Principle of teaching

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Principle of teaching

  1. 1. Submitted By:Geovani D. LugtuBEEd IIISubmitted To:Dr. Noel B. Begnalen( Instructor)
  2. 2. Choral reading is when the students read out loud to everyoneChoral reading or speaking is simply reading or speaking in unison under the direction of a leader. Choral speakingoffers genuine opportunity for problem solving as each group works out its own presentation.Choral speaking is projecting your voice and speaking in chorus. The reading or reciting of a text by a group. Preparation for a performance may involve interpretation of thetext; experimentation with language, rhythm, volume, pace, and different numbers of voices; and rehearsal.Uses of choral speakingenjoyment of speaking poetry or prosestructured practice in articulation, resulting in greater word and phrase clarityimprovement in breathing when speaking Englishuse of all speech organs to their full potentialpractice of the natural rhythms of Englishpractice of functional vocabulary and structures relevant to the English programTypes of choral speaking1. REFRAIN is one of the most common forms of choral speaking. Oneperson reads the narrative portion of the text while the rest of the classjoins in the refrain.2. UNISON calls for the whole group to read the material together.Additional sound effects might be incorporated3. ANTIPHON calls for the class to be divided into two or more groups,with each group being responsible for a certain part of the selection.4. CUMULATIVE choral reading or speaking refers to a method wheregroups of voices or individual voices are added to or subtracted from thenchoral reading, depending on the message or the meaning communicatedby the selection.5. SOLO LINES is a type of choral reading where individuals read specificlines in appropriate places throughout the group activity.6. LINE AROUND or CHILD-A-LINE is more solo work where each lineis taken by a different person in the group.
  3. 3. Principles of TeachingDedicated mind, the heart and the soul of the youth c. To love the beauty ,goodness and truth True b. Cultivationof Firm society Confident a. Responsibility to Efficient To assume: Effective patient •The TeacherAs theMasterTeacherAttributes :The Teacher “If you plan is for one year…..plant rice; if yourplan is for ten years…. Plant a tree; but if your plan isfor eternity….. Then EDUCATE children.• Pleasing personal appearance • Sense of humor,cheerfulness, enthusiasmPERSONALQUALITIES • Good physicalhealth and personal hygiene • Emotional stability, sound mental health and self control • SuperiorintelligencePERSONALQUALITIES • Flexibility, creativity, resourcefulness • Integrity, trustworthiness, honesty,sincerity • Promptness, efficiencyPERSONALQUALITIES • Refinement in words, tact and courtesy, civility •Pleasant modulated voicePERSONAL • Sympathy, kindness helpfulness, patience, and diligenceQUALITIES •Fairness, impartiality, tolerance, patiencePERSONAL • Sociability, friendliness , cooperativenessQUALITIES •Positive outlook,encouraging attitudeProfessional Qualities• 1. MASTERY OF THE SUBJECT MATTER Subject • First essential requisite matterSubject • Thorough grasp of the subject matter • Keep abreast and keep up with Subject matter new and updatedtrendsProfessional qualities• 2. UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNER • Knowledge on the nature of children. understand• Know the different levels of understand intellectual and emotional maturity. • Genuine concern and sincere loveunderstand for the children.Professional qualities• 3. UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING Principlesand • Know what to teach(Subject matter). methods Principles and • Know how to teach( Method). methods •Psychology of learning and how to sustain Principles and interest and individual differences. methodsProfessional qualities• 4.GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF OTHER BRANCHES/FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE •Know how to relate the General subject to other subjects. understanding • Broad understanding of General all fieldof interests. understandingProfessional qualities• 5. TAKING PRIDE OF TEACHING AS A PROFESSION • Positive outlook in life Teachingas a profession and good attitude. • Understand your task Teaching as a profession and responsibility.The LearnerThe learner is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and a rational soul. His bodyexperiences sensations and feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source ofintellectual abstraction, self reflection, and free rational volition. Body and soul exist in mutual dependence. Let usfeed the body as well as his spirit. “ Man does not live by bread alone”.The LearnerEquipped with cognitive as well as appetitive faculties.a. cognitive- five senses- able to see, smell, hear,touch and taste.b. Imagination- able to form representations of material objects which are not present to theirsenses.c. Memory- able to retain, recall and recognize past mental acts.d. Intellect-can form concept or ideas, andmakes judgmentThe Learner Appetitive – are his feelings, emotions and rational will. The pain and joy of an object or an activity . Itis indicated through the character of an individual. Five elements:1. Ability- it determines their capacity tounderstand and assimilate information for their own use and application.Categorized into:a. Physical-fast, averageand slow achievers.b. Mental- superior, above average and below average.
  4. 4. The Learner2. Aptitude- refers to the student’s innate talent or gift. A natural capacity to learn certain skills.3.Interest- refers to attraction or strong appeal for something. Lessons that give them the chance to express their deepfeelings for objects or actions will be more meaningful and easily absorbed.4. Family and Cultural Background-student s who come from different socioeconomic background manifest a wide range of behaviour due todifferences in upbringing practices.The Learner5. Attitudes – students have a unique way of thinking and reacting.Positive attitudes are:a. Curiosity-students are all times eager to learn.b. Responsibility- they pursue assigned task to completion despite personalconstraints. Accountable to their actions and decisions.c. Creativity- being imaginative they can think of new waysof arriving at solutions to their problems. They can innovate procedures and techniques.The Learnerd. Persistence- students sustain interest in a learning activity not mindful of the extra time and effortbeing spent.Basic example to this is: Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence TheoryIntelligence as DispositionDisposition intelligence Sensitive to:Verbal linguistic Sounds, meanings, structures andstyles of languageLogical- Mathematical Patterns, numbers and numerical data, causes and effects, objective andquantitative reasoningSpatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual, puzzles, symmetry, lines, imagesBodily -Kenisthetic Touch, movement, physical self, athleticismMusical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody, pitch,soundThe Learning Environment• It consists of the physical, as well as the psychological environment, that surrounds thelearner and that influences his/her learning.• It is the classroom and all the instructional features and the non-threatening classroom climate needed in planning and implementing all teaching and learning activities.The Learning Environment 1. Arrangement of Furniture The furniture, like the table for demonstrations located infront of the room and the chairs facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient spaces in- between for ease in movingaround. Display shelves for safekeeping of projects, collections, and outstanding outwork are located at the sides.Attached to the wall is a bulletin board and in front is the white board or blackboard used for discussion andillustrations related to the lessons. 2. Physical Condition of the Classroom1) it must be clean and orderly2) one ortwo frames , create a pleasant and inviting aura.3) Natural light and flowing fresh air add to their comfort and easeas they tackle the learning tasks.4) Free from noise coming from the surroundings, students’ concentration andinterest are easily sustained.5) The doors and windows could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noisewith light fixtures that could easily be found.The Learning Environment 3. Classroom proceedingsThe clear and enthusiastic voice of the teacher that elicitsequally eager and keen responses from the students help create a conducive and beneficial ambiance forlearning.Supplies and materials must be prepared earlier . A system of distribution and retrieval must beobserved.Positive mood set by both parties, the teacher and the learner, could keep the activities lively and flawless.4. Interactions Diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any given time. Teachers must be sensitive to positiveand negative interactions and must immediately undertake an instant revision or adjustment in the methodologywhen necessary.The Learning Environment A FACILITATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT PINE AND HORNE (1990) It is anenvironment:a. which encourages people to be active.b. which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery ofthe personal meaning of idea.c. which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning, in whichdifference is good and desirable.d. which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes.e. which toleratesambiguity.f. in which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self- evaluation.g. which encouragesopenness of self rather than concealment of self.h. in which people are encouraged to trust themselves as well as inexternal sources.i. in which people feel they are respected.j. in which people feel they are accepted.k. which permits
  5. 5. confrontation. a place therefore where people feel they are respected and accepted for who they are and for whatthey say and do is a conducive atmosphere of learning.The Learning Environment A placetherefore, where people feel they are respected and accepted for who they areand for what they say and do is a conducive atmosphere of Learning.Post assignments. Use it as a “message center” for your students. Use wrapping paper, cloth, or lace for thebackground. Take pictures of the students and school activities and post them. EFFECTIVE BULLETINBOARDS• Don’t be afraid to express yourself when it comes to your bulletin boards. Spice up your room by tryinga different approach to look.Be creative and have fun! Use twisted brown butcher paper to make a vine- like border. Make your own cut-outsusing copies from a book or the computer. You can trace them onto the bulletin board with the help of an overheadprojector. Color,color,color Use 3-D items such as cornstalks or toy spaceships to accent a theme. EFFECTIVEBULLETIN BOARDSTEACHING PRINCIPLES• They are guides to make teaching and learning effective, wholesome and meaningful.•Webster, says a principle is a comprehensive law or doctrine which an accepted or professed rule of action orconduct is derived.• Latin word princeps- which means the beginning or the end of all facts, circumstances or stateof affairs.TEACHING PRINCIPLES It has Five Areas to consider:1. Respect for individual2. Democracy, as a way of life3.Providing suitable condition for the development and maintenance of a sound personality4. Improving group livingin the classroom5. Improving the classroom environmentTEACHING PRINCIPLES Respect for the individual It explains the respect for self –confidence and intellectual,and emotional integrity of the individual. Expressions such as:a. Learning by doingb. Understanding beforememorizing.Have become a principle as well as theory of today.TEACHING PRINCIPLES Democracy as a way of life. One of the major goals of education in the Philippines is tofoster, promote and develop democracy as a way of life. It implies:a. Respect for potentialities of individualb.Obligation of each individual to contribute to the welfare of the group of which he is a member.c. Participation inexperience which will foster social, economic, intellectual, and physical growthd. Right of every individual to makea choice commensurate with his intellectual capacity and maturity.TEACHING PRINCIPLES Providing suitable conditionsIt means that school life is of great importance indetermining the present and the future mental health and strength of personality of the learner. It includes therefore,the objectives of education and the learning materials and various methods being utilized.TEACHING PRINCIPLES Improving group livingIt means that, a teacher should understand what group dynamicsis all about and what techniques must be used intelligently for group leadership. Lastly , in Improving the ClassroomEnvironment. Teacher should see to it that the physical environment of his classroom will provide a maximumdegree of best condition conducive to learning.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by thelearner. The process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by the teacher.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING It is a discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas. Students morereadily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their needs and problems.
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning (Behavioral Change) is a consequence of experience. If experience is thebest teacher, then teacher should make use of experiential learningPRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. “Two heads are better than one”and cooperation fosters learning.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is an evolutionary process. Behavioral change requires time andpatience.Things that are worthwhile in life take time.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself. As a teacher, youmust draw these learners’ ideas, feelings and experiences, you midwife the birth of ideas.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. People are feeling beingsas well as thinking beings and when their feelings and thoughts are in harmony learning is maximized.PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING The process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and individual. Aspeople become more aware of how they learn and solve problems and become exposed to alternative models usedby other people.Instructional planningCommonly known as Lesson planning- A guarantee of 100% learning and a guide for teachersin presenting the lessons systematically.- A written instructional plan is an antidote to aimlessness.- Typesa. Yearly instructional plan for Basic Education1. Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELCs)2.Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLCs)3. For tertiary level, it is called as course syllabus other termfor this is the course plan or course of study.-- Lesson plan could be done weekly or daily. Elements of lesson plan a. Objective b. Topic or subject matter c.Materials d. Procedure or lesson development e. Evaluation f. AssignmentMaybe converted into, What are the causes of the thinning down of the ozone layer? It maybe a statement orquestion in nature. Like ,”To explain the causes of the thinning down of the ozone layer. - Objectives1. COGNITIVE -mind2. AFFECTIVE –feeling and appreciation3. PSYCHOMOTOR- action or to do things.objectives can be coined in the acronym SMARTS- specificM- measurableA- attainableR- result – oriented orreliableT- time bound and terminalTaxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive domain Affective domain Psychomotor Start with infinitivesTodefine, to distinguish, to acquire To separate, to positively respond To distinguish by touchingTo identify, to recall,to recognize To commend, to follow To endure, to improveTo interpret, to differentiate To approve, to practice Toplay the pianoTo read, to make, to determine To appreciate, to feel To dance skillfully, to exploreTo conclude, toextend To avoid, to resolve To write , to balanceTo draw, to explain To balance, to help To strengthen, to reachLevels of cognitive domain1. Knowledge2. Comprehension3. Application4. Analysis5. Synthesis6. EvaluationLevels of affective domain by: Kratwohl Taxonomy1. Receiving2. Responding3. Valuing4. Organization5.CharacterizationLevels of Psychomotor Domain1. Observing2. Imitating3. Practicing4. Adapting but Simpson (1972)added anotherthree from Blooms Domain and these are :5. Precision6. Speed7. Distance and Technique
  7. 7. basic parts of lesson plana. Objectivesb. Subject matterc. Materialsd. Procedure or lesson developmente.Evaluationf. assignmentb.topic or subject matter Main course of the lesson The center of the discussionc. Materials instructional materialsand media and to make the abstract concrete.c. procedure-It starts with motivatione.g. prayer-Then checking of attendance and I.D. plus the uniform-Review thepast lesson-Apply a methodin a procedure,Five major elementsa.motivationb. Teaching procedure( use of pivotal questionsc. Formative check(evaluation or assessmentd. Student participatione. closureHomework or AssignmentThey are the synapse strengthenersThey enforce the retention of concepts.It will serve asthe preparation for the next lesson.Role of the Teacher In Doing Activities as Part of the Lesson.1. Develop a list of study questions that focus on theobjectives of the lesson.2. Develop the anticipated answers to the question, it is important that the teacher have afirm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers.3. Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students needto feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need.4. Supervise during thisactivity, NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, ORLOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON.5. Assist students in locating information,but do not find it for them6. Keep students on task and eliminate distractions.7. Plan for reporting of answers.SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS. It means thatwe have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. Asthe saying goes: What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember. What I do, I understandSELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES2. THE MORE SENSES THAT ARE INVOLVED INLEARNING, THE MORE AND THE BETTER THE LEARNING.Humans are intensely visual animals. Senses ofLearning 750% 5.5 4 3 3 sight hearing touch taste smellSELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES3. A NON –THREATENING ATMOSPHEREENHANCES LEARNINGIt deals with physical and psychological climate of the classroomPhysical – the board,ventilation, proper lighting condition, order and tidiness and painting of the room.Psychological- is an offshoot ofour personality as a teacher.SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES4. EMOTIONS HAS THE POWER TO INCREASERETENTION AND LEARNINGWe tend to remember and learn more those that strike our hearts! Let us add anemotional touch to learning.5. LEARNING IS MEANINGFUL WHEN IT IS CONNECTED TO STUDENTS’EVERYDAY LIFE.SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES6. GOOD TEACHING GOES BEYOND RECALL OFINFORMATION. It is to develop creative and critical thinking. It should reach the levels of application, analysis,synthesis and evaluation to hone our students’ thinking skills.7. AN INTEGRATED TEACHING APPROACH IS FAR MORE EFFECTIVE THAN TEACHING ISOLATEDBITS OF INFORMATION. INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLES OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Verbal LinguisticDiscussion, debates, journal writing, conferences, essays, stories, poems, storytellin g, listening activities, readingLogical- Mathematical Calculations, experiments, comparisons, number games, using evidence, formulating andtesting hypothesis deductive and inductive reasoning Spatial Concept maps, graphs, charts, art projects,metaphorical thinking, visualization , videos, slides, visual presentations Bodily- Kenisthetic Role- playing, dance,
  8. 8. athletic activities, manipulative, hands-on demonstrations concept miming Musical Playing, music, singing, rapping,whistling, clapping, analysing sounds and music Interpersonal Community- involvement projects, discussions,cooperative learning, team games, peer tutoring, conferences, social activities, sharing Intrapersonal Student choice,journal writing, self evaluation, personal instruction, independent study, discussing feelings, reflecting NaturalistEcological fieldtrips , environmental study, caring for plants and animals, outdoor work, pattern recognitionRESEARCH AND BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES concrete symbolic abstract Research-basedBRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES1. Authentic Problem Solving –Example-comparing the minipolls at school result to national elections result. In tabulating the result, discuss the reasons for the differences.2.Project- based multi-mediaexample – class will work on the memories of World War II and produce a song fromthat era and display a collage of photographs and other memorabilia.3. Role plays as Meaning Makers-Example- Asari-sari store to give elementary pupils experience in making a budget, stay within the budget and counting changefor bills.4. Visuals are powerful aids in retention as well as understanding. To help students organize their thinking,teachers use graphics.BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Examples of Graphics 1. Graphic Organizers forClassificationBRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 2. Descriptive Pattern Organizer FACT FACT FACT TOPICFACT FACTBRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES3. Time Sequence Pattern Organizer • Date/time event • Venue• Date/time event • Venue • Date/ time event • VenueBRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 4. Episode Pattern Organizer duration place time causeepisode effectpersons person person personBRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Concept Pattern Organizer example characteristic conceptcharacteristiccharacteristic Example Example Example Example ExampleCLASSROOM MANAGEMENT1. Assertive Discipline (Canter 1976) – teaches students to accept theconsequences of their actions - More on positive and praises than punishments.- Be responsible of the actions youare acted upon.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT2. Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor 1967). Theory X is Newtonian and Y ispost- Newtonian - X suggests that people will do the minimum possible amount of work necessary to accomplish atask. - Y- suggests that all people want to succeed, but there are obstacles in their path which inhibit their progress..If these obstacles are removed, then they can succeed as well as anyone else.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT3. Control Theory (William Glasser,1984)- called as Reality Therapy-is a series ofsteps to help children understand their choices they are making. - he suggests that there are four basic needsa.Loveb. Controlc. Freedomd. FunThese are necessary for healthy psychological balanceCLASSROOM MANAGEMENT4. Behaviorism ( Skinner)- molding all children to conform by use of standardpunishments and rewards. - The initial condition are individuals and the equations are those behavioristic techniquesset out to modify the individuals.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT5. Transactional Analysis( Harris,1967) studies the interactions of behaviorbetween teachers and students. He even suggests three stages of development called ego-states, Child, Parent, andAdult.In order for teachers to be successful in this theory, they need to remain in the Adult ego and be able to
  9. 9. recognize the ego- state of students around them.Teachers can recognize the games that students may play in a childego- stateAnd teach students to behave in an Adult ego- state.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT6. Ginott Model- concentrates on the communication between teacher and student.It concentrates on avoiding criticism and trying to understand the student’s feelings.7. Kay Model- students areintrinsically motivated to behave properly if they are taught how to do it. Role of the teacher is to teach students howto monitor themselves.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT8. Jones Model- assumption of this model is a child needs to be controlled and thatteachers can achieve this control through body language, administration, and parental support.According toEdwards,1993, Stopping Instruction, Staring, Sitting close to the student are all powerful intimidation techniqueswhich should stop students from misbehaving.DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Steps to follow:a. Provide the rationale.b. Demonstrate the skill.c.Provide guided practice.d. Check for understanding and provide feedback.e. Provide extended practice and transfer.DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS How to do it?1. Explain the rationale and objectives of the lesson.Inform them of how long the lesson will take.2. Provide motivation and draw commitments from them.3. Conductthe demonstration4. Assign practice for short periods of time. Continue practice to the point of over learning forcomplete mastery.5. Provide feedback, videotaping of performance, tests or written comments.6. Focus onperformance evaluation rather than on pencil-and- paper test. The student should exhibit the skill mastered.DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Example:a. Deductive method- is a teacher- dominated. It beginswith the abstract rule, generalization, principle and ends with specific examples and concrete details.Advantages and disadvantages:A. Coverage of a wider scope by stating at once the rule or the principle at thebeginning of the class, we cover more subject matter over a period of time.- No bother on the part of a teacher tolead the learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule.D. It in not supportive of the principle that learningis an active process. Less involvement on the part of the learner.- Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Due toabstract presentation at start then it will look irrelevant and uninteresting.b. Inductive methodIs less teacher directed than the deductive method. It begins with specificdetails, concrete dataand examples and ends with an abstract generalization , rule or principle.Reflect on ……….. 1. Socratic,on which the image is a wise, somewhat crusty teacher who purposely gets intoarguments with students over the subject matter through artful questioning.Reflect on ……….. 2. )Town –Meetingon which the teachers whom adapt this style use a great deal of discussionand play a moderate role that enables students to work out answers to problem by themselves.Reflect on ……….. 3.Compulsive typeon which the teacher is fussy(choosy), teaches things over and over, and isconcerned with functional order and structure.Reflect on ……….. 4. Boomeron which the teacher shouts in a strong voice, “You’re going to learn, there is nononsense in the classroom.Reflect on ……….. 5. ) Maverickon which everybody loves the teacher, except perhaps the principal. She raisesdifficult questions and presents ideas that disturb.Reflect on ……….. 6. ) Quiet one on which the teacher is calm, sincere butdefinite. The teacher commands bothrespect and attention.
  10. 10. Reflect on ……….. 7. ) Entertaineron which the teacher is free enough to joke and laugh with the students.Reflect on ……….. 8. Explanatory on which the teacher is in command of thesubject matter and explains particularsubjects of the lesson.Reflect on ……….. 9. Interactiveon which through dialogue and questioning, the teacher facilitates the developmentof student ideas.Reflect on ……….. 10. Pragmaticon which the teacher guides the students’activities and facilitates self- instructionand independent learning.Kinds of Test and Evaluation1.Matching type- matching column A to the other column.2. Fill in the Blanks-formulating questions by writing a statement with a blank portion on it.3. Multiple choice- it is with a completestatement and giving three or more choices below the statement.Kinds of Test and Evaluation4. Completion form- completing the sentence by adding phrase or words quite relatedto fill in the blanks.5. enumeration- it is to ask for multiple answers by putting the numbers depending on the itembeing asked.Kinds of Test and Evaluation6. True or False- it is by giving a statement and then analyze it if it is true or not basedon the lesson previously discussed.7.Objective essay- it is to answer the question verbatim. It means that the answerswill be based on the words and phrases coming from the lesson and not your own ideas and opinions.Kinds of Test and Evaluation8. Subjective essay- it could be answered either by your own opinion or based on thestatement and explanation from the book.9. Puzzle type- the most artistic and unique kind of test on which you willconsider the horizontal and vertical items.Evaluation could be written or in verbal way depending on the strategy applied by the teacher. Alternativeassessment can be one of the evaluations.Ex: Field trips, Thesis defense, exhibits, field demonstration and insidecompetitions.

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