Joshua Account.• lightning military conquest• Over 5 years• Conquest and allotment• 9.5 tribes• Utterly destroyed• All of Israel involved in conquestJudges Account.• “after the death of Joshua”• Allotment and conquest (example: judah and simeon)• Scattered struggles; no unified effort – tribes acting independently.• 20 cities whose inhabitants were NOT driven out. Jerussalem, Gezer, Taanach, Megiddo and Dor included in list.• Over a long period of time• Kenites went up with the people of Judah from the city of palms and “settled with the people” (--Judges 1:16 implying peaceful infiltration).• Jebusites coexisted :have dwelt with the people of Benjamin in Jerusalme to this day (Judges 1:21).
Another problem with Joshua account.Written long after events therein related .e.g. Joshua burned Ai and made it heap of ruins, as it is to this day – wasa village 1200-1050 BCE.e.g. Book of Jashar (sun standing still in Gibeon)– also mentioned inlament of David over Saul and Jonathan.Biblical writer is seeking to redeem God’s promise to patriarchs thatCanaan will be occupied in its entirety. Presenting the “official view”.Biblical historiography explained historical events theologically.Biblical writer/editor/redactor is selecting extracts from documents tosuit his agenda.Joshua 10:40 - - - -
The Conquest Perspective.Albright, Malamat, Yadin.Biblical account reflects intimate knowledge of the land as it relates tomilitary strategy.Canaanites had no unified military organization and lacked sense of nationalconsciousness.Small city-states; occasionally clustered in small alliances.1. Jericho (on edge of Jordan valley, south of waddi makkuk) stands alone.2. Ai is on plateau 10 miles/3,500 feet from Jericho. Allied with bethel – 2 miles in northwest . Slide 323. Shechem is center of large city-state, north to Megiddo, south to Shiloh.4. Hivites from Gibeon (el-jib, 5 miles N. of Jerusalem), possibly related to Hittites or Hurrians. Reached agreement with Joshua.5. Jerusalem, head of Amorite alliance (associated with Amurru) that included major cities in the southern hill country: Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon. Slide 336. Hazor (W. of fertile Huleh valley) is head of Canaanite alliance in Galilee (whose origins are traced to Phoenician coastal region).
What gave the Israelites –”semi-nomads emerging from the desertfringes”– an edge?• Use of reconnaissance (Jericho and Ai)• Ambush and preemptive strikes• Recruitment of defectors (Rahab, harlot of Jericho)• Logistics (supply of troops) e.g. Joshua: prepare provisions for within three days…• Timing. Crossing of Jordan took place on 10th of first month – early spring.Malamat: Joshua reflects a basic element of Israelite consciousness.
Jericho.Spies find lodging in house of Rahab the harlot. Nearest thing to a hotel?Rahab is friendly.Israelites march around the city sevens days. On seventh day, priests blowtrumpets, people shout and the wall of Jericho “fell down flat”.Joshua 24:11 “Jericho fought against you”.Marching stratagem is known from ancient military annals, e.g. Romangeneral Frontinus.
Archaeology of Jericho.70 feet of occupation layers still intact, dating from 9,000 BCE, besidespring know as “ain es-sultan”.1930’s: John Garstang discovers collapsed mudbricks walls (he dates it1400 and associates it with Israelites).1950’s: Kathleen Kenyon employs more precise dating technique. Cornerof 14th cent mudbrick hut is identified as most recent layer. Juglet is from1325. squatters?Garstang’s wall is from 2300 BCE. Frequent earthquakes.Kenyon discovers additional wall from 1560 BCE. Contents of thatsettlement have eroded.Yigael Yadin: LBA inhabitants reused MBA wall (from 1560).Conclusion: negative archaeological evidence.
Ai (et-tell).Spies report that “people are but few… do not make the whole people toilup there Joshua 7:2-3). Cf. waddi makkuk: deep, narrow and rugged.3,000 men are sent. Battle is lost. Theology attributes loss to sin of Achan:not sacrificing to god “first fruits”.In second battle, Joshua attacks with 5,000 men and 30,000 lie inambush.Problem: even 3,000 men would be strung half he distance from Jerichoto Ai.Another problem: similarity to stratagem employed against theBenjaminites at Gibeah (Judges 20). “one served as literary model for theother”. Malamat: Ai is the copy due to negative archaeological evidence.
Archaeology of Ai.Excavated by Garstang in 1928: “a considerable proportion of LBA wareswere found, including Cypriote wishbone handle… in the collection of theAmerican School”. Nothing found!Judith Marquet-Krause excavated in 1933-35. conclusion: site unoccupied2400-1200.Unfortified village constructed 1200; abandoned 1050.Results confirmed by Joseph Callaway in 1964.
Joshua 10: Gibeon (el-jib) Account. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------------------------------Malamat: stratagem of surprise; taking advantage of darkness, Israelitesmarched 20 miles from Gilgal to Gibeon, climbing 3,000 feet. Attack atdawn.Problem: excavated by James B. Pritchard in 1960’s. result: small amountof LBA material from tomb, but no city.Extensive surface survey of Khirbet Kefire (Biblical Chephirah?) is negativefor 13th cent.
After defeat of Amorite alliance, Joshua leads mop-up operation againstcities of defeated kings: Makkedah, Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron, Debir.Itinerary is traditional: taken by Sennacherib in 701 and Nebuchadnezzarin 586. This segment, then, may be retrojection.Debir.Albright identified it with tel beit mirsim which was destroyed in 13thcent. BCE.Problem: Identification is now considered erroneous.Lachish.Excavated by Starkey with conclusion of massive destruction in 1230.D. Ussishkin’s excavation in 1970’s advanced (=pushed) the date by acentury: unwalled city destroyed in 12th cent BCE or later.Problem: 12th cen. Conquest is too late; could have been executed byRameses III or Sea Peoples (Peleset).
Hazor.Yadin: Hazor was major LBA city; destroyed no later than 1230 BCE.Reaplced with a poor, small, unwalled settlement.Problem: Hazor and Lachish not in sync.Problem: two accounts of encounter with Jabin king of Hazor.Problem: what are Hivites from Hermon and Jebusies from Jerusalemdoing in this coalition? Appears to be exaggeration to extol the greatnessof the Lord. - - - - -- - - - - - ------------------------------------------------
Joshua Account of Battle at Hazor.Hamstringing enemy chariot horses.Burning chariots with fire. - -Q: how to outrun charioteers? How to immobilize archers?Exterminate entire population from Sidon to Mizpeh. (show map).Judges Account of Battle at Hazor.Deborah (Issachar) encourages Barak (from Naphtali) to attack.Prose and poem.Yadin’s assertion: Judges account is editorial gloss.Yadin: “archaeology broadly confirms that semi-nomadic Israelitesdestroyed a number of major Canaanite cities; then gradually built theirown sedentary settlements on the ruins”.Conclusion: all 3 seem to refer to same war, probably in period of judges(NOT initial conquest).
Impact of Albright’s belief in Military Conquest:Israel “acquired” the land in approx. 1200 BCE amid widespreadsociopolitical upheaval in the Middle East.Following is Iron Age I: Dark AgeJudges stories reflect circumstances that fit such an era.
Albrecht Alt in “The Settlement of the Israelites in Palestine” (1925).Working with LBA Egyptian sources.Central highlands are sparsely settled.Shechem is only significant city between Jerusalem and Jezreel valley in1350 (Amarna Period).Therefore: no military conquest – no resistance.Alt: a gradual settlement resulted from nomads following their flocks yearafter year (in summer) from E. of Jordan to hills W. of river.
Noth and Weippert.Tribes developed over time; eventually they formed alliance.Tribal confederacy of Israel formed in Canaan (not E. of Jordan).Yahweh was crowned God of confederacy; ark of the covenant becamecentral shrine.Summer pasturage in harvested fields and woods (after vegetationceased in border area).Peaceful development -- beyond reach of Canaanite city-state or EgyptianSovereignty.Military encounters occurred in a second stage (around 1030 BCE duringmonarchy formation) – territorial expansion.Win some, lose some.Fits better with book of Judges.In keeping with Archaeological evidence (2-300 small hill settlements).Weakness of Alt-noth position: assumes that nomads are distinct fromvillagers.
Peasants Revolt Hypothesis by Geroge E. Mendenhall and Norman Gottwald.Revolutionary social movement among Canaanites, pitting villages against thecities.No mas killings of inhabitants of the land.Mendenhall.Ignited by Hebrews (outsiders?) advocating commitment to Yahweh, God ofExodus.Revolution began in Transjordan by Egyptian fugitives who joined discontentedlocals in overthrowing Amorite kingdoms of Sihon and Og.Habiru in Amrana age (a century earlier) were essentially oppressed villagers.Gottwald.Yahwism arose as a function of the revolution to support its social ideals. Priorityto materialism over religion (=Karl Marx).Disenfranchised elements of Canaanite society:peasants, farmers, pastoralists, outlaws, mercenaries, adventurers.
Analysis of Peasants Revolt Theory.Based on 20th cent social theories.Lacks support from Bible and archaeology.
New Trends in Archaeology.• Archeologists have given up on the effort to match up stratigraphy with Joshua account.• Greater focus on open-country survey.• Probe the settlement patterns and lifestyle of smaller villages and hamlets.• Less concerned with historical questions.• More interested in anthropological and sociological questions (including economy).Survey Results.Area sparsely populated in LBA.Three towns: Shechem, Jerusalem and Hebron.Small settlements crop up everywhere in Iron Age I (1200-1000).Southern hill country (tribe of Judah) lagged behind north (Ephraimite hillcountry).
Indigenous migration theory of Lawrence Stager.Villagers of Iron Age I were primarily farmers and secondarily herders.Implicit is that they migrated from lowland regions of Palestine.Two new subsistence methods enabled these adventurers to expand into hithertoinhospitable areas:• Rock-hewn cisterns (using metal chisels) e.g. tel en nasbeh SW of bethel.• Hillside terraces (wheat, barley and vegetables) e.g. Ai -- one terrace extends 325 feet.Israel Finkelstein.New settlers had been in the hill country all along.Change in lifestyle.“resettlement” of hill country is part of cyclic processAdam Zertal – settlers fan out from NE to SW; they came from the Transjordan.Yohanan Aharoni – settlement began in Beersheba (consistent with book ofJudges).
Why all the migration? A period of Upheaval.• Demise of Egyptian authority• Fragmentation of Hittite Empire.• Dorian invasion of the Greek mainland. (show map).• Less militant Canaanites were pushed out by Sea Peoples into hill country (cf. Stager).• Hittites and Hivites settle in Gibeon, Jerusalem (Jebusite?) and Mt. Hermon.• Arameans move southward into N. Transjordan (perhaps into hills of Canaan).• Hebrews refugees from Egypt.Result: melting pot out of which Israel emerged.