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Chapter_01.ppt

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Chapter_01.ppt

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 1 — Orientation and Fire Service History Firefighter I
  2. 2. Firefighter I 1–1 Firefighter I Course Goal • After completing this course, the student shall be able to certify as a Firefighter I per NFPA® 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications.
  3. 3. Firefighter I 1–2 Chapter 1 Lesson Goal • After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize fire department policies, procedures, and organizational principles as they apply to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
  4. 4. Firefighter I 1–3 Specific Objectives 1. Describe the history and culture of the fire service. 2. Describe the mission of the fire service. 3. Define fire department organizational principles. (Continued)
  5. 5. Firefighter I 1–4 Specific Objectives 4. Distinguish among functions of fire companies. 5. Summarize primary knowledge and skills the firefighter must have to function effectively. 6. Distinguish among the primary roles of fire service personnel. (Continued)
  6. 6. Firefighter I 1–5 Specific Objectives 7. Distinguish among policies, procedures, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) . 8. Summarize components of the Incident Command System (ICS). 9. Distinguish among the functions of the major subdivisions within the ICS structure . (Continued)
  7. 7. Firefighter I 1–6 Specific Objectives 10. Define ICS terms. 11. Discuss fire service interaction with other organizations.
  8. 8. Firefighter I 1–7 History of the Fire Service • Old World and North America citizens kept: – containers of water – ladder to reach the roof • Bucket brigades used to put out fires • Pilgrims brought firefighting methods to North America (Continued)
  9. 9. Firefighter I 1–8 History of the Fire Service • Industrial Revolution affected textile and steel industries – Textile mills had catastrophic fires – Iron and steel industries produced firefighting tools and equipment, especially pumping apparatus (Continued)
  10. 10. Firefighter I 1–9 History of the Fire Service • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments – Groups protected cities and towns – Benjamin Franklin –Organized one of the first groups –Founded first fire insurance company (Continued)
  11. 11. Firefighter I 1–10 History of the Fire Service • Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments – Groups were made up of military organizations and adopted rank structure – Then, as today, majority of firefighters in North America were volunteers – Evolved into today’s fire departments
  12. 12. Firefighter I 1–11 Fire Service Culture • Categories of fire service members – Volunteer – Paid-on-call – Career – Combination (Continued)
  13. 13. Firefighter I 1–12 Fire Service Culture • Volunteer fire departments – Communities of varying sizes – Outnumber career departments and career firefighters • Paid-on-call – Respond from homes or workplaces – Receive reimbursement for each call (Continued)
  14. 14. Firefighter I 1–13 Fire Service Culture • Fire departments with career personnel — larger towns and cities • Combination departments — Combine full-time career firefighters with: – Volunteers or – Paid-on-call members (Continued)
  15. 15. Firefighter I 1–14 Fire Service Culture • Necessary characteristics and behaviors – Integrity – Moral character – Work ethic – Pride – Courage
  16. 16. Firefighter I 1–15 Fire Service Mission • To save lives and protect property – Programs to prevent fires – Fire prevention and code enforcement – Public education
  17. 17. Firefighter I 1–16 Tactical Priorities • Life safety – Always the first and highest priority – Protecting firefighters and individuals – Protecting pets and livestock (Continued)
  18. 18. Firefighter I 1–17 Tactical Priorities • Incident stabilization — Prevent and incident from getting worse • Property conservation — Save property without putting firefighters in mortal danger
  19. 19. Firefighter I 1–18 Fire Department Organizational Principles • Unity of command — Report to only one supervisor • Span of control — Number of individuals or groups that can be supervised • Division of labor — Dividing large jobs into small jobs (Continued)
  20. 20. Firefighter I 1–19 Fire Department Organizational Principles • Discipline — Providing direction and following directions – Setting limits or boundaries for expected performance – Enforcing limits or boundaries (Continued)
  21. 21. Firefighter I 1–20 Fire Department Organizational Principles • Purposes of discipline in a fire department – Educate and train – Correct inappropriate behavior – Positive motivation – Ensure compliance – Provide direction
  22. 22. Firefighter I 1–21 Functions of Fire Companies • Engine company — Deploys hoselines for fire attack and exposure protection (Continued)
  23. 23. Firefighter I 1–22 Functions of Fire Companies • Truck company — Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, provides access to upper levels (Continued) Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal. NOFD Photo Unit.
  24. 24. Firefighter I 1–23 Functions of Fire Companies • Rescue/squad company — Removal of victims from areas of danger or entrapment (Continued) Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal. NOFD Photo Unit.
  25. 25. Firefighter I 1–24 Functions of Fire Companies • Brush company — Extinguishes wildland fires and protects structures in wildland/urban interface (Continued)
  26. 26. Firefighter I 1–25 Functions of Fire Companies • Hazardous materials company — Responds to and mitigates hazardous materials incidents (Continued)
  27. 27. Firefighter I 1–26 Functions of Fire Companies • Emergency medical/ambulance company — Provides emergency medical care to patients • Special rescue company — Responds to and performs technical rescue Courtesy of Darrel Levine.
  28. 28. Firefighter I 1–27 Primary Knowledge and Skills • Meeting NFPA® Standard 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications • Knowing department organization, operation, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) (Continued)
  29. 29. Firefighter I 1–28 Primary Knowledge and Skills • Knowing district or city street system and physical layout • Meeting minimum health and physical fitness standards • Meeting educational requirements of the AHJ
  30. 30. Firefighter I 1–29 Fire Department Personnel • Fire apparatus driver/operator • Fire department officer – Fire chief – Fire department officers – Other roles (Continued)
  31. 31. Firefighter I 1–30 Fire Department Personnel • Fire department health and safety officer • Fire department incident safety officer Courtesy of Rick Montemorra.
  32. 32. Firefighter I 1–31 Other Personnel • Communications personnel (telecommunicators) • Fire alarm maintenance personnel • Apparatus and equipment maintenance personnel (Continued)
  33. 33. Firefighter I 1–32 Other Personnel • Fire police personnel • Information systems personnel
  34. 34. Firefighter I 1–33 Special Operations Personnel • Airport firefighter • Hazardous materials technician • Technical rescuer • Wildland firefighter Courtesy of Steven Baker.
  35. 35. Firefighter I 1–34 Fire Prevention Personnel • Fire prevention officer/inspector • Fire and arson investigator • Public fire and life safety educator • Fire protection engineer/specialist
  36. 36. Firefighter I 1–35 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Personnel • First responder • Emergency medical technician • Paramedic
  37. 37. Firefighter I 1–36 Training Personnel • Training officer/chief of training/drillmaster • Instructor
  38. 38. Firefighter I 1–37 Fire Department Regulations • Policy — A guide to decision making within an organization • Procedure — Describes in writing the steps to be followed – Order – Directive (Continued)
  39. 39. Firefighter I 1–38 Fire Department Regulations • Order — Based upon a policy or procedure; compliance is mandatory • Directive — Not based upon a policy or procedure; a request or suggestion (Continued)
  40. 40. Firefighter I 1–39 Fire Department Regulations: Standard Operating Procedures • Provide a standard set of actions; basis for every incident action plan • Means to start the emergency operation • Should follow fireground priorities – Life safety – Incident stabilization – Property conservation (Continued)
  41. 41. Firefighter I 1–40 Fire Department Regulations: Standard Operating Procedures • Reduces confusion and chaos on the scene • Prevent duplication of effort • Safety is highest priority when writing SOPs (Continued)
  42. 42. Firefighter I 1–41 Fire Department Regulations: Standard Operating Procedures • Should be applied to all situations • May be used for administrative and personnel functions
  43. 43. Firefighter I 1–42 Incident Command System Components • Common terminology • Modular organization • Integrated communications • Unified command structure • Consolidated action plans (Continued)
  44. 44. Firefighter I 1–43 Incident Command System Components • Manageable span of control • Predesignated incident facilities • Comprehensive resource management
  45. 45. Firefighter I 1–44 ICS Subdivisions: Command • Incident commander — Ultimately responsible for all incident activities • Command staff – Safety officer – Liaison officer – Public information officer
  46. 46. Firefighter I 1–45 ICS Subdivisions: General Staff • Operations Section Chief — Reports directly to IC; directs tactical operations • Planning Section Chief — Responsible for the collection, documentation, evaluation, and dissemination of information (Continued)
  47. 47. Firefighter I 1–46 ICS Subdivisions: General Staff • Logistics Section Chief — Responsible for all support requirements – Support branch — Medical, communications, food – Service branch — Supplies, facilities, ground support vehicle services (Continued)
  48. 48. Firefighter I 1–47 ICS Subdivisions: General Staff • Finance/Administration Section Chief — When agencies require finance and administrative support • Information/Intelligence Function — Responsible for analyzing and sharing incident information
  49. 49. Firefighter I 1–48 ICS Terms • Assigned — Resources currently committed • Available — Resources checked-in and not assigned • Branch — Organizational level between Divisions/Groups and the IC and operations (Continued)
  50. 50. Firefighter I 1–49 ICS Terms • Command — Function of directing, ordering, and controlling resources • Command Post — Location from which all incident operation are directed • Division — A geographic designation assigning responsibility for all operations within a defined area (Continued)
  51. 51. Firefighter I 1–50 ICS Terms • Group — A functional designation • Incident Action Plan (IAP) — Written or unwritten plan for managing the emergency • Incident Commander (IC) — Officer in overall charge of the incident (Continued)
  52. 52. Firefighter I 1–51 ICS Terms • Out-of-service — Resources not available • Resources — All personnel and major pieces of apparatus on scene or en route (Continued)
  53. 53. Firefighter I 1–52 ICS Terms • Resource Status — Resources are in one of three status modes: – Available – Assigned – Out-of-service (Continued)
  54. 54. Firefighter I 1–53 ICS Terms • Single Resource — Individual personnel and equipment teams • Strike Team — Set number of resources of the same kind and type • Strategic Mode — Determines positions for companies: offensive and defensive (Continued)
  55. 55. Firefighter I 1–54 ICS Terms • Supervisor — Someone in command of a division or a group • Task Force — Any combination of resources assembled in support of a specific mission
  56. 56. Firefighter I 1–55 Interaction With Emergency Medical Services • If fire department personnel do not provide EMS or medical transportation, they should develop a relationship with those who do • Firefighters must have appropriate level of first- aid training
  57. 57. Firefighter I 1–56 Interaction With Hospitals • May operate ambulances and provide EMS; usually do not • Hospital personnel may be called to an emergency scene – Mass casualty incidents – Advanced life support – Serious entrapment
  58. 58. Firefighter I 1–57 Interaction With Law Enforcement • Law enforcement and fire personnel must understand each other’s roles and priorities • Law enforcement may be present at fire scene • Firefighters may assist law enforcement
  59. 59. Firefighter I 1–58 Interaction With Utility Companies • Many incidents involve utility providers (electricity, natural gas, and water) so fire personnel must have a good working relationship (Continued)
  60. 60. Firefighter I 1–59 Interaction With Utility Companies • Fire units must coordinate with utilities on mutual responses • May have specially trained and equipped emergency response teams
  61. 61. Firefighter I 1–60 Interaction With Media • NIMS-ICS includes a Public Information Officer for dealing with the media • Students should not make comments or express opinions; refer to PIO • Can play an important role in delivery of news based on an incident
  62. 62. Firefighter I 1–61 Interaction With Other Agencies • Any possible contacts should be identified and a relationship established Examples: Public health departments, coroner/medical examiner’s officers, EPA
  63. 63. Firefighter I 1–62 Summary • The fire service has a long and proud history of protecting communities. Today’s fire service often performs functions such as emergency medical services, technical rescues, and hazardous materials mitigation. (Continued)
  64. 64. Firefighter I 1–63 Summary • Firefighters must have certain aptitudes and capabilities. The job of firefighter required dedication and hard work but it is also rewarding.
  65. 65. Firefighter I 1–64 Review Questions 1. What are four categories of fire service members? 2. What are two necessary characteristics and behaviors of firefighters? 3. What is the mission of the fire service? (Continued)
  66. 66. Firefighter I 1–65 Review Questions 4. What is unity of command? 5. Name two fire companies and their functions. 6. Name three fire service personnel and describe their functions. 7. What are Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)? (Continued)
  67. 67. Firefighter I 1–66 Review Questions 8. What are the major subdivisions within the ICS structure? 9. Define the following ICS terms: Command, Group, Strike Team, and Supervisor. 10. Name two organizations that fire service personnel may interact with.

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