Postwar World

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Postwar World

  1. 1. THE POSTWAR WORLD
  2. 2. A New Organization <ul><li>1944 – Preliminary plans drawn up for a new international organization, the UNITED NATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – Plans finalized at Yalta </li></ul><ul><li>Charter signed in San Francisco in May 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Headquarters to be in US </li></ul>
  3. 3. The United Nations <ul><li>2 main components </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly – all nations represented </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council – 15 members – Allowed to authorize military force </li></ul><ul><li>5 victors of World War II have permanent seats on Security Council and veto power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. War Crimes Trials <ul><li>Surviving leaders in Germany & Japan brought to trial before international courts </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all convicted and executed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Iron Curtain <ul><li>1945-48 – Soviet Union places communist governments in Eastern European nations </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – Winston Churchill - “An Iron Curtain has descended on the Continent” </li></ul>
  6. 6. New British Government <ul><li>1945 - Churchill voted out of office – replaced by Clement Atlee </li></ul><ul><li>Atlee builds “welfare state” – education and medical services guaranteed ‘from cradle to grave’ </li></ul><ul><li>British finances stretched thin </li></ul><ul><li>Begins steps toward giving up old colonies </li></ul>
  7. 7. India <ul><li>1947 – India granted independence – split into 2 nations – India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious violence after independence – stopped by hunger strike by Mahatma Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi assassinated in January 1948 by Hindu extremist </li></ul>
  8. 8. Postwar Devastation <ul><li>Europe & Japan in ruins after the war </li></ul><ul><li>1947 – US Secretary of State George Marshall proposes a plan to rebuild Europe with American money – called the Marshall Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union refuses to participate and does not allow Eastern European nations to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Japan – Ruled by new democracy & US General, Douglas MacArthur – Rebuilds with US funds </li></ul>
  9. 9. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>1945-47 – Communist rebels rise against governments of Greece & Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>British aid Greece & Turkey for 2 years, then inform US they cannot continue to aid </li></ul><ul><li>US President Harry Truman gets aid from Congress to aid any nation threatened by communist takeover </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cold War <ul><li>1945-47 -relations between the US and USSR worsen </li></ul><ul><li>New relationship becomes known as a “Cold War” – no shooting involved </li></ul>
  11. 11. Berlin <ul><li>1945 – Germany & Berlin divided into 4 occupation zones </li></ul><ul><li>1948 – USSR cuts off land shipments to Berlin – wants to force US, British & French out </li></ul><ul><li>US organizes plan to supply Berlin by air – in place for 1 year until USSR reopens roads </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Germany divided into East and West Germany </li></ul>
  12. 12. Middle East <ul><li>1918-45 – Middle east controlled by British & French under League of Nations mandate system – gradually made independent, except for Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>1945-47 – United Nations takes control </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish people of Europe want homeland, especially after the Holocaust – opposed by Arab nations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Israel <ul><li>1948 – UN Announces plan to partition Palestine between Jewish and Arab residents </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish residents declare independence before partition plan is implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Israel immediately recognized/supported by USA </li></ul><ul><li>Israel stops invasion by Arab nations, guarantees independence </li></ul>
  14. 14. Atomic Warfare spreads <ul><li>1945 – USA builds first Atomic Bomb – scientists privately think USSR is about 5 years behind </li></ul><ul><li>USA Atomic Bomb effort infiltrated by Soviet spies </li></ul><ul><li>1949-Soviet Spies arrested in NYC – married couple -later executed </li></ul><ul><li>1949-USSR detonated first atomic bomb </li></ul>
  15. 15. China <ul><li>1946 – Civil war between Nationalists and Communists re-starts </li></ul><ul><li>US gives large amounts of aid to Nationalists – most lost in corruption </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Communists take control of mainland China – Nationalists retreat to island of Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists continue to represent China in UN for 22 years </li></ul>
  16. 16. Korea <ul><li>1945 – Former Japanese territory of Korea partitioned between Communists (North), and non-Communists (South) </li></ul><ul><li>USSR and China give large amounts of military aid to North Korea & dictator, Kim Il-Sung </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea – Ruled by dictator (Sygman Rhee) – threatens to invade North and unify Korea by force – given small amounts of aid by US </li></ul>
  17. 17. War <ul><li>June 1950 – North Korea invades the south </li></ul><ul><li>USA organizes response by UN – Military force to turn back invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Led by US General MacArthur </li></ul><ul><li>October – South Korea liberated – Macarthur invades North </li></ul>
  18. 18. Over-reaching and dismissal <ul><li>November/December – Chinese enter war to aid North – surprises US forces </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur increasingly insubordinate </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur fired in April by President Truman </li></ul>
  19. 19. End in Korea <ul><li>1952-New US President elected -Dwight Eisenhower – promises to end war in Korea </li></ul><ul><li>March 1953 – Josef Stalin dies </li></ul><ul><li>Peace talks begin in Korea after Stalin’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Armistice reached in July 1953 – near original borders </li></ul>
  20. 20. New Russian Leadership <ul><li>1953-57 – struggle for leadership in USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Finally won by Nikita Khrushchev – repudiated Stalin’s actions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Anti-Colonialism <ul><li>After India gains independence, many other area agitate for independence </li></ul><ul><li>1948-51 – Kenya – Mau Mau Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>1945-54 – Viet Minh rises against French in Indochina – Wins crushing military victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Egypt & Suez <ul><li>1952-4 – Egyptian revolution – ruled by military dictator, Gamel Nasser </li></ul><ul><li>1956 – Egypt attempts to take control of Suez Canal – gains approval of UN Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>France, Britain and Israel try to capture canal – forced out by threats by USSR and US </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – Egypt merges with Syria, forming United Arab Republic – Syria withdraws in 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Nasser remains a leader for the Arab world </li></ul>
  23. 23. End of African Colonialism <ul><li>1957-1966 – Britain and France grant independence to African colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Governments based on home countries – few are stable </li></ul><ul><li>1960-61 – revolution in former Belgian colony of Congo – supported by USSR </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Last Holdouts of White Rule <ul><li>1931 –South Africa breaks away from Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Institutes system of Apartheid – designed to maintain rule by white minority </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – White residents of colony of Rhodesia declares independence before Britain can grant independence & rule to black majority </li></ul>
  25. 25. A Breakaway Satellite <ul><li>1956 – new government in Hungary – asks Soviet Union to Leave </li></ul><ul><li>Government crushed by force in November 1956 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cooling tensions <ul><li>Khrushchev reaches out to US to defuse international tensions </li></ul><ul><li>1958 – Makes tour of US </li></ul><ul><li>1959 – Welcomes US Exhibition in Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>1960 – Plans for Summit meeting and visit by Eisenhower to USSR </li></ul>
  27. 27. New Tensions <ul><li>1959 – US-backed government in Cuba overthrown – new leader is Fidel Castro, military leader Che Guevara </li></ul><ul><li>Castro reaches out for international aid – only gets aid from Soviet Union – sets up Communist dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>US infuriated with Soviet-backed government in western hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>May 1960 – US spy plane shot down over USSR, pilot captured </li></ul><ul><li>US initially lies about incident, destroys summit meeting </li></ul>
  28. 28. New US Leader <ul><li>1960 – New US President elected – John Kennedy – Youngest president ever elected </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – US-supported Cubans attempt invasion of Cuba – defeated at Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) </li></ul><ul><li>USSR walls in US/British/French sections of Berlin in August 1961 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Missile Crisis <ul><li>1962 – USSR ships medium-range nuclear missiles to Cuba – US discovers them under construction by spy plane photos </li></ul><ul><li>October 1962 – US blockades Cuba to force missiles out – war narrowly avoided </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – “Hot Line” Installed between Washington & Moscow to defuse future crises </li></ul>
  30. 30. Change in both US & USSR <ul><li>Khrushchev's domestic popularity drops after missile crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev removed from power in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>US President Kennedy assassinated in November 1963 </li></ul>
  31. 31. China <ul><li>1958 – Economic plan implemented to transform nation into an industrial power -Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Disastrous outcome -leads to famine – 20-40 million die </li></ul><ul><li>USSR & China begin to oppose each other </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong begins to lose power </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>1966 – Mao calls for students to rise up and eliminate more liberal elements of Chinese Communist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to 3 years of chaos, and Mao gradually losing more power </li></ul><ul><li>Mao only a figurehead until his death in 1976 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul>

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