An introduction to the periodic table


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An introduction to the periodic table

  1. 1. An Introduction to the Periodic Table<br />By: Jeffrey Monroe<br />
  2. 2. The Modern Periodic Table<br />
  3. 3. The Beginning<br />The Modern Periodic Table began developing in 1896 by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev based on what he discovered and called the periodic law<br />The Periodic Law States: that the physical and chemical properties of the elements tend to recur in a systematic manner with increasing atomic number<br />
  4. 4. Properties of the Table<br />The Table of Elements Consists of the Following:<br />Groups<br />Periods<br />Metals<br />Nonmetals<br />Metalloids<br />Halogens<br />Noble Gases<br />Lanthanides<br />Actinides<br />
  5. 5. Groups and Periods<br />Groups: There are 18 groups that are arranged from left to right horizontally across the periodic table. <br />An observer can see the roman numerals IA – VIIIA at the top of each column<br />Groups 1-2 and 13-18 are called the representative elements because they are the most commonly used and studied elements<br />Groups 3-12 are called the transition metals because of there unusual reactive characteristics<br />Periods: There are 7 periods arranged from top to bottom vertically down the periodic table<br />An observer can see the numbers 1-7 of the left side of the table that represent energy levels that are most closely studied during electron configuration<br />
  6. 6. Metals, Nonmetals, & Semimetals<br />Metals can be seen, with the exception of hydrogen, in groups 1 and 2 of the periodic table and on our table in slide 2 are represented by the royal blue shading.<br />Metals are defined as chemical elements that are good conductors of both electricity and heat<br />More specifically group 1 metals are known as the alkali metals and group 2 are known as the alkaline earth metals<br />Nonmetals are represented by the greenish shading in groups 14-18<br />Nonmetals are defined as chemical elements lacking typical metallic properties<br />Semimetals or Metalloids are represented by the orange shading in groups 13-16<br />Semimetals are defined as chemical elements with properties intermediate between those of typical metals and nonmetals<br />
  7. 7. Halogens & Noble Gases<br />Halogens: this group of chemical elements are observed to be in group 17 and most known because of the highly reactive characteristics<br />Noble Gases: this group of chemical elements are observed to be in group 18 and known for being highly unreactive<br />The difference between these groups of elements reactivity has to do with the number of valence electrons each element posesses.<br />Valence Electrons are defined as are the electrons in the last shell or energy level of an atom and thus responsible for chemical bonding<br />
  8. 8. Reactivity<br />Notice the figure 1 of the left. It possesses eight valence electrons on its outer most shell. This shows a full valence shell according to the octet rule and explains why noble gases like neon are not reactive. Because it has a full valence shell neon does not require any other electrons thus it does not need to reactive with another chemical to get any other electrons.<br />The Octet Rule States: that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their outer electron shell<br />Therefore any chemical element that does satisfy the octet rule will react in any way chemically possible to get its full valence shell<br />Figure 1<br />
  9. 9. Periodic Trends<br />Periodic Trends are the tendencies of certain elemental characteristics to increase or decrease as one progresses along a row or column of the periodic table of elements.<br />Atomic Radius:atomic radius tends to decrease as one progresses across a period from left to right and bottom to top<br />Electron Afffinity:As one progresses from left to right across a period, the electron affinity will increase<br />Electronegativity:as one moves from left to right across a period the electronegativity increases <br />
  10. 10. The End or is it?<br />As we continue to study chemistry and more advancements are made in the field we never know who will be next to improve on this monument of chemical history.<br />Maybe it will be one of you students!<br />
  11. 11. References<br /><br /><br />Dingrando, Laurel. “Chemistry: Matter and Change”. Glencoe/Mcgraw-Hill 30 Jan. 2008  <br />