THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO<br />SCHOOL FOR STUDIES IN LEARNING, COGNITION AND EDUCATION<br />BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME<br />STUDENT’S NAME: JANELLE MOHAMMED<br />STUDENT’S I.D.: 110005498<br />COURSE TITLE: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN<br />COURSE CODE: IDES210E<br />ASSIGNMENT 1: LESSON PLAN<br />LESSON PLAN<br />DATE: 10th November, 2009CLASS: Standard 1<br />CURRICULUM AREA: ScienceTOPIC: Making bouncing balls<br />AGE RANGE: 7-8 yearsNO. IN CLASS: 18<br />DURATION: 35 minutes<br /><ul><li>OVERVIEW SECTION:</li></ul>Previous knowledge – students will have previous experience with balls, both bouncing and rolling. Some may have misconception that all balls bounce.<br /><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:</li></ul>At the end of the lesson, students will be able to:<br /><ul><li>Identify balls that do and do not bounce.
Analyze the materials from which balls are made to determine their purpose.
DESCRIPTION:</li></ul>Children will have the opportunity to use different materials to make balls. They will design and build the balls and explore how the balls roll and bounce. They will take apart the old balls to see how they are made and use these ideas in making more balls.<br /><ul><li>TEACHING AIDS:</li></ul>Pebbles, beads, newspaper, foil, socks, plastic bags or stockings – these can be used to stuff the pebbles and beads into. Teacher will use items such as rubber bands and string to wrap around the core. Children will be asked by the teacher on a previous day to collect old balls which they can use to take apart, specifically some that are solid and hollow. Teacher will place these on several tables which students can work in groups with.<br /><ul><li>OVERVIEW SECTION: INTRODUCTION
Teacher will introduce and state to the class that they will be designing and making balls themselves. The variety of materials will be shown to students. Teacher will further model some examples such as the crushed newspapers wrapped in tape in a spherical shape. Teacher will introduce concept that not all balls are the same; some balls can bounce while others roll better.
Teacher will ask if anyone can think of a particular kind of ball he or she would like to make, what it should be able to do and what might it be made of. As the students work, the teacher will encourage the students to think about why they are using certain materials, what they hope their ball will be like and how might the ball roll and bounce.
The teacher will ask the children to gather in a circle; take apart two (2) or more commercially made balls, one hollow and one solid. More questions will be used to probe students such as: ‘what do you think the balls are made of?’ ‘How do you think they are made?’ ‘How do you think they are similar or different to the balls that you made, could you make a hollow ball, how?’
TEACHING SECTION:</li></ul>TEACHING POINTTEACHING STRATEGYLEARNING ACTIVITIESAnalyze the materials from which balls are made from to determine their purpose. Teacher will place students in groups. Teacher will ask students to take apart an old ball to explore how it is constructed. Teacher will also encourage students to think about why certain materials are used in the making of the ball. Students will take apart old ball, explore how it is made and use a similar method to construct their own ball, considering why certain materials are used to make a commercial ball.Balls do and do not bounceTeacher will model examples of balls which can bounce and which cannot. Teacher will allow students to explore and discover for themselves. Teacher will, as students work, use probe questions such as how might the ball which they are making be able to bounce and roll?Students will engage in activity by making their own ball. They will consider in the process what kind of material is needed to make their ball. After taking into consideration the demo commercial ball; they would also consider what might cause their ball to bounce or roll. Students will also be given a hollow ball (tennis) and a solid ball (hard) and will identify which balls bounce and which ones roll better.Illustration of what has been taughtTeacher will ask students to bring their work forward to make a display where all can see and ask probe questions such as what is the ball good for, is it a ball which can roll or bounce?Students will after making their balls bring it forward in the area of display and show what it can do.<br /><ul><li>CLOSURE: </li></ul>Teacher will recap what was done in the lesson. She would also probe students by asking questions such as: what kinds of materials might be needed to make balls and what are some of their purposes. Teacher can discuss with students the difference between round balls and footballs. She can illustrate whether or not a football can bounce like a round ball by having a student bounce the football as well as the round ball. Students will be asked to describe the differences, bringing home the point that not all balls bounce.<br /><ul><li>EVALUATION:
INTRODUCTION</li></ul>According to Ken Caroll’s Model of school of learning theory (1990), all learning tasks should be meaningful and self – contained. Instructions should provide self- directed reasoning and learning. The activities should be designed to support and facilitate learning. In this lesson, the activities which were used were hands-on. Students were able to: learn by exploration from the activities, discover that not all balls bounce; identify the internal features and component material of a ball and apply that said knowledge of understanding by creating their own ball. The teacher acted just as a guide and facilitator.<br /><ul><li>COMMUNICATION THEORY:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY</li></ul>Communication Theory is the study of all forms of human communication. The Attribution Theory (Bernard Weiner, 1935- ), which is a communication theory, emphasizes the idea that learners current perception will strongly influence the ways in which they will interpret the success or failure of a current effort. This theory can be seen at work in the lesson. When the students were initially given the opportunity to take apart the ball and identify its components, this created a challenge or task for them. They would have felt that if they have the ability to take apart the ball, then certainly they could have the ability to recreate one. By this notion, according to Weiner (1935- ), they would have been motivated. The fact that the teacher also allowed the students to recreate something from the lesson they learnt also support the notion that the Attribution Theory was at work here. <br /><ul><li>MOTIVATION THEORY:
ARCS MOTIVATION THEORY</li></ul>Motivation can be seen as that inner drive which propels you to achieve a specific or desired outcome. According to J. Keller, 1983, there are four major motivational strategies: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. ARCS Motivation Theory (Keller, 1983) can be seen at work in this lesson when the teacher allowed active participation by students and was able to get them involved in using the materials to create the ball. This methodology showed up some of Keller’s strategies to learning which are experience, present worth, future usefulness and needs matching. The theory was also demonstrated where the teacher was asking the students to think of a particular ball which they had known or were familiar with. According to the theory, she was adapting instruction using concrete language, examples and concepts which were related to her instruction and which would cause the students to also associate it with their knowledge of that ball which they were thinking of.<br /><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN THEORY
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY</li></ul>Instructional design theory focuses on how best instruction can be designed to facilitate learning. When the teacher modeled the required behavior of how the students should create the ball, this typified the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977). This theory states that other people learn from one another via observation, imitation and modeling. Given that the students learnt how to make the ball via observation, when put in practice, they were now able to recreate the ball on their own. <br /><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONAL THEORY
BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES</li></ul>An instructional theory focuses on how to structure material for education especially in youths. Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) is an instructional theory. This simply states that there is more than one type of learning: learning that develop mental skills (cognitive), learning that develops one’s emotions or attitudes (affective) and learning that affects manual or physical skills (psychomotor). From the lesson, when the teacher asked the students to recall information about their prior knowledge of the ball when it was taken apart, such as ‘what do you think the balls are made of? ‘How are they made?’ She was testing their mental knowledge. When the students were asked to give their interpretation of how the ball was made and what was it constituted of, also and to use that said knowledge and apply it by recreating their own ball, this exposed their comprehension and application of the lesson, according to Bloom (1956).<br />CONCLUSION<br />In conclusion, education must be built on founding principles which are tested. In order that learning be accomplished, students as well as teachers must be willing to apply those principles of learning in order that learning be effective. For students to arise, teachers must be well equipped, innovative, dedicated, committed to step up to the challenge. Teachers must also be very resourceful and creative, having their resources readily available and most importantly, be well planned to teach their lesson, by having a lesson plan. Without a plan, the teacher will have no direction of where he or she is going and therefore, will not be able to take the students anywhere. Lesson plans, it can be concluded are an essential component of any and every teacher.<br />REFERENCES<br />www.arizona.edu/ic/edp511/isd1.html<br />www.education.calumet.purdue.ed/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy5/Edpsy5-attribution.htmwww.indiana.edu/~idtheory/yellow.html<br />Encarta world English Dictionary<br /> <br />