Successfully reported this slideshow.

5.1 start of the_cold_war


Published on

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

5.1 start of the_cold_war

  1. 1. End of the War & A New War
  2. 2. From Moscow to Berlin • At the start of 1945 Soviet (Russian) troops were beginning to push back through Poland and Czechoslovakia towards Germany. • They were just 60 miles outside of Berlin by mid February.
  3. 3. • • • • • • • • Bombing Japan The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were carried out by the US at the end of World War II in 1945. The two events are the only use of nuclear weapons during war. Following a firebombing campaign that destroyed many Japanese cities, the Allies prepared for an invasion of Japan. The war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, but the Pacific War continued. Together with the United Kingdom, the Republic of China and the United States called on Japan to surrender threatening "prompt and utter destruction". The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum. By August 1945, the Allied Manhattan Project using Canadian uranium had developed and tested atomic bombs, and the US Boeing B-29 Superfortress that could deliver them The Atomic bombs were dropped with the approval of President Harry S. Truman. The Little Boy atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, followed by a Fat Man bomb on the city of Nagasaki on August 9.
  4. 4. Yalta Conference • The Yalta conference was held between the Big Three (the US, Great Britain and the USSR) in February 1945 • At the Yalta Conference they discussed how to end WWII. • Yalta represents the first discussion of a new peace-keeping body, the United Nations. • Other terms of the wars end such as the terms regarding Poland were discussed. • At Yalta they decided that Poland would be given territory, free elections and be vacated by the Soviets. – But the Soviets did not plan on moving.
  5. 5. Colonization 1945
  6. 6. Death of the Fuhrer • On April 29th Hitler married his fiancé Eva Braun in his personal bunker. • The next day they both committed suicide. • There has been much speculation around the death. Eva Braun, Hitler’s sweetheart
  7. 7. Berlin is Captured • In the Spring of 1945 Berlin is captured by the Allies. • Hitler had called on anyone willing to defend the city to go to the death. • On May 7th Germany had surrendered all its territories. The day after (May 8th) became known as VE-Day (Victory of Europe). • As we remember, Japan surrendered in the September following in VJ-Day. • The allies split up Germany into four spheres of influence. • The United Nations is established
  8. 8. Berlin Divided - 1945
  9. 9. Europe In Ruins: Introduction of the Marshall Plan • After WWII European economies were in shambles as they had borrowed so much money from the US and had taken so much damage over the last 6 years. • The Soviets were sceptical of the western countries and refused to move out of their captured territories including parts of Poland, Finland and Germany. • In 1947, the US comes out with the Marshall plan to help put money back into the European economy. – Soviet refused to participate in the agreement.
  10. 10. The Split That Starts The Cold War • The US had not formally recognized the USSR until 1933 and both sides questioned the others intentions during WWII. • Stalin distrusted the western powers believing they had purposefully delayed opening up the second front in Europe. • The US and the Russians were by far the largest ‘super’ powers in the post WWII world. It just so happened they also had opposing economic and political views – Capitalism vs. Communism & Democracy vs. Totalitarianism. • This division of political and economic ideals would be the conflict that drove the series of confrontations and posturing known historically as
  11. 11. NATO & The Warsaw Pact • Tensions grew and soon when the western powers tried to give Germany back to the people the Soviets refused. • The US created NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) in 1949 in order to unite and protect the western powers. • In 1955 the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact which joined it and eastern European countries together. – Hungary tried to resist and attempted to hold a revolution but they were invaded by the Soviet Union and the west refused to come to their aid, Hungary was forcibly included in the Warsaw Pact . • The World was officially split into 2 camps. The Cold War had begun.
  12. 12. The Purpose of the UN 1. To keep peace among nations 2. To increase co-operation between nations 3. To defend Human rights 4. To improve the living conditions of people everywhere in the world 5. The U.N. sponsors a wide variety of agencies that carry out legal, economic and humanitarian work around the world The UN expanded its scope to developing countries after 1951.
  13. 13. The Charter of the UN: The preamble that follows outlines the general purpose and intent of the UN Charter • • • • • • • • • • • We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, And for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims
  14. 14. International Declaration of Human Rights in the UN Charter A summary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1. Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way. 2. Everyone is equal despite differences in skin colour, sex, religion, language for example. 3. Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety. 4. No one has the right to treat you as a slave nor should you make anyone your slave. 5. No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you. 6. Everyone has the right to be treated equally by the law. 7. The law is the same for everyone, it should be applied in the same way to all. 8. Everyone has the right to ask for legal help when their rights are not respected. 9. No one has the right to imprison you unjustly or expel you from your own country. 10. Everyone has the right to a fair and public trial. 11. Everyone should be considered innocent until guilt is proved. 12. Every one has the right to ask for help if someone tries to harm you, but no-one can enter your home, open your letters or bother you or your family without a good reason. 13. Everyone has the right to travel as they wish. 14. Everyone has the right to go to another country and ask for protection if they are being persecuted or are in danger of being persecuted. 15. Everyone has the right to belong to a country. No one has the right to prevent you from belonging to another country if you wish to.
  15. 15. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Continued • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 16. Everyone has the right to marry and have a family. 17. Everyone has the right to own property and possessions. 18. Everyone has the right to practice and observe all aspects of their own religion and change their religion if they want to. 19. Everyone has the right to say what they think and to give and receive information. 20. Everyone has the right to take part in meetings and to join associations in a peaceful way. 21. Everyone has the right to help choose and take part in the government of their country. 22. Everyone has the right to social security and to opportunities to develop their skills. 23. Everyone has the right to work for a fair wage in a safe environment and to join a trade union. 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. 25. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living and medical help if they are ill. 26. Everyone has the right to go to school. 27. Everyone has the right to share in their community's cultural life. 28. Everyone must respect the 'social order' that is necessary for all these rights to be available. 29. Everyone must respect the rights of others, the community and public property. 30. No one has the right to take away any of the rights in this declaration.
  16. 16. The Security Council • The UN is dominated by the Security Council. • Any military action must be approved by the Security Council. • The Security Council consists of permanent and nonpermanent rotating members • The permanent members of the Security Council consist of the USA, Russia (Soviet Union during the Cold War), China, Britain and France. • Each of the permanent members has the right to veto any proposed military action. This obviously was a problem during the cold war when the ideologies of the US and the Soviets were mutually exclusive.
  17. 17. World Health Organization
  18. 18. Organizations sponsored by the UN • The World Health Organization (W.H.O) battles global health problems • United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Originally, responsible for assisting child welfare in countries devastated by the Second World War • Expanded its scope to developing countries after 1951 • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) works to improve education standards and promote cultural activities
  19. 19. U.N. General Assembly 1945
  20. 20. Duck & Cover ! Learn how ducking under a desk can save you from a nuclear det