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ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012 Community Initiatives for Solid Waste Mana...
ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012form Resident Welfare Association and Feder...
ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012transport the household, commercial and str...
ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012     VIII. THE KEY CHALLENGES OF THE PROJEC...
ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012              X. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT      ...
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Community Initiatives for Solid Waste Management at Ward Level: The Case of Kumbarakoppal, Mysore, INDIA


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Community Initiatives for Solid Waste Management at Ward Level: The Case of Kumbarakoppal, Mysore, INDIA

  1. 1. ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012 Community Initiatives for Solid Waste Management at Ward Level: The Case of Kumbarakoppal, Mysore, INDIA Dr. B. Shankar Associate Professor in Urban and Regional Planning Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore, Mysore, India E-mail: doddi43@gmail.comAbstract: The involvement of local citizen, community, resident 5000.The settlement is typical a transformed urban villagewelfare associations and stakeholders in this process managing with grid-iron pattern and has, many narrow roads and thewaste at household/community level is very much crucial in width of the road varies from 2mts to 9 mts and total length ofurban villages for achieving environmental cleanliness. road is 18.29 kms. It has rural traditions and cultures in manyKumbarapoppal is an urban village which has transformedfrom village into a neighbourhood in Mysore City. The areas. The majority of the houses are country tiled andinitiation of community based solid waste management system Mangalore tiled houses. The generation of commercial solidby forming a Resident Welfare Association at neighbourhood wastes are from 228 shops, 2 choultaries, 3 hotels, 11 meatlevel through segregation, transporting, recovering recyclable shops, 5 hospitals and clinics and 9 temples.wastes and composting at community level has been an effectiveinnovative method. The paper presents the innovate method III. INITIATIVES OF COMMUNITY BASED SOLIDof managing the solid waste locally in Kumbara Koppal by WASTE MANAGEMENT BY MLCthe Resident Welfare Association and Community BasedOrganisation with the facilitation from the Local Political The then Member of Legislative Council (MLC) wasLeaders for meeting key challenges solid waste. mooted the concept of ward-parliament in the minds of the local residents. He also took up the issue of initiation ofIndex of Terms: Solid Waste, Community, Composting, Resident community based solid waste management proposals withWelfare Association. the elected corporators and officials of the City Corporation and initiated consultative process for identifying the I. INTRODUCTION stakeholders for facilitating the programme. The MLC took initiative to convince the City Corporation officials, local Solid waste is generated at household and neighbourhood residents along with the councillor and EXONORA forlevels, which contains both biodegradable and non-bio- initiating the process of door-to-door primary collection,degradable. These wastes are to be collected, transported, segregation of waste both bio-degradable and non-processed and disposed properly. The Solid Waste degradable waste at the residents’ door-step levels,Management (Handling) Rules, 2000 emphasises on transporting this waste using hand carts and tricycles andparticipation of community, welfare associations, and non- composting of solid waste at community level.governmental organisations for house-house collection, The MLC undertook drives for redressing citizenprocessing and disposing. one such experiment of solid grievances, ward level day-to-day problems and maintenancewastes management was initiated in Kumbara Koppal in the works to involve the people actively in the processes. HisCity of Mysore by forming Resident Welfare Associations facilitation on re-development of a slum in collaboration with(RWAs) and involving all the stakeholders viz. local citizen, the help of Karnataka Slum Clearance Board, construction ofNGO, local community, and elected councillor and. The then access road through City Corporation, formation of shree-Member of Legislative Council, who resided in this area, has shakthi groups for micro-financing, initiation of skill training,been an instrumental in initiating the community based solid entrepreneurship development and self-employment ventureswaste management in Kumbara Koppal. The paper presents in collaboration with the SJSRY, Industries and Commercethe ward-level initiatives, formation of Resident Welfare Department, RUDSET, and other women developmentAssociations, leadership motives for facilitation, stakeholders organizations, have developed the confidence in the mindsparticipation and mobilising local resources for initiating of the local residents. A series of weekly meetings andprimary collection, segregation, transporting and processing advocacy programmes followed by involving city corporationof waste through composting for making litter-free (zero health officers, engineers, pourakarmikas, health inspectorswaste) ward and meeting the compliance SWM Rules as well. have helped in getting support from the City Corporation in identifying land and building including equipments and II. BACKGROUND OF KUMBARAKOPPAL implements for carrying out the solid management process at Kumbarakoppal is situated on the northern side of ward level. When solid waste management was set motionMysore City at 7 kms from the centre of the city, in a ward No. with the help of EXONARA Kumbarakoppal extension, the28. The present estimated population of Kumbarakoppal is Nirmala Nagar Scheme was introduced by the Government to© 2012 ACEE 6DOI: 01.IJTUD.02.01. 28
  2. 2. ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012form Resident Welfare Association and Federations of RWAs of the Area. A stall was opened by the RWAs in Dasarato make more institutional arrangement at ward level. Exhibition and a series of meetings were being organized to solve the problems of RWAs. The structure of RWA and its IV. FORMATION OF RWAS federation is given in the fig.1. The federations that were formed in Nirmala Nagar scheme is functioning very even The guidelines for Resident Welfare Association (RWA) though the scheme is winded up.were issued by the Mysore City Corporation. An area consistsof 500 households in a RWA is to be demarcated spatially in V. INITIATION OF COMMUNITY BASED SOLID WASTEa map in each ward. One representative leader is to be elected MANAGEMENT SYSTEMfor every 50 households and ten representatives in an RWAconsists of an Executive Committee, of which a President, A. AWARENESS DRIVESVice-President, Secretary and Treasurer with 6 Directors. Ward The system of door-to-door collection was introduced inCorporator will be the Honorary President for RWA. A nodal collaboration with Mysore City Corporation and a Non-officer from the City Corporation will monitor and supervise governmental organization, EXONORA, Chennai with thethe work of RWAs. The responsibilities of RWA are (a) to lay support of local leaders and stakeholders. The MLC, whoroad map and workout timings for collection of solid waste in resided this area, carried forward messages in the minds ofarea and inform to each and every households; (b) to identify local residents for solid waste management awareness drive.primary storage space in the RWA area and place the solid He participated in the streetwise awareness drives, laterwaste in the identified place; (c) to obtain dumping bins from involved in weekly meetings. He involved in addressing day-the City Corporation for storing the solid waste; and (d) to to-day local problems of the citizen as a follow-up action ininitiate action against those littering the solid waste either by coordination with the officials of City Corporation. The localthe residents or office bearers of RWA. problem redressal became a tedious and time-consuming task The Association is required meet in the first week of every and arranged series of consultations with the City Municipalmonth compulsorily and the association visits at least once Commissioner, Honourable Mayor and other officers and gotin a week, each of the households to listen issues/grievances. the support from the City Corporation. The MLC along withThe representation of all religion, caste and classes need to the local Corporator, RWAs officer bearers, Health/Deputybe ensured in the RWA. The motivational drives were Health Officer, Engineer, Health Inspector of the areaencouraged to build the confidence among the local residents, conducted the series of weekly meetings to accelerate theEnvironmental Clubs of Schools and Colleges. The solid waste management drives. The people, who raised theassociation has powers to levy user charges of Rs.10-20 from problems in the operation of door-door collection system,residents, Rs.20-50 from shop owners and establishments were invited for weekly meetings and their doubts used to beand Rs.50-100 from hotels, chowltry others. The RWA’s cleared in the meeting.responsibilities are to include conducting regular monthlymeetings, managing accounts, maintaining the tricycles, B. COLLECTION AT SOURCEpushcarts, and equipment. The RWA can engage four A two-member team has been visiting each of householdmembers of ‘urban relatives’ are also called ’nagara bhandu’ for primary collection of waste at source, in their respectiveor pourakarmikas on contract basis part-time or full time for areas along the tri-cycle. Initially, about 75% of the householdsprimary collection with a remuneration fixed from time to time; were responded in the area. The Collection time starts atmaintain attendance and look after the welfare of the urban 7.00AM and continued up to 100.AM in the morning andrelatives including monitoring. now all the households are participating in door-door collection. C. SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE While collecting the waste from each of the households, the organic waste and inorganic wastes were segregated and put them in different containers. The organic waste was further segregated at the processing yard (grave-yard) to use only bio-degradable materials in the compost bins. The non-biodegradable wastes were further segregated for marketing the wastes. The wastes are segregated every day immediately after transport to the grave yard and when the solid waste is fresh. The solid waste which lying on the road contains both bio-degradable and non-bio-degradable is also Fig 1. Structure of Resident Welfare Association transported to compost yard and segregated on day-to-dayKeeping the above guidelines, four Resident Welfare basis.Associations were formed namely Cauvery Extension andMadheswara Extension one each and two in Kumbarakoppal D. TRANSPORTATION AND PROCESSING OF WASTEunder the honorary chairmanship of the Elected Corporator Tricycles and hand pushcarts are used to collect and© 2012 ACEE 7DOI: 01.IJTUD.02.01.28
  3. 3. ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012transport the household, commercial and street wastes from responded to pay user charges of Rs.10 on monthly basis.the locality to the processing graveyard by urban bandhus. 30-40 households paid user-charges in each of the RWA areas. People, who have come forward to pay user-charges on theirE. COMPOSTING own voluntarily from them user-charges, were collected. An Two methods namely composting and vermi-composting amount of Rs.50-100 per event was collected from thewere followed. Composting was done in a simple method of Community Building (Chatra), when it was used for individualaerobic digestion. Organic segregated wastes were dumped purposes. After the introduction of Solid Waste Cess, theby following the wind rose method, wherein, Bamboo Mysore City Corporation has taken the responsibility of tocontainers with a dimension of 5’x 12’ x5’ constructed. The fund for the project and the user charges has been stopped.container exposed to air, but located below the banyan tree.Wind-rose was formed and cow dung was sprayed over the VII. LOCAL SUPPORT AND CO-OPERATIONwind rose to accelerate the process of decomposition as aculture. It was allowed to decompose for 45 days and taken Firstly, the community initiatives were supported fullyout for sieving to get the compost materials. The organic well by the local councillor. The Local Member of Legislativewaste was allowed for 15 days within in the bamboo container Assembly (MLA) was also giving encouragement to this typewith the cow-dung treatment. After that semi-composted of local action oriented program. Secondly, the Communitymaterial was taken out and verms were added in a shaded has a strong base and long history of supporting localarea. initiatives. The local pachayaths ( local governance) was very strong in this settlement and it has been a tradition where in VI. EFFORTS FOR RESOURCE MOBILIZATION people used to participate in the local area developmental activities. Kumbarakoppal Abhyudhaya Sangha (KKAS) wasA. CONTRIBUTION FROM CITY CORPORATION in operational which had a legal status with formal City Corporation has contributed towards salary and other organisation, having registered under the Karnataka Societiesexpenditure initially until the community generated out of Registration Act. As per the Abhyudhaya Sangha, thewaste. When the Resident Welfare Associations were formed, extension area was divided into 8 groups (i.e., 8 zones) eachthe City Corporation provided infrastructure in the form of group members elects one leader to represent the Sanghaland building and the equipments and tools for promotion of and support for area developmental activities which werethe Community Based Solid Waste Management System and initiated by the leaders. The people used to recognise theare: (a) a piece of land allotted (earmarked) in a burial ground work of group leader and used to give respect for theirof Kumbarakoppal, (b) a shed with a dimension of 25’x60’ dedicated works.was constructed and provided for the community managed The main initiatives which were undertaken by the KKASsolid waste management and (c) equipments. After the were:introduction of Solid Waste Management Cess, the entire i)Building the Choultry including its maintenanceexpernditure of Salary and equipments are met out by the ii)Building Temple including its maintenanceMysore City Corporation to promote the best practices of Even though, people used to support for different politicalzero waste management. parties among the members of the groups or leaders, the main strength of this settlement was that people used unitB. CONTRIBUTION FROM LOCAL AREA DEVELOPMENT FUND together for developmental works even though there are When the EXONORA withdrew their support, MLC had political differences and their personal differences used tocontributed out of his local fund for payment of salary and solve in the group meetings by themselves. The involvementother expenditure for a short while when the project was of Member of Legislative Council (MLC) had given big boostunder crisis, until the corporation has taken over the for the community initiatives.responsibility. The MLC was a local resident of the area, approachableC. SALE OF COMPOST AND NON-BIO-DEGRADABLE MATERIALS by the people to solve their day to day problems. He used to involve in the local sangha activities and community activities The Resident Welfare Association has generated funds as well. He earned reputation when he was a Chairman of theout of sale compost and waste, 3-4 tons per month an average. Mysore Urban Development Authority, and he employedThe compost was initially purchased by the Mysore City innovative approaches to solve the problem of housing inCorporation for park management and urban forestry. The the City of Mysore which has brought lot of laurels to him.Federation of RWA make sales to local residents at Rs.3 to He had recognised the factor of local empowerment of theRs.4 per kg to generate funds for procurement and people and innovativeness in community based solidmanagement of equipments and compost plant.The management by collecting information both from the localFederation is supplying compost to the Mysore City people and officers of City Corporation. He started involvingCorporation at free of urban forestry. in the program, had dialogues with the people and workedD. COLLECTION OF USER CHARGES for development of area resulted in the mobilising the support An Amount of Rs.10/- from each household was collected of local people to the program.on a monthly basis initially. Hardly 10% of the people© 2012 ACEE 8DOI: 01.IJTUD.02.01. 28
  4. 4. ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012 VIII. THE KEY CHALLENGES OF THE PROJECTThe key challenges faced by the project are as follows:1. Involving the people in the local community initiatives.2. Addressing the local grievances and basic amenitiesdelivery problems and make follow-up action by the MLCand Corporation on day-to-day basis3. When people were ready to implement the program, therewas no approval of Nirmala Nagar Scheme at the Governmentlevel which frustrated the local community4. Transfer of officials from one section to another section iscommon but to retain in the same section for long time forsupporting the new initiatives was a challenging task5. Initially, EXONORA agreed to extend support and laterwithdrawn to share their community based solid wastemanagement experience.6. Willingness to pay to change the mindsets of the people7. Whether the Mysore City will extend the support ofpurchasing the manure from the Community for sustainingthe project at least for 2 to 3 years. IX. STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATIONThe following stakeholders were participated in introducingthe system. TABLE I. ACTORS/STAKEHOLDERS AND T YPE OF SUPPORT EXTENDED TABLE II. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES© 2012 ACEE 9DOI: 01.IJTUD.02.01.28
  5. 5. ACEE Int. J. on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 2, No. 1, April 2012 X. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT vi) Revolving Funds of Rs.1.00 to be provided for each of RWAs for mobilisation of funds and generate fund. The community members have started maintaining vii) All the Federations and RWAs to be registered to getaccounts after establishing the formal organisation of RWA access to financial May 2005 and before that it was maintained on ad-hoc viii) Budgetary support to RWAs and Federations to bebasis. It has been observed from their recurring expenditure provided by the City Corporation.that the RWA spent an amount of Rs.1.051/- lakhs for seven ix) The Neighbourhood Groups and Neighbourhoodmonths period, which worked out to be an average Rs.15,000/ Committees of SJSRY scheme are to be involved in the process- per month. The expenditure mainly incurred to honorarium of community eight personnel, who have involved in door-to-door x) Shree-skati groups and neighbourhood groups may becollection and a supervisor. An amount of Rs.1400/- for the engaged for waste collection and for their local economiccollectors and Rs.3000/- per month for the supervisor was developmentprovided for their work from morning 7.00 am to 1.00 pm. xi) Alternative leaders need to be identified and theirNow, the urban bandhus have been provided with minimum leadership skills to be developed for sustenance of the projectwages of government with all allowances. After the city xii) Alternative mechanism for sale of compost with enrichmentgovernment’s introduction of solid waste management cess, and branding may be undertaken to capture the marketthe entire expenditure is met by the City Corporation. through community members xiii) Creation of improved infrastructure namely, concrete base XI. LEARNING POINTS for handling the solid waste, collection of leach ate chambers,i) Community initiatives and democratic processes of shelter to cover the compost yard and proper tools includingcommunity development have helped them to build strong hand groves, landscaping of grave yard, environmentalcommunity structures of Resident Welfare Association in improvement is crucial and improvement measures to beKumbarakoppal settlement. undertaken immediately.ii) Strong Political support under the leadership of the then xiv) The documentation best practices are to be undertakenMLC, and elected representatives and official support in the form of Audio Visuals and Case Studies and case lets.reinforced confidence levels among the people.iii) Awareness to people by the community and local REFERENCEScommunity leaders was a major driving force [1] Anschutz, Justice, “Community Based Solid Waste Managementiv) Community managed compost created challenge among and Water Supply Projects: Problems and Solution”. UNEP workingthe local residents paper 2, The Netherlands, 1996.v) The revenue generation in the form of user charges and [2] Yadav, Ishhwar Chandra adn Linthoingambi N. Devi, “Studiessale of compost was sufficient to meet the management on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mysore City: A Caseexpenses to run the system on a sustainable system. Study”, Report and Opinion, 1(3), pp-15-21, 2009 Handhold support for the community initiatives from the [3] Shankar B, “Community Based Solid Waste Management: Thelocal leaders was very crucial when operational was difficult Case of Ward No.35 (Kumbarakoppal), Mysore”, State Institutedue paucity of funds. of Urban Development, Mysore, 2007. [4] B. Shankar and Chidambaraswamy, Urban Poverty Alleviationvii) Local cost effective technology options were easily Experiences of Community Development Initiatives in Karnataka,managed by the local RWA and Federation International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol.1, No.6,viii) Significant stakeholder’s participation has enabled the ACCEE, Finland, pp 72-76, 2009.RWAs for proactive participation. BIOGRAPHYXII. SUGGESTIONS FOR STRENTHENING COMMUNITY B. Shankar received the B.E. degree in Civil INITIAVATIES Engineering in 1984, M.U.R.P degree in Urbani) Resident Welfare Association needs to be undertaken and Regional Planning in 1989 and Ph.D degreeawareness programmes on segregation at source and its in Urban and Regional Planning in 1997 fromimpact on health. the University of Mysore, Mysore. He isii) Capacity Building and Training to be taken on war-footing working as Associate Professor in Urban andbasis Regional Planning at the Institute ofiii) Exchange visits to be organised to other cities of selected Development Studies, University of Mysore,local residents, Mysore. His research interests to includeiv) Awards to be instituted for encouragement of members Urban Planning, Urban Poverty, Communityand local residents to take active part in the processes. Development, Solid Waste Management,v) Information Education and Communication component to Heritage Conservation, and Planningbe introduced to strengthen the community structures Legislation.© 2012 ACEE 10DOI: 01.IJTUD.02.01. 28