Activity 1“You may not belief that there are sixerrers in this short paragraph. Studithe paragraph carefully. You canreed it as many times as necessary.Don’t give up too easily. See if youcan find all of them”
Activity 3The leader begins by saying the name of any country, city,river, ocean or mountain that can be found in an atlas.The young person next to him must then say anothername that begins with the last letter of the word justgiven. Each person has a definite time limit (e.g. threeseconds) and no names can be repeated. For example -First person: London, Second Person: Niagara Falls,ThirdPerson: Switzerland
• Latin word “persona” = mask and“per” and “sonare” = to soundthrough• How we are different to one another• Impression he/she makes on others
Determinants• Heredity and genetic factors• Environmental factors
Phases1. Physical2. intellectual3.Emotional• ID• EGO• SUPER EGO4.Values system5.Social
Psychoanalytic perspective• Alfred Adler• Superiority-Inferiority complex• Culture theory of personality
Behavioral perspective• Classical conditioning• Operant conditioning• Social learning theory
Humanistic perspective• Person centered theory• Theory of self-actualization
Types of Anxiety• Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that wewill lose control of the ids urges, resulting inpunishment for inappropriate behavior.• Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. Thecause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. Forexample, a person might fear receiving a dog bitewhen they are near a menacing dog. The mostcommon way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid thethreatening object.• Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our ownmoral principles.
Defense Mechanisms• Denial is probably one of the bestknown defense mechanisms, used oftento describe situations in which peopleseem unable to face reality or admit anobvious truth• Repression is another well-knowndefense mechanism. Repression acts tokeep information outof conscious awareness.
• Displacement involves taking out ourfrustrations, feelings and impulses onpeople or objects that are lessthreatening.• Sublimation is a defense mechanismthat allows us to act out unacceptableimpulses by converting these behaviorsinto a more acceptable form.
• Projection is a defense mechanism thatinvolves taking our own unacceptablequalities or feelings and ascribing themto other people.• Rationalization is a defensemechanism that involves explaining anunacceptable behavior or feeling in arational or logical manner, avoiding thetrue reasons for the behavior.
• Regression, suggesting that people actout behaviors from the stage ofpsychosexual development in which theyare fixated.• Reaction formation reduces anxiety bytaking up the opposite feeling, impulse orbehavior. An example of reaction formationwould be treating someone you stronglydislike in an excessively friendly manner inorder to hide your true feelings.