Technology transfer kate franklin


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  • Materials used for wine storage have adapted tremendously over many years. As cultures learnt more about winemaking, they developed different methods of storage and transport which has led to the development of world trade. As trading became more popular, secure and practical storage of wine was needed for ease of transport, and more recently cost effective trading. Through the ages, the most common types of materials used for wine storage have been animal skins, clay pots knows as Amphorae, wooden barrels, concrete, steel and glass. As the quality of the wine produced began to increase, value of the product did also. People could not afford to loose wine due to broken storage vessels or risk of wine becoming oxidized because of poor sealing techniques.
  • The history of wine is understood to go back to the Stone Age around 6000 BC. Although there are not many archeological clues as to when the first wine was actually produced, it is understood that the first wine was probably produced as an accident. Grapes were more than likely left in storage and naturally began fermenting, creating wine (Weibe, 2013). Wine was originally used as a medicine, because of its antiseptic qualities and its ability to be added to water to kill the bacteria (Foulkes, 1994). The first extensively used storage container was probably made from animal skins (Jackson, 1994), although it is not known when these originated because of the degradation over time. The waterproof nature of animal skin would have worked well, however the amount of air that would be in contact with the wine would have caused it to go off very quickly, leading to the development of the clay amphorae.
  • Clay vessels were the popular choice for storing wine from the days of the Greeks thorough until the end of the Roman Empire. The design of the amphorae spread from culture to culture as trading between the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans grew. The amphorae is a type of clay pot, their shape allowed them to be tied onto ships using rope though the handles. This ensured the neck was up and so even if the twists of cloth or leather that was used to seal the amphorae didn’t leave it watertight, the wine wouldn’t spill out (Bershad, n.d.). The shape of the bottom of the vessel also allowed the pot to be pushed into the soft ground to cool down the contents.
  • When not being used in transport, the amphorae were placed in stands such as this so the vessel remained upright.
  • The interior of the amphorae were often covered with pine resin and put into a kiln at a temperature between 800 to 1000°C. This gave the amphorae’s a glass glazing which made them non porous (Jackson, 1994). The Egyptians were the first to stamp their amphorae's while the clay was still damp, leaving information about the place of origin and winemaker (Foulkes, 1994). This method became the first wine labels. Amphorae and earthenware were used for a considerable amount of time and enabled the first wine trade. Their heavy and fragile nature, as well as limited storage length (Unwin, 1996), lead to the development of the wooden barrel.
  • Sometime round 100BC the Gaul’s began using large wooden vessels for beer storage. This was adapted by the Romans as they realized that the barrels were more portable, lighter and stronger then their amphora's. Wine barrels were first used in the Bordeaux region where the Romans found better grape varietals which could withstand the weather (Bershad, n.d.). The cooper techniques and design of the barrel used today is very similar to that of the Romans. Oak was considered the best wood to use because of it allowed the wine to breathe (Jackson, 1994). Wooden barrels became the primary container for aging and transportation of wine until the 20th century, when glass began to replace barrels for transportation (Jackson, 1994). Oak barrels were still used in winemaking, but because of their size it was found that once a barrel had had its cap removed, the air was able to get in and the wine began to turn to vinegar. A smaller storage vessel was needed.
  • (The History of Wine Part III - Wine Storage – Barrels, 2009)
  • Glass vessels were first used by the Romans for decanting wine from amphorae’s to the table. It was not until the 17th century with the development of sparkling wines that coal-fueled furnaces replaced the previous wood-burning ones and made it possible to produce thicker glass which is needed to hold the pressure of a sparkling wine. (Jackson, 1994)
  • Corks were first used to seal the glass bottles from 1800-1900 AD. During this time, work by Pasteur illustrated the oxidation affects of wine exposed to air. He found that the small amount of oxygen which a wine carries in bottle, leads to important chemical reactions and maturation (Foulkes, 1994). The wine style changed with this as winemakers began to understand that they could mature wines in bottle and so wine drinking progressed from consuming young wines, to the ability to age wine. Stoppers were produced which were made of ground glass. This effectively removed the problem of cork taint, but they were very hard to remove without breaking the bottle (Eastern Institute of Technology, 2009).
  • Prior to the 17th century, glass blowing technique wasn’t very accurate and was generally just one breath of the glass blower, producing a bulb shaped bottle. This caused a dramatic range in glass sizes and so wasn’t accurate enough for selling quantities of wine. In the 17th century, sizes and shapes of glass were experimented on (Foulkes, 1994). It was found that the longer, flatter shape made the bottles easier to store on their side, which helped keep the cork wet leading to wine tasting better when it was stored for longer.
  • In the 1800’s the industry found ways of making standard sized bottles and regions began to settle on what they found to be the ideal bottle size. The maximum standard bottle size was around 800ml but in some areas magnums and larger format bottles did exist. Up until 1945, wines from Burgundy and Champagne came in 800ml bottles and other regions and countries used their own preferred bottle size. In 1979 the USA made a push for 750ml bottles to be the standard requirement. From this, the European Union adopted the idea that 750ml should become the world standard so all winemakers could ship to the US with ease (A short history of wine bottles, 2009).
  • Many different shapes and sizes of glass bottles have been used through the ages. During the late 17th century bottles of wine being transported from Persia to India were wrapped in straw and packed into a wooden box, possibly the first uses of a case as we know it today (Foulkes, 1994). (Richards Packaging, n.d.) (Lascabanes to Moissac, 2008)
  • Winemaking today is generally made on a much larger scale. This has lead to different materials such as stainless steel and concrete tanks being used to ferment and store wine until it is ready to go to bottle. Most wineries have a variety of different sized tanks. Vineyard lots are generally fermented individually in smaller tanks and larger tanks used for blending small batch components to produce one finished blend of wine. Temperature of tanks can be controlled by refrigeration plates either inside the tank, or incorporated into the wall of the tank. This generally has a glycol system attached, allowing the temperature of the wine to be controlled by an automated system. Oak barrels are still frequently used in winemaking. They are favorable to winemakers because of the characteristics they give to the wine and the ability to use them for storage for months at a time with minimal care.
  • “Today’s bottles are shaped logically and scientifically. Bordeaux bottles are shaped with a short neck and high shoulder to trap sediment during pouring and to allow long and stable stacking and storing. Burgundy bottles have a longer neck with a slanted shoulder. Champagne bottles are thicker and shaped to handle more pressure and to fit in special racks during the lengthy production processes.” “Green tall slender bottles were German Rieslings. Chianti retained the onion shaped bottle wrapped in straw.” (A short history of wine bottles, 2009).
  • Wine can now be transported anywhere around the world by airplane or ship, without any noticeable decrease in quality. With major advances in quality materials used to store and transport wine, world trade possibilities have arisen. Generally the wines are put in 6 or 12 bottle cardboard cartons and stacked on pallets which go into containers or the cases themselves are stacked into the container, known as ‘loose stacked’. Refrigeration units are used to control the temperature inside the container, especially if the container is going across the equator where the temperature can be about 52°C which would be detrimental to the quality of the wine. There are even companies called Freight Forwarders who will arrange all details of the journey, container packing and even insurance to insure your wine gets to its destination in top quality. A far advancement from transporting wine in amphorae’s tied onto a boat as was the norm back in 600BC.
  • Flexi tanks are used for bulk shipments of wine. Here up to 24,000 liters of wine is pumped into a 20 foot container. It is pumped into a type of large plastic bag, which is impermeable to gasses. Small versions of the flexi tank design are available, down to 1,000 liters. These are called pallecons and are small enough to fit on a standard pallet. The advancement in quality of these is so strong that wine can be transported half way around the world in flexitank with no change of analysis or taste. ISO tanks are also used, generally for domestic train and truck transportation because they are a lot heavier than flexi tanks and pallecons.
  • (Anthente, 2009) (Hoover container solutions, 2012)
  • These advantages of bulk transportation techniques have lead to the possibility of cheaper offshore bottling. Bulk wine can be shipped to off-shore bottling plants, where dry goods and bottling rates are cheaper. This way, dry goods don’t have to be shipped to New Zealand to be used in bottling, then shipped to markets close to the origin of the dry goods. This cuts back on CO2 admissions and provides a better carbon footprint for the winery, let alone the reduction in cost.
  • There is currently a consumer driven push for wine to be produced in smaller sizes from the 750ml standard. Within a day of opening, a 750ml bottle of wine will have a noticeable decrease in quality (Jackson, 1994) and so small format bottles bring the convenience of one or two glasses of wine, without the extra volume that would push most people over the drink driving limit if consumed. The use of glass for storage and transportation also has some disadvantages. Glass tends to be quite heavy and fragile. Glass manufacture also requires a lot of energy with sand having to be heated to about 1500 °C in a kiln to produce glass. Recycling glass also has its downfalls. Glass has to be sorted into many different categories because of the multitude of different glass colours now available. For this reason most glass doesn’t actually get recycled and tends to end up in the landfill.
  • PET (polyethylene tetrephthalate) plastic bottles in single serve portions are becoming more and more popular for outdoor events. Historically, wine has been offered at these events but has had to be poured into plastic cups because of safety regulations with glass. This has lead to longer queuing times and a lot of wastage with spilt glasses (Schmitt, 2013). Trains and airports have taken on board the concept to enable customers to enjoy wine where previously wine hasn’t been on offer. Tetra packs have also been produced for wine storage. They are made from cardboard which takes considerably less energy to made and are much lighter than glass. The future of storage I believe will push toward smaller pack size than the current 750ml and a development of another medium which is chemically inert, light, durable and impermeable to gas will replace the current glass standard. (Lo, 2013)
  • In the future of wine transport, I think there will be a push for lighter packaging materials and to eradicate the use of unnecessary packaging. Dividers use wi;; be eradicated with a change in package design maybe leading to a more rectangular shape to lessen dead space in transportation. Pallets will no longer be necessary and containers will be hand stacked as the industry standard. I also believe there will be an increase in offshore bottling, especially for countries like New Zealand who are quite isolated but sell a considerable amount of their wine to markets in other continents, where contract bottling facilities are available.
  • Technology transfer kate franklin

    1. 1. Technology Transfer Changes in the materials and containers used to store and transport wine. Kate Franklin WSC 5.05 2013
    2. 2. Evolution of wine storage  Animal skins  Earthenware – Amphorae  Barrels  Concrete and Steel  Glass
    3. 3. First wine and storage  6000+ BC  Wine produced as an accident  Used for medicinal purposes  Animal skins were thought to be used because they were watertight, but couldn’t be used as containers for transport
    4. 4. Earthenware – Amphorae  600BC  Egyptians, Greeks and Romans  Trade and selling spread the design to other cultures  Shape of amphorae – Provided easy transportation – Pushed into soft ground during fermentation
    5. 5. Earthenware – Amphorae
    6. 6. Development of the amphorae  Glass grazing  Stamps of origin and winemaker  For transport, amphorae became too heavy and were easily broke.  Leading to development of barrel
    7. 7. Wood – Barrel  100BC Gaul’s began using barrels for beer  Romans noticed this and adapted the vessel for wine in Bordeaux  Design much like barrels today  Barrels were too big, wine stored in barrels began to turn to vinegar
    8. 8. Early Barrel Design
    9. 9. Glass bottles  Used previously for decanting, not for storage and transportation until 17th century  Sparkling wine made glass storage necessary  Previous wood-burning furnaces were not adequate to produce thick enough glass
    10. 10. Glass bottles - Stoppers  Corks used 1800-1900AD  Progression to aging wine from work by Pasteur  Ground glass used to remove problem of cork taint, hard to remove from bottle
    11. 11. Glass bottles - standard size  Prior to 17th century, bottles weren't standardized and were just a ‘breath’ of the glass blower  During 17th century, cylindrical shaped bottles were found to be easier to store and kept the cork wet
    12. 12. Glass bottles – standard size  1800’s industry standardized bottles – dependent on region  Up until 1945, Burgundy and Champagne came in 800 ml bottles.  1979 USA set requirement for 750ml bottles, EU regulated to 750ml so winemakers could ship to US
    13. 13. Glass bottle development
    14. 14. Present day storage  Stainless steel and concrete tanks  Different sized tanks for different winery practices  Tank refrigeration  Barrels still used
    15. 15. Present day storage  Bottles shapes used today are still localized – Bordeaux bottles: Short neck and high shoulder – Burgundy bottles: Long neck with slanted shoulder – Champagne bottles: Thicker and fit into riddling racks – German Riesling bottles: Green tall slender bottles – Italian wine: Some have retained bulb shaped bottles wrapped in straw
    16. 16. Shipping wine in containers  Bottled wine – On pallets or loose stacked – Refrigeration units – 20 foot or 40 foot containers – All organized with a Freight Forwarding agency and insurance included
    17. 17. Long distance and Bulk transportation  High quality transport methods now available  Flexi tanks – up to 24,000L in a 20 foot container  Pallecons – 1,000L – Membranes are impermeable to gasses  ISO tanks – Very heavy, used for domestic transportation
    18. 18. Flexitanks and ISO tanks
    19. 19. Bulk Transport – cheaper production  Ability for cheaper offshore bottling  Cheaper dry goods and bottling rates  Decrease in shipping of dry goods to New Zealand for production, then shipped to customer close to origin of dry goods
    20. 20. Future of wine storage  Consumers pushing for smaller format bottles – 375ml and 187ml becoming popular  Glass has many disadvantages – Weight – Energy required to produce – Lack of recycling
    21. 21. Future of wine storage  Production of PET single serve plastic bottles – Outdoor events and Festivals – Trains and airlines  Tetra pack – Lightweight – Made from cardboard  Both have only a 12 month shelf life
    22. 22. Future of wine transport  Lighter packaging materials  Limiting use of excess materials – Eradicating use of dividers – Change in ‘bottle’ design to reduce ‘dead space’ – Loose stacked containers  Increase in offshore bottling
    23. 23. References A short history of wine bottles. (2009, April 27). Retrieved from Anthente. (2009). Flexitank overview. Retrieved from Bershad, K. (n.d.). A history of fine wine storage [Blog post]. Retrieved from Eastern Institute of Technology, (2009). History of wine and the vine. Paper presented at lecture for WSC5.05, Introduction to Wine Business, EIT. Foulkes, C. (1994). Larousse encyclopedia of wine. Paris, France: Larousse Kingfisher Chambers Inc. The History of Wine Part III - Wine Storage – Barrels. (2009). Retrieved from =1 Hoover container solutions. (2012) ISO tank containers. Retrieved from
    24. 24. References Jackson, R. S. (1994). Wine science: principles, practice, perception (2nd ed.). London, England: Academic Press. Lascabanes to Moissac. (2008, August 31). Retrieved from moissac/ Lo, C. (2013). The wine to bring to your next picnic. Retrieved from institute/new-wine-trend-single-servings Richards Packaging. (n.d.) Wine bottles. Retrieved from Schmitt, P. (2013, 16 July). Fetzer swamps stadia with single serve. Retrieved from swamp-stadiums-with-single-serve/ Unwin, T. (1996). Wine and the vine. New York, NY: Routledge. Weibe, R. (2013, March 25). Timeline of the ancient history of wine. Retrieved from history-of-wine-a327213