceed _____ lbs. • What is the best in the hierarchy of fall protection? _____________ • Covers must hold _____ times the anticipated load. • Free fall over ____ inches is not allowed in work positioning.

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