Jews, Israel, The Middle East: A History


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Jews, Israel, The Middle East: A History

  1. 1. Jews, Israel & The Middle East A History © 2005 Donald Meissner
  2. 2. Is Peace Possible? 1978-1982 Camp David Accords - Peace with Egypt 1993 Our Goal: A Just and Oslo Accords Lasting Peace in the Middle East. 1994 Peace with Jordan Ongoing U.S. sponsored Peace talks: 2007 Aqaba Jordan: 2003
  3. 3. Appearances: September 30, 2000 What do you see in this photograph ?
  4. 4. What really happened September 30, 2000 in this picture ? ―Regarding your picture…that Palestinian is actually my son, Tuvia Grossman, a Jewish student from Chicago. He, and two of his friends, were pulled from their taxicab while traveling in Jerusalem, by a mob of Palestinian Arabs, and were severely beaten and stabbed.‖ Dr. Aaron Grossman, Letter to the Editor, New York Times Media bias remains a major problem in the Middle East conflict
  5. 5. 2nd Lebanon War: Summer 2007
  6. 6. Eilat
  7. 7. Tel Aviv Azrieli Towers
  8. 8. Israeli Technological Contributions • Centrino Processor • Digital Camera Computer Chips • Computer File Formats (.gif and .zip) • ‗Smart Chips‘ for Credit Cards • 3-D Face Recognition Technology • Intra-Cardiac Stents • 1st Internet Firewall • TanklessSCUBA • First Instant Messaging Software • In-Flight Cell Phone Technology • Most Effective Current Anti-Parkinson‘s Medication
  9. 9. Israel, West Bank & Gaza comprise a very small area 130 mil es Israel: 12,906 sq mi Missouri: 68,886 sq mi < 1/5
  10. 10. 1946 1943 1932 1946 1953 1932
  11. 11. From the 10th to the 6th centuries BC the Jewish people enjoyed political sovereignty over an area very similar to modern Israel Herodian Period 30 BC to 70 AD Twelve Tribes of Israel Kingdom of David and Solomon 1000 BC - 586 BC
  12. 12. Beginning in the 6th century BC until 1948 AD, this Biblical territory was ruled by a series of foreign empires 586-538 BC—Babylonian Conquest Temple is destroyed 538-333 BC—Persian Period 515 BCE 2nd Temple completed 333-63 BC—Hellenistic Period 142-63 BC Hasmonean Rule 63 BC-313 AD—Roman Rule 2nd Temple destroyed Romans rename Israel/Judea: Palestine (Philistia) 313-636—Byzantine Period 636-1095—Muslim Rule 1095-1291—Crusades 1291-1516—Mamluk Rule 1516-1918—Ottoman Empire Canaan 1918-1948—British Empire
  13. 13. Judea Greece 26 B.C. 263 B.C. Judea Judea 134 B.C. 4 B.C. Judea 67 B.C. Rome 79 A.D.
  14. 14. 1867 - The Innocents Abroad quot;A desolate country whose soil is rich enough but is given over wholly to weeds. A silent, mournful expanse. We never saw a human being on the whole route. There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country.quot;
  15. 15. In the late 19th century, Jewish life in Europe became increasingly difficult. Fiddler on the Roof The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion: A Tsarist Calumny Shtetl
  16. 16. President Benjamin Harrison “By the revival of antisemitic laws, great numbers of those unfortunate people [Jews] have been constrained to abandon their homes… …because of the harsh measures now being enforced against the Hebrews in Russia… It is estimated that over 1,000,000 will be forced from Russia within a few years.” December 9, 1891 Letter to Czar Alexander III
  17. 17. Jan 13, 1898 Liberal France displayed overt anti-Semitism Corporal Dreyfus
  18. 18. Modern Zionism 1882-1948: The national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland. The return to Zion has been part of Jewish religious life since the Babylonian Exile.586 BCE Theodor Herzl in Palestine Early 20th Century ―The Jewish State‖ published 1896
  19. 19. President Theodore Roosevelt Pogrom in Kishinev April 6-7, 1903 On Easter weekend a pogrom in Kishinev, Romania left: 49 Jews dead 500+ injured 700 homes looted and destroyed 600 businesses looted 2000 families homeless ―[The USA] should desire eagerly to give expression to its horror on an In reaction to this tragedy, American Jewry occasion like that of the massacre of the Jews in Kishenef…‖ became a more tightly knit community.
  20. 20. 1916 President Woodrow Wilson ―…there are nine millions of Jews, the great majority of whom are destitute of food, shelter, and clothing; driven from their homes without warning...causing starvation, disease and untold suffering; I, Woodrow Wilson, do proclaim January 27, 1916, as a day upon which to make contributions for the aid of the stricken Jewish people. Contributions may be addressed to the American Red Cross.‖
  21. 21. Balfour Declaration, November 2nd, 1917 ―His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.‖ U.S. Congress Endorses the Balfour Declaration Public Resolution No. 73, 67th Congress, Second Session, September 21, 1922
  22. 22. International, post-war conferences proposed several options for accommodating the various interests in Palestine Allocated as the region of Jewish National Home League of Nations San Remo Conference 1920 Division of the Mandate 1922-1923 Approximate area in which the Jews hoped to set up their National Home Confirmed by the League of Nations on July 24, 1922. Came into operation September 1923.
  23. 23. Kristallnacht 1929 to 1939: A Dark Decade • 1929 — Hebron Pogrom – Jews leave Hebron after 800 years • 1933 — Hitler seizes power • 1938 — Kristallnacht – Jewish businesses destroyed Jewish Immigration to Palestine • 1939 — The British White Papers – Jewish immigration curtailed • 1939 — Voyage of S.S. St. Louis – 1,000 Jewish refugees returned to Nazis • 1939 — Germany invades Poland S.S. St. Louis 8 million Jews trapped in Europe
  24. 24. Nazi Liquidation of Kishinev - 1941 10,000Jews were slaughtered in the streets and in their homes. 2,000Jews were subsequently murdered by a unit comprised of men from Einsatzkommandos 11a from Einsatzgruppen D. This unit selected for murder members of the liberal professions (doctors, lawyers, engineers) and Jewish intellectuals. Researcher: Matatias Carp
  25. 25. United Nations Partition Plan In 1947, the United Nations voted to divide Palestine into two states: One for the Jews (orange) and one for the Arabs (pink). The Jews accepted this partition.
  26. 26. Israel‘s Declaration of Independence (excerpt) May 14, 1948 ―THE STATE OF ISRAEL… will be based on the precepts of liberty, justice and peace taught by the Hebrew Prophets; will uphold the full social and political equality of all its citizens, without distinction of race, creed or sex; will guarantee full freedom of conscience, worship, education and culture; will safeguard the sanctity and inviolability of the shrines and Holy Places of all religions.‖
  27. 27. The War of Independence May 15, 1948 quot;This will be a war of extermination and a momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacres and the Crusades.‖ - Azzam Pasha, Secretary-General of the Arab League
  28. 28. Under the armistice agreement, Egypt and Jordan occupied key areas previously designated for a Palestinian state under the Partition plan
  29. 29. While the 1948 War created a large number of Jewish and Arab refugees, they faced very different fates Approximately 700,000 Jewish refugees were forced to leave their ancestral homes in the Arab world and emigrate to Israel. A similar number of Arab refugees left partitioned Palestine during and after the 1948 war, for various reasons, and were forced into refugee camps in Arab countries.
  30. 30. Of the Arab refugees from Palestine, very few were absorbed into other Arab states  Only Jordan offered Arab refugees full rights and citizenship.  Elsewhere in the Arab world, refugees are required to live in refugee camps, are denied political rights, jobs, education and access to proper medical facilities.
  31. 31. Arab Violence Before 1967 1920-1921 Anti-Jewish Riots -135 deaths 1929 ―Disturbances‖ Hebron - 67 1936-1939 Husseini‘s Army- 415 Mufti Husseini 1948 Joint Arab Invasion - 6373 1951-1955 ―Fedayeen‖ terrorist attacks: 922 Israelis killed - attacks from Husseini Hitler Jordan, Egypt, Syria, and Lebanon ―There will be no peace on Israel‘s border because we demand vengeance and vengeance is Israel‘s death.‖ Gamal Abdel Nasser - Egypt - August 31, 1955 Nasser
  32. 32. After a series of Arab summits dominated by Nasser, the PLO was created by the Arab League in 1964  The Arab League concluded the time was not right to fight a ―war of national liberation‖ for Palestine, and chose instead to continue raids and terrorist attacks.  Originally based in Jordan, to serve as a Palestinian government-in-exile.  Yasser Arafat elected leader of the PLO in 1968.
  33. 33. Excerpts from the PLO Charter • Article 19: The partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the state of Israel are entirely illegal • Article 20: Claims of historical or religious ties of Jews with Palestine are incompatible with the facts of history • Article 21: …reject all solutions which are substitutes for the total liberation of Palestine… • Article 22: …destroy the Zionist and imperialist presence… • Article 23: …require all states to consider Zionism an illegitimate movement, to outlaw its existence, and to ban its operations…
  34. 34. The 1967 Six-Day War Jews return to the Western Wall for the first time since 1948 when Jordan occupied East Jerusalem
  35. 35. The Arab League Khartoum Resolutions September 1, 1967 No Recognition of Israel NoNegotiations with Israel NoPeace with Israel
  36. 36. U.N. Security Council Resolution 242 22 November 1967 ―establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East‖ ―…withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories…‖ ―[Israel‘s] right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force‖
  37. 37. The Yom Kippur War - October 1973 While Israelis were observing Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year, armies of Syria and Egypt, aided by forces from Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and other Arab nations, invaded Israel.
  38. 38. The Camp David Accords: 1978-1982 Since 1979, Egypt and Israel have enjoyed the benefits of normalized relations including economic cooperation and security.
  39. 39. 1st Lebanon War: 1982 - 1985 Hezbollah Last Israeli tank leaves Lebanon in 1985
  40. 40. Palestinian terrorism (1987 – 1993) • Terrorism conducted by the PLO with assistance and competition from a newly formed terrorist group: Hamas • 3,600 Molotov cocktail attacks • 100 hand grenade attacks • 600 assaults with guns or explosives • 27 Israelis killed • 1,400+ Israeli civilians injured • 1,700 Israeli soldiers injured
  41. 41. Oslo Accords —1993 • Provided an interim agreement over a 5-year transitional period • Allowed for Palestinian self- government and elections • Immediate authority given to Palestinian officials in major economic and social areas of government • On security, the PA was obligated to create a ―strong In 1996, more than 95% police force‖ and Israel was of Palestinian Arabs were living allowed to defend its ―overall under the control and security.‖ governance of the Palestinian Authority.
  42. 42. Peace with Jordan In 1994, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and King Hussein signed a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan.
  43. 43. In the Camp David (2000) and Taba (2001) negotiations, the Barak government offered Palestinians the broadest concessions in the region‘s history: Palestinian Issues Demand Israeli Offer 97% of the West 100% of the West Bank and Gaza + Territories Bank and Gaza 3% of lands within While the Israeli Israel offer may not have Palestinian East Palestinian East been perfect, it was Jerusalem Jerusalem Jerusalem a genuine attempt to solve the conflict 4 options of All 3 million citizenship to refugees will be Refugees able to become refugees, limited number will move Israeli citizens to Israel
  44. 44. Recent war of terror beginning in September 2000 ―[The uprising] had been planned since Chairman Arafat‘s return from Camp David, when he turned the tables on the former U.S. president and rejected the American conditions.‖ ImadFaluji - Palestinian Authority Communications Minister - March 3, 2001
  45. 45. Recent war of terror Dome of the Rock ―I still have not recovered Western Wall from the magnitude of the missed opportunity that January. Sixteen hundred Palestinian dead so far. And seven hundred Israelis dead. In my judgment, not one life of those Israeli and Palestinians dead is justified.‖ Prince Bandar of Saudi Arabia March 24, 2003
  46. 46. What is the Security Barrier? A temporary, non-violent Walled sections shield cars from security measure snipers, comprising approximately 5% of the barrier
  47. 47. While Jewish Towns in the West Bank and Gaza are an issue, they are not the major impediment to peace Settlements have never been an obstacle to peace From 1949-1967, when Jews were forbidden to live in the West Bank, the Arabs refused to make peace with Israel. In 2000, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak offered to dismantle dozens of settlements, but the Palestinians still would not agree to end the conflict. Unilateral Disengagement Ariel Sharon evacuated 8000+ Jews from Gaza and some West Bank outposts. Shechem/Nablus
  48. 48. Is Peace Hadassah Medical Organization Possible promotes peace in the region. • Equal treatment for all people, treating more ? terror victims than any other medical center. • Model of cooperation and coexistence set by the mixed staff of people of all faiths. Yes!
  49. 49. Is Peace Possible? 1978-1982 Camp David Accords - Peace with Egypt 1993 Oslo Accords Israel has actively and 1994 repeatedly sought peace Peace with since 1948. Jordan
  50. 50. quot;A desolate country whose soil is rich enough but is given over wholly to weeds. A silent, mournful expanse.‖ Mark Twain Tel Aviv 1909
  51. 51. Tel Aviv 2004
  52. 52. Haifa 1931
  53. 53. Haifa 2000
  54. 54. Sand Dunes - Tel Aviv 1909
  55. 55. Leveling Dunes - Tel Aviv 1909
  56. 56. Leveling Dunes - Tel Aviv 1910
  57. 57. New Street - Tel Aviv 1914
  58. 58. New Street - Tel Aviv 2004
  59. 59. 21st Century Anti-Semitic Vandalism
  60. 60. Protocols of the Bookstore Elders of Zion in The Czarist Forgery Amman Jordan Michael Moore Che Guevara Mein Kampf: By Adolf Hitler
  61. 61. Berlin Ramallah, October 2000 Lynching of two Israeli Soldiers at Palestinian Authority Police Station Indoctrination of Children
  62. 62. Indoctrination of Children
  63. 63. Indoctrination of Children
  64. 64. Jan 1, 2007 Fatah Leader Abu Shahin to Al-Qaeda
  65. 65. Iranian President Ahmadinejad October 26, 2005 Centrifuges at Natanz Facility 2008 ―There is no doubt that the new wave in Palestine will soon wipe off this disgraceful blot [Israel] from the face of the Islamic world. Anybody who recognizes Israel will burn in the fire of the Islamic nation‘s fury.‖
  66. 66. May 13, 2008 Iranian President Ahmadinejad His Blog quot;This terrorist and criminal state is backed by foreign powers, but this regime would soon be swept away by the Palestinians.quot; quot; would be futile to hold a birthday ceremony for something which is already dead.‖ …anniversary celebrations could not save this quot;rotten and stinking corpse.quot;
  67. 67. Ellis Island
  68. 68. Population of Israel, by Origin ―The Hebrew is never a beggar; he has always kept the law - life by toil - often under severe and oppressive civil restrictions. It is also true that no race, sect, or class has more fully cared for its own than the Hebrew race.…‖ President Harrison 1891
  69. 69. © 2005 Donald Meissner
  70. 70. Thank You ??? Current Issues Discussion © 2005 Donald Meissner