Tech transfer


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  • Ships holds had piles of sand (or piles of grain) in them and the amphorae were packed into the sand. Many had slightly pointed bottoms for this reason.
  • Protect the wine from spoilage by….A layer of olive oil or beeswax.
  • Iso tanks- ullage must be left in tanks, wine must be stable before transportation to reduce risk of oxidation, 20000 L of wine per ISO tank.Flexitanks- bladders that line inside of containers, used once to reduce contamination, recyclable plastic, 24000L of wine per flexitank.Bottled- tightly with cardboard dividers or molded pulp as glass is fragile.
  • Disadvantages- not suitable for long term storage, wine cannot be seen through packaging,
  • Tech transfer

    1. 1. Technology Transfer– changes in the materials and containers used to store and transport wine - JOHAN MATHEW
    2. 2. History • The earliest known vessel, that could have been used for wine is the Qvevri, which is a clay jar, said to date back to 6000 BC. • 79 AD- First evidence of barrel. Romans stored their wine in wooden containers held together with loops. • 1600’s- New glass making techniques started in England. • Monk takes giant step from using wooden plugs to cork as a wine closure.
    3. 3. Amphora • An Amphora is a vessel that was used to transport and store wine dating back as far as 800 B.C. • Made from clay. • Chemical analysis reveals fermented juice. • Earliest evidence of use in Northern China. Why Amphora….? ?• Strong • Impermeable • Non-reactive
    4. 4. Why Amphora….???  Strong  Impermeable  Non-reactive Why pointed base….???  Because they were used mainly in shipping
    5. 5. Wine protected from spoilage by…  A layer of olive oil or bees wax.  A soft clay stopper.  Stopper would be marked with contents and other information.
    6. 6. The bottle shape is born • Initially hand blown glass. • Bottle has a small capacity suitable for one drinking session. • There was an issue, as each bottle was a different shape and size so the customer never knew exactly how much wine they were getting. • Glass blowing became easier with time and the need for long flat shaped bottle became necessary. • In 1979 U.S. set law for bottles to be 750 ml.
    7. 7. Bottle types Bordeaux : High shoulder and straight and straight sides. Burgundy : Sloping shoulders and tall. Champagne : Sloping sides and wider bottle. Rhine : Narrow and tall. Fortified : Straight body with high, rounded shoulder.
    8. 8. Bottle Stoppers Old : Layer of olive oil, soaked rags, wooden stoppers. Corks • First recorded use in Egypt. • First cork factory in 1750 in Spain. • Production boomed in 19th century. Screw cap • No more cork taint. • Caps are cheap. • Maintains freshness.
    9. 9. Wooden Barrels • Made from rounded oak. • Could be rolled and stacked. • Most convenient form of transportation until 19th century. Why wooden barrels? • Oak imparts interesting aromas to the wine. • Less susceptible to wood diseases.
    10. 10. Barrel Making ( ) • Split wood is passed through bandsaw. • Metal ring is used to hold the staves. • When circle is complete a third loop is hammered. • Staves heated to bend. • Oak is toasted in different degrees. • After toasting, the hoops are removed from the middle of the barrel and the outside is sanded. • Barrel is tightened.
    11. 11. Then after all… • The bung-hole is drilled into the side of the barrel. • The outside is given its final planning before the bottom lid are fitted. READY TO FILL!
    12. 12. Conditions for transporting wine • Ideal temperature must be maintained (13-16 degree Celsius). • Humidity should remain constant. • Wine movement should be minimal. • Climate controlled containers used for transporting to minimise fluctuations in environment.
    13. 13. Modern methods for transporting wine • Bulk wine transport ISO Tanks Flexitanks • Bottled wine transport
    14. 14. Bulk • Limited lost space. • Cost efficient. • Oxidation occurs through entire product. Vs . Bottled • Lower volume per container. • More costly. • Oxidation can be limited.
    15. 15. Future Storage Containers Tetra Pack Advantages-  Made from recyclable products.  Will reduce gas emissions.  92% less packaging.  54% less energy than glass.  30-40% less trucks to transport the same amount as bottled wine. Disadvantages-  Not suitable for long term storage.  Wine cannot be seen through
    16. 16. PET Bottle Advantages-  Can be recycled.  Very light.  Shatterproof  Flexible  Re-sealable Diadvantages-  Limited shelf life  Not suitable for long term maturation
    17. 17. Aluminium cans Advantages-  Ready to drink  Single serving  No possible cork taint  Protects wine from UV rays Disadvantages-  Chemical reaction will occur between wine and aluminium  Unpleasant taste
    18. 18. References and Resources •Before The Wine Bottle Existed. April 2009. Retrieved 24 July, 2013, from: bottles/A Short History of Wine Bottles. •History of Glass Wine Bottles. (n.d). Retrieved 24 July,2013, from: •Pendleton, J. (2007). Wine History-When the Cork Met the Bottle. Retrieved 24 July,2013, from: /09/wine-history-when-cork-met-bottle.html. •Wine in PET Bottles: Will Plastic Replace Glass?. (n.d). Retrieved 24 July 2013, from: •A History of Wine Storage. (n.d.). Retrieved 24 July, 2013, from:
    19. 19. •Brostrom, G. G., Brostrom, J. (2008). The Business of Wine: An Encyclope Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. •Johnson, H. (1989). The Story of Wine. London: Mitchell Beazley Internation •Intardonato, J. (2008). Fermenting Wine in Cement Tanks. Retrieved 25 July, 2013, from: =55049 •Amphora. (2013). Retrieved 25 July, 2013, from: •wiki/Amphora