Watergate scandal


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Watergate scandal

  1. 1. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/00868/money-graphics-2008_868254a.jpgPresentation by Robert MartinezPrimary Content Source: America’s History, Sixth Ed. Henretta, Brody and Dumenil.Images as cited.WatergateWatergateScandalScandal
  2. 2. On June 17, 1972, five men carryingOn June 17, 1972, five men carryingwiretapping equipment were arrestedwiretapping equipment were arrestedbreaking into the Democratic Nationalbreaking into the Democratic NationalCommitteeCommittee’’s headquarters located in thes headquarters located in theWatergate ComplexWatergate Complex in Washington D.C.in Washington D.C.http://www.mustseewashingtondc.com/attractions/watergate-complex.jpg
  3. 3. WatergateWatergateBurglarsBurglarshttp://www.peacebuttons.info/IMAGES/0617.1972_Watergate-burglar.jpg
  4. 4. Questioned by the press, the WhiteQuestioned by the press, the WhiteHouse dismissed the incident asHouse dismissed the incident as ““aathird-rate burglary attempt.third-rate burglary attempt. ”” PressedPressedfurther,further, PresidentPresident NixonNixon himself deniedhimself deniedany White House involvement.any White House involvement.http://chnm.gmu.edu/7tah/workshops/ws1/images/tahwatergate.jpg
  5. 5. In fact, G. Gordon Liddy & E. HowardIn fact, G. Gordon Liddy & E. HowardHunt, were former FBI and CIA agentsHunt, were former FBI and CIA agentscurrently working for Nixoncurrently working for Nixon ’’ssCommittee to Re-elect the President.Committee to Re-elect the President.Their job was to protect the NixonTheir job was to protect the Nixonadministration, anyway necessary,administration, anyway necessary,legal or not.legal or not.Howard HuntG. Gordon Liddyhttp://www.helmr.com/images/liddy.jpg http://media.keprtv.com/images/070124_Howard_Hunt.jpg
  6. 6. Hunt and Libby had arranged for theHunt and Libby had arranged for theillegal wiretaps (listening devices) atillegal wiretaps (listening devices) atthe Democratic headquarters, part ofthe Democratic headquarters, part oftheir campaign oftheir campaign of ‘‘dirty tricksdirty tricks’’ againstagainstthe rival Democratic party.the rival Democratic party.http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/web/woodstein/post/images/oct10_detail.jpg
  7. 7. The Watergate incident was not anThe Watergate incident was not anisolated incident. It was part of aisolated incident. It was part of apattern of illegality and misuse ofpattern of illegality and misuse ofpower by a paranoid and ruthless Whitepower by a paranoid and ruthless WhiteHouse.House.http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/images/s03472u.jpg
  8. 8. Nixon could have dissociated himselfNixon could have dissociated himselffrom the break-in by dismissing hisfrom the break-in by dismissing hisguilty aides, but it was election time.guilty aides, but it was election time.Fearful of bad press, he arrangedFearful of bad press, he arranged hushhushmoneymoney for the burglars and instructedfor the burglars and instructedthethe CIA to stop the FBI investigation.CIA to stop the FBI investigation.http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/images/crook.jpg
  9. 9. http://www.mkbmemorial.com/FWHp/watergate-front-big.jpg
  10. 10. Ordering the CIA to stop the FBI fromOrdering the CIA to stop the FBI frominvestigating the Watergate incidentinvestigating the Watergate incidentwas anwas an obstruction of justiceobstruction of justice , a, acriminal offense.criminal offense.http://msupress.msu.edu/imageDump/watergate%20nixon.jpg
  11. 11. Nixon managed to keep the lid on theNixon managed to keep the lid on theincident until after his re-election, butincident until after his re-election, buteventually the lid blew off due toeventually the lid blew off due tocongressional investigations.congressional investigations.http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall06/Weiner/IMGS/whitehouseconnection.gif
  12. 12. In January 1973, the WatergateIn January 1973, the Watergateburglars were found guilty. One of themburglars were found guilty. One of thembegan to talk about his White Housebegan to talk about his White Houseconnections.connections.http://www.historycommons.org/events-images/a999bernardbarker_arraignment_2050081722-21567.jpg
  13. 13. In the meantime, two reporters at theIn the meantime, two reporters at theWashington PostWashington Post,, Carl BernsteinCarl Bernstein andandBob WoodwardBob Woodward, uncovered the, uncovered theCommitteeCommittee’’s to Re-elects illegals to Re-elects illegal ““slushslushfundfund’’ and its links to key White Houseand its links to key White Houseaides.aides.http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Watergate/woodsteingraham.gif
  14. 14. TheThe slush fundslush fund received its moneyreceived its moneyillegally from the campaignillegally from the campaigncontributions of the Republican partycontributions of the Republican partyto financeto finance ““mischiefmischief”” against anyoneagainst anyonethat posed a threat to the Nixonthat posed a threat to the Nixonadministration.administration.http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Watergate/woodsteingraham.gif
  15. 15. In May, a Senate committee beganIn May, a Senate committee beganholding nationally televised hearings,holding nationally televised hearings,at which it was discovered that theat which it was discovered that theWatergate break-in was linked to theWatergate break-in was linked to theWhite House.White House.Attorney General John Mitchell,controlled secret “slush fund.”http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Watergate/woodsteingraham.gif
  16. 16. The guilty White House officialsThe guilty White House officialsimplicated President Nixon. During theimplicated President Nixon. During thetestimony, it was discovered that Nixontestimony, it was discovered that Nixonhad installed ahad installed a secret taping systemsecret taping system ininthe Oval office.the Oval office.http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall06/Weiner/IMGS/nixonsmen.gif
  17. 17. http://www.magazine.org/ASSETS/11AAAD4DFD224BCCBDEB0C4AD7B43A83/33a.jpg
  18. 18. ClaimingClaiming executive privilegeexecutive privilege , Nixon refused, Nixon refusedto surrender the White House tapes. Underto surrender the White House tapes. Underenormous pressure, he eventually releasedenormous pressure, he eventually releasedsome of the tapes. One of the tapes wassome of the tapes. One of the tapes wassuspiciously missing 18-minutes ofsuspiciously missing 18-minutes ofrecording.recording.http://watergate.info/images/740429address.jpg
  19. 19. http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/images/hblock11.jpg
  20. 20. Finally on June 23, 1974, the SupremeFinally on June 23, 1974, the SupremeCourt ordered Nixon to releaseCourt ordered Nixon to release thetheunaltered tapes. Lawyers were shockedunaltered tapes. Lawyers were shockedto find concrete evidence that theto find concrete evidence that thepresident had orderedpresident had ordered the cover-up ofthe cover-up ofthe Watergate break-inthe Watergate break-in ..http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2008/12/19/1229689270212/Gallery-deepthroat-dies---010.jpg
  21. 21. http://video.anews.eu/videos_clips/theway/img/watergate2.jpg
  22. 22. By then, the House of RepresentativesBy then, the House of Representativeshad began to considerhad began to consider articles ofarticles ofimpeachmentimpeachment, to remove the president, to remove the presidentfrom office.from office.http://www.utexas.edu/features/archive/2005/graphics/watergate3.jpg
  23. 23. Certain that he would be convicted byCertain that he would be convicted bythe Senate, on August 9, 1974, Nixonthe Senate, on August 9, 1974, Nixonbecame the first U.S. president tobecame the first U.S. president toresignresign from office.from office.http://cafamilytree.com/past/1970/headline.jpg
  24. 24. Gerald Ford swears in as President of the United States.http://img.servihoo.com/kinews/AFP/SGE.DSI00.281206002935.photo00.quicklook.default-245x183.jpg
  25. 25. The next day, Vice PresidentThe next day, Vice President Gerald FordGerald Fordwas sworn in as president. Congressmanwas sworn in as president. CongressmanFord had replaced Vice President SpiroFord had replaced Vice President SpiroAgnew, who had himself resigned in 1973 forAgnew, who had himself resigned in 1973 foracceptingaccepting ““kickbackskickbacks”” while governor ofwhile governor ofMaryland.Maryland.http://www.globalgeografia.com/attualita/img/spiro_agnew.jpg
  26. 26. A month later, Ford stunned the nationA month later, Ford stunned the nationby granting Nixon aby granting Nixon a ““full, free, andfull, free, andabsoluteabsolute ““pardonpardon”” for all offenses hefor all offenses hehad committed or might havehad committed or might havecommitted during his presidency.committed during his presidency. ””http://www.haisentito.it/img/_gerald-ford.jpg
  27. 27. President Ford took that action, hePresident Ford took that action, hesaid, to spare the country the agony ofsaid, to spare the country the agony ofNixonNixon’’s criminal prosecution. He felts criminal prosecution. He feltthe country needed to move on.the country needed to move on.http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/speechgfx/ford-pardons.jpg
  28. 28. In Moscow, puzzled Soviets leaders couldIn Moscow, puzzled Soviets leaders couldnot understand, how a powerful presidentnot understand, how a powerful presidentcould be forced to resign, because of whatcould be forced to resign, because of whatthey viewed as a minor offense.they viewed as a minor offense.President Nixon shaking hands with Soviet Premier Brezhnev.http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/images/H60s.jpg
  29. 29. Soviet history knew no parallel. ThatSoviet history knew no parallel. Thatwas one lesson of Watergate – that, inwas one lesson of Watergate – that, inAmerica, the rule of law prevailed.America, the rule of law prevailed. NoNoone is above the lawone is above the law , not even the, not even thepresident.president.http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulhamby/2963265158/
  30. 30. A second lesson involved the constitutionalA second lesson involved the constitutionalseparation of powersseparation of powers . As commander-in-. As commander-in-chief, Nixon asserted unlimited authority,chief, Nixon asserted unlimited authority,excusing his wiretapping. The president doesexcusing his wiretapping. The president doesnot have absolute power due tonot have absolute power due to checks &checks &balancesbalances..http://video.anews.eu/videos_clips/theway/img/watergate11.gif
  31. 31. Congress pushed back against theCongress pushed back against theabuses of the Nixon administration,abuses of the Nixon administration,passing thepassing the War Powers ActWar Powers Act (1973),(1973),limiting the presidentlimiting the president’’s ability to deploys ability to deployU.S. forces without congressionalU.S. forces without congressionalapproval.approval.http://www.flickr.com/photos/92971534@N00/157448527/
  32. 32. Congress passed theCongress passed the Freedom ofFreedom ofInformation ActInformation Act (1974), protecting(1974), protectingprivacy and access to federal records,privacy and access to federal records,and theand the Fair Campaign Practices ActFair Campaign Practices Act(1974), limiting and regulating(1974), limiting and regulatingcontributions in presidentialcontributions in presidentialcampaigns.campaigns.http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/09/16/campaign.finance/campaign.finance.jpg
  33. 33. Lastly, Congress passed theLastly, Congress passed the FederalFederalIntelligence Surveillance ActIntelligence Surveillance Act (1978),(1978),prohibiting domestic wiretappingprohibiting domestic wiretappingwithout a warrant.without a warrant.http://www.illuminati-news.com/graphics/07-08/14/wiretapping.gif
  34. 34. http://www.flickr.com/photos/87362701@N00/341954487/