The 1980’s chapter 22


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Reagan, Bush, and Clinton

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The 1980’s chapter 22

  1. 1. The 1980’s<br />Chapter 22<br />
  2. 2.
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  4. 4. OVERSIZED GOVERNMENT<br />Welfare State<br />Overregulated<br />Overtaxed<br />Loss of U.S. Military Strength<br />Lost Morality<br />STAGFLATION<br />
  5. 5. The New Right<br />
  6. 6. Conservative Political Activism<br />FOR…<br />Reduced Size of Government<br />School prayer<br />Strong military<br />Free-market economies<br />AGAINST…<br />Gun control<br />Equal Rights Amendment<br />Busing to end segregation<br />Gay Rights<br />
  7. 7. Republican Campaign Strategy<br />Focus on:<br />The Iranian hostage crisis<br />Claims that U.S. military had fallen behind the Soviet Union <br />Double-digit inflation, soaring interest rates and high unemployment<br />Reagan quipped, "A recession is when your neighbor loses his job; depression is when you lose your job. Recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his."<br />
  8. 8. Campaign Commercials<br />Carter<br /><br /><br />Reagan<br /><br /><br />
  9. 9. "Are you better off now than <br />you were four years ago?" <br />
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  13. 13. Reaganomics<br />A.K.A. Supply-side economics/Trickle-down economics<br />Reagan believed that economic growth can be best managed by people who produce goods<br />Reduced corporate tax<br />Tax cuts were accompanied by deregulation of airlines, trucking, banking, and television.<br />Personal tax rates for the top tax bracket dropped from 70%to 28% in 7 years <br />This is the opposite of Keynesian “demand-side” economics which relied upon government spending <br />
  14. 14. Trickle-Down?<br />
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  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Reaganomics<br />Like other stimulation efforts, Reagan's policies also resulted in budget deficits and a increased national debt.<br />
  20. 20. Did Reaganomics Work?<br />Inflation FELL from 12.5% to 4.4 %<br />Interest rates<br /> fell 6%<br />Eight million new jobs were created as unemployment fell<br />An 8% growth in private wealth.<br />> # number poor <br />31.8 million in1981<br />39.3 million in 1992 <br />> budget deficit<br />$994 billion in1981<br />$2,867 billion in1989<br />Soaring national debt<br />Trade deficit grew<br />
  21. 21. Trickle-Down?<br />
  22. 22. Economic Problems<br />Deficit Concerns<br />Gramm-Rudman Hollings Act<br />Savings and Loan Scandal (S&L)<br />October 19, 1987<br />Over 1,000 savings and loan institutions failed <br />
  23. 23. “Evil Empire” SpeechMarch 8, 1983<br />
  24. 24. Reagan and the Cold War<br />Felt USSR still posed a threat and military needed to renewed strength<br />Increased the Pentagon’s budget<br />B-1 Bomber<br />M-X Missile<br />10x MIRV<br />Each 20x Hiroshima<br />
  25. 25. Reagan and the Cold War<br />Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) – Star Wars<br />Satellite-based missile defense system<br />Could we afford it?<br />Was it possible?<br />
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  27. 27. S.D.I. in the NewsMarch 25, 1983<br />
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  31. 31.
  32. 32. Geraldine Ferraro<br />
  33. 33. Reagan and the Cold War<br />Afghanistan<br />USSR continued to plod through costly insurgent conflict<br />1979-1989 <br />Poland<br />Solidarity <br />Lech Walesa<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Reagan and Latin America<br />Sandinistas of Nicaragua – pro-Soviet government that Reagan targeted for removal<br />Contras – a large army recruited and trained by the CIA, “freedom fighters”<br />Congress cut funding for contras in 1984 fearing a Central American “Vietnam”<br />The executive branch would continue to fund this initiative through illegal means (Iran-contra Affair)<br />
  36. 36. Iran–Contra Affair <br />Iran was sold 1,000 anti-tank missiles <br />Those profits were used to buy weapons and supplies for the contras in Nicaragua<br />1986 – Public becomes aware…<br />A downed supply plane in Nicaragua was found to be carrying US weapons to the Contras<br />A Lebanese newspaper reported that the U.S. sold missiles to Iran<br />On T.V. President Reagan denied and one week later affirmed that weapons were indeed sold to Iran <br />
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  38. 38. Iran–Contra Affair<br />The Tower Commission – formed by Reagan to investigate the Iran-Contra Affair<br />Criticized the actions of members of the Executive Branch including Oliver North andDefense Secretary Caspar Weinberger<br />Could not determine that the President knew/ordered the program, BUT<br />President ought to have had better control of the National Security Council staff. <br />"If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have.”<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. 1986<br />1984<br />1980's<br />1983<br />1989<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Ronny and Gorby<br />
  43. 43. Soviet Union Changes<br />Perestroika – “restructuring”, began the dismantling of the Soviet-era command economy and its replacement with a market economy<br />Glasnost – “openness”, policy of transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Yuppie<br />
  46. 46. 1988 Presidential Election<br />
  47. 47. Michael Dukakis<br />Lloyd Bentsen<br />
  48. 48. Dan<br />Quayle<br />
  49. 49. Bentsen-Quayle Debate<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Potatoe?<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Tiananmen Square<br />
  56. 56. 56<br />Middle East Quick Quiz<br />How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions<br />1) Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East?<br />a. France and England<br />b. Jordan and Syria<br />c. Saudi Arabia<br />d. The United Nations<br />e. The United States<br />
  57. 57. 57<br />Middle East Quick Quiz<br />How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions<br />2) What language is spoken in Iran?<br />3) When did it become illegal for women in Iran to go without wearing a veil? (with 5 years)<br />
  58. 58. 58<br />Middle East Quick Quiz<br />How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions<br />4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world?<br />a. Egypt<br />b. Indonesia<br />c. Iran<br />d. Saudi Arabia<br />
  59. 59. 59<br />Middle East Quick Quiz<br />How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions<br />5) Which of following is Iraq?<br />D<br />C<br />A<br />B<br />
  60. 60. 60<br />Middle East Quick Quiz<br />How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions<br />Answers!!<br />1. A<br />2. Farsi<br />3. 1983<br />4. B (196 million people)<br />5. C<br />
  61. 61. 1991 Gulf War<br />In 1990, Iraq invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait<br />US/UN forces sought to remove Iraqis from Kuwait and ensure that Iraq did not invade Saudi Arabia<br />"This aggression will not stand" <br />Fighting began on January 17, 1991, when U.S.-led air units launched attacks against Iraq<br />
  62. 62. Gulf War - Coalition Forces<br />
  63. 63. 63<br />Iraq Basics<br />Who? Ethnic Groups<br />A. Arab<br /><ul><li>2/3 of Iraq</li></ul>Kurds<br />B. Kurd<br /><ul><li>1/4 of Iraq
  64. 64. Own language & customs
  65. 65. Brutally suppressed in Iraq</li></li></ul><li>64<br />Iraq Basics<br />Who? Religion<br />A. Shiite<br /><ul><li>3/5 of the population </li></ul>Kurds<br />B. Sunni<br /><ul><li>2/5th of population
  66. 66. 90% of world’s Muslims</li></ul>C. Main differences: Who should lead the Muslim community?<br />
  67. 67. 65<br />Baath Party<br />B. What does it do?<br /><ul><li>Secular (non-religious) government
  68. 68. Uses oil $ for government projects
  69. 69. Hussein begins to eliminate opponents</li></ul>HUSSEIN CARD AS PART OF DECK OF 55 CARDS OF US CHARACTERS WANTED Reuters/CORBIS<br />
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  71. 71. 67<br />Persian Gulf War Pictures<br />Kuwait Oil Well Fires from Space<br />View from the space shuttle Atlantis of black smoke billowing from burning oil wells in Kuwait, which were set ablaze by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the <br />Persian Gulf War.<br />Image: Digital image © 1996 CORBIS; Original image courtesy of NASA/CORBIS<br />
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  75. 75. Clarence Thomas<br />Second African-American Supreme Court Justice<br />Conservative<br />Accusations of sexual harassment <br />Senate Hearings<br />Anita Hill<br />“ far as I'm concerned, it is a high-tech lynching…You will be lynched, destroyed, caricatured by a committee of the US Senate rather than hung from a tree. “<br />
  76. 76. Clarence Thomas<br />
  77. 77. President Clinton<br />1992 Election<br />3rd Party Candidate Impact<br />Reversing Reaganomics<br />Universal Healthcare Argument<br />War in Kosovo<br />Middle East Peace?<br />
  78. 78. 1992 Presidential Election<br />Incumbent President, Republican George Bush<br />Democrat Bill Clinton, Arkansas governor <br />Independent Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. <br />Bush broke his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes<br />The economy had sunk into recession<br />Collapse of the USSR & the defeat of Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War made foreign policy, Bush’s strength, seemless important<br />
  79. 79. “Read my lips…<br />NO NEW TAXES”<br />1988 Campaign pledge<br />Forced to break promise with the 1990 Tax Act<br />Critics argued that govn’t deficit was bloated and out-of-control<br />Bush begrudgingly broke promise<br />Contributed to his 1992 election loss<br />
  80. 80. 1992 Presidential Election<br />
  81. 81. Moderate<br />Liberal<br />Conservative<br />1992 Presidential Election<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
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  85. 85.
  86. 86. Clinton Appointments<br />Ruth Bader Ginsberg – Supreme Court Justice<br />Janet Reno – Attorney General<br />Henry Cisneros – Sec. Housing and Urban Affairs<br />Madeline Albright – UN Ambassador<br />Donna Shalala – Sec. Health and Human Services<br />Dee Dee Myers – Press Secretary<br />
  87. 87. Clinton and the Economy<br />Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act<br />cut taxes low-income families<br />made tax cuts available to 90% of small businesses<br />raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers<br />also mandatedthe government budget be balanced<br />
  88. 88. NAFTA<br />Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte<br /> Clinton strongly supported free trade measures<br />The bill passed the House 234 to 200<br />Eliminated trade tariffs between US, Canada and Mexico<br />Impact: Is it good for the U.S. economy?<br />Increased market for US products/greater competition<br />US manufacturing jobs move north and south<br />Mexican farmers must compete with US agri-business<br />
  89. 89. Clinton and Healthcare<br />Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993<br />FMLA<br />Labor law allowing an employee to take unpaid leave due to a serious health condition <br />employee unable to perform his job <br />to care for a sick family member <br />to care for a new son or daughter (including by birth, adoption or foster care)<br />Employer must continue medical coverage and hold job for up to 12 months<br />
  90. 90. Clinton and Healthcare<br />Plan would have enforced mandate for employers to provide health insurance coverage to all of their employees through competitive but closely-regulated health maintenance organizations (HMOs).<br />
  91. 91. Clinton and Healthcare<br />Supporters<br />Need to change system, increasing costs<br />Need to cover everyone<br />Current system creates high cost<br />Critics<br />Too costly, would require HUGE tax increases<br />Government programs are inefficient<br />Would reduce consumer choice in free-market<br />UN-AMERICAN?<br />
  92. 92. Clinton Healthcare Critics<br />This commercial was funded by the Health Insurance Association of America in opposition to President Clinton's proposed health care plan.<br />
  93. 93. Foreign Policy Concerns<br />In the former Yugoslavia ethnic cleansing/genocide of Albanians by nationalist Serbians<br />Clinton used American troops in a 1999 NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia<br />
  94. 94. Foreign Policy Concerns<br />Kosovo was then brought under U.N. supervision<br />U.N. Court ruled NO genocide BUT, "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments".<br />Slobodan Milošević, President of Yugoslavia, was charged with "murders of about 600 individually identified ethnic Albanians" and "crimes against humanity."<br />
  95. 95. Foreign Policy Concerns<br />Clinton brought Israeli PM Ehud Barak and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafattogether at Camp David<br />Barak and Arafat signed agreement for limited self-government for the Palestinians in the West Bank<br />The situation broke down completely with the start of the Second Intifada.<br />
  96. 96. Foreign Policy Concerns<br />Democratically elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide overthrown in 1991<br />Haitian refugees fled to U.S. to escape new military gov’t<br />U.S. trade embargo unsuccessful<br />U.S. invaded in 1994 <br />
  97. 97. Clinton left office with an approval rating at 65%, the highest end of office rating of any President since World War II.<br />