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Citizenship is a term denoting
membership of a citizen in a
political society, which
membership implies, reciprocally,
a ...
Citizen is a person having the title
of citizenship. He is the member of a
democratic community who enjoy
full civil and ...
Distinguished From Nationality And
Nations.
From the point of view of
international law, “Citizenship” and
“citizen” do n...
oThe national of a State include not only its
citizens who enjoy full civil and political
privileges but also all others w...
Meaning of subject and alien.
A Citizen is a member of a
democratic community who
enjoys full civil and political
rights....
An alien is a citizen of a country
who is residing in or passing through
another country. he is a popularly
called “forei...
General ways of Acquiring Citizenship.
They are :
Involuntary method.
by birth, because of blood
relationship or place o...
by naturalization, except incase
of collective naturalization of the
inhabitants of a territory which
takes place when it...
Citizens by birth:
There are two principles or rules that govern citizenship
by birth namely:
 Jus Sanguinis- blood relat...
These two modes of acquiring
citizenships correspond to the
two kinds of Citizen,
Natural-Born and
Naturalized citizens.
Citizenship at the time of the adoption of
the Constitution.
The citizens referred to are those considered
Filipino citize...
The purpose of section 1 is to protect the
status of those who were already citizens
at the time the new Constitution took...
Citizenship by Blood Relationship.
The Philippines, in accordance with section
1, paragraph 2, follows the principle of th...
This dignifies the Filipino woman. The
Father or Mother may be a natural-born
Filipino or a Filipino by naturalization or
...
Citizen Through Election Under the 1935
Constitution.
Under the 1935 Constitution, a child born of the
Filipino mother, wh...
Citizen by naturalization.
1. Certain rights and privileges, duties and obligations
limited to Filipino citizens.
under o...
Note:
No person may be elected as President or Vice
President or member of Congress, or appointed
member of the supreme Co...
2. Constitution nationalistic in character.
3. Care in granting or denying privilege
of naturalization essential.
if the ...
4. Ideals policy on naturalization.
the policy on naturalization should
be guided by our own national
interest.
Perhaps t...
Perhaps the ideal is that only those
who have come to love the country,
who have integrated themselves into
the citizenry ...
Meaning of naturalization
Naturalization is the act of
formally adopting a foreigner into
the political body of the state...
Nature of naturalization.
An alien does not have a natural, inherent or vested fight to
be admitted to citizenship in a st...
Ways of acquiring by naturalization.
 A person may be naturalized in three ways:
1.By judgment of the court.
the foreign...
2.By direct act of congress
in this case our law-making body simply enacts an
act directly conferring citizenship or a fo...
Kinds of citizens under the constitution.
They are:
1. Natural-born citizens.
they refer to those:
a. Who at the moment of...
So a child born of Filipino Parents,
or a Filipino Father, or a Filipino
Mother after the Ratification of the
1973 constit...
2. Citizens at the time of adoption
of the new Constitution.
they refer to those who are considered
citizens of the Phili...
Citizens through election.
they refer to those born of Filipino
mothers before January 17, 9173 who
upon reaching the age...
4. Naturalized citizens
they refer to those who were
originally citizens of another
country, but who, by an
intervening a...
Loss of citizenship.
A Filipino citizen may lose his citizenship in any of the
following ways:
1. Voluntarily.
 they are:...
2. Involuntary
they are
a. by cancellation of his certificate of
naturalization by the court: and
b. by having been decla...
Reacquisition of lost Philippine
citizenship.
Citizenship may be reacquired:
1. by naturalization provide the
applicant po...
2. by repatriation of deserters of the
Philippines armed forces and
women who lost their citizenship by
reason of marriage...
3. by direct act of the congress of the
Philippines.
Repatriation is affected by merely
taking the necessary oath of alleg...
Effect of marriage of citizens to an
alien.
Under the section 4, a citizen of the
Philippines who marries an aliens
does n...
The exception is where “by their act or
omission they are deemed under the
law, to have renounced their
citizenship,” such...
Dual allegiance of citizens.
Section 5 prohibits more particularly
naturalized Filipinos from practicing
what is called “...
Note:
That the Section 5 prohibits is not
dual citizenship but dual allegiance of
citizenship arises because our laws
can...
Dual citizenship, on the other hand,
refer to the possession of two
citizenships by an individual, that of
his original ci...
Retention and reacquisition of
citizenship.
Filipinos aboard may now acquire dual
citizenship. R.A. No. 9225, the “Citize...
1. Retention of Philippines citizenship.
 any provision of law to the contrary
notwithstanding, natural-born citizens of ...
2. Derivative citizenship.
 The unmarried child, whether
legitimate, illegitimate or
adopted, below 18 of age, of
those w...
3. Civil and political rights and liabilities.
 those who retain or re-acquire
Philippines citizenship under the
Act shal...
Rights with corresponding obligations.
Citizens should realize that for every right
(see Art. II.) There must be a
corresp...
One of the reasons for the
turmoil and ferment in many
countries is the attitude of
demanding one’s rights under the
law a...
Rights become fully available for
enjoyment only when all the citizens,
without exception, comply loyally
with all their o...
Duties and obligations of citizens.
1. To be loyal to the republic.
 by loyalty, we mean faith and confidence
in the repu...
2. To defend the state.
Men may differ and do differ on religious
beliefs and creeds, government policies, the
wisdom and...
3. To contribute to the
development and welfare of
the state.
 the development and welfare of the
state should be the con...
4. To uphold the constitution and obey
the laws.
 the constitution is the expression of the
sovereign will of our people....
5. To cooperate with duly constituted
authorities.
community living imposes obligation and
responsibilities upon the indi...
Regulations and ordinance of the states.
He must also to it that the laws are observe
by the whole community. That the of...
6. To exercise rights responsibly and
with due regard for the rights of
others.
society is composed of men, each with
int...
7. To engage in gainful work.
 Employment is not the
obligation solely of the state. Every
citizen should consider it his...
8. To register and vote.
suffrage is both a privilege and
a duty which every qualified
citizen must perform. Ts is
throug...
Citizenship
Citizenship
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Citizenship

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Citizenship

  1. 1. Citizenship is a term denoting membership of a citizen in a political society, which membership implies, reciprocally, a duty of allegiance on the part of the member and duty of protection on the part of the State.
  2. 2. Citizen is a person having the title of citizenship. He is the member of a democratic community who enjoy full civil and political rights, and is accorded protection inside and outside the territory of the State.
  3. 3. Distinguished From Nationality And Nations. From the point of view of international law, “Citizenship” and “citizen” do not exactly mean the same as “Nationality “and “national.”
  4. 4. oThe national of a State include not only its citizens who enjoy full civil and political privileges but also all others who are not its citizens, but because they owe allegiance to it, are not regarded as aliens, While all citizen are nationals of a State, not all nationals are citizens of a state.
  5. 5. Meaning of subject and alien. A Citizen is a member of a democratic community who enjoys full civil and political rights. In Monarchial State, He is often called Subject.
  6. 6. An alien is a citizen of a country who is residing in or passing through another country. he is a popularly called “foreigner.”He is not given the full rights to citizenship but is entitled to received protection as to his person or property.
  7. 7. General ways of Acquiring Citizenship. They are : Involuntary method. by birth, because of blood relationship or place of birth. Voluntary Method.  by naturalization, except incase of collective naturalization of the inhabitants of a territory which takes place when it is ceded by one state to another as a result of a conquest or treaty.
  8. 8. by naturalization, except incase of collective naturalization of the inhabitants of a territory which takes place when it is ceded by one state to another as a result of a conquest or treaty.
  9. 9. Citizens by birth: There are two principles or rules that govern citizenship by birth namely:  Jus Sanguinis- blood relationship is the basis for the acquisition of citizenship under this rule. The children follow the citizenship of the parents or one of them. Jus Soli or Jusloci- place birth serves as the basis for acquiring citizenship under this rule. A person becomes a citizen of the state where he is born irrespective of the parents. This principle prevails in the United State.
  10. 10. These two modes of acquiring citizenships correspond to the two kinds of Citizen, Natural-Born and Naturalized citizens.
  11. 11. Citizenship at the time of the adoption of the Constitution. The citizens referred to are those considered Filipino citizens under the 1973 Constitution at the time of the affectivity of the new Constitution on February 2, 1987 by virtue of proclamation No. 58 of the president. The purpose of section 1 is to protect the status of those who were already citizens at the time the new Constitution took effect. A Filipino citizen under the 1973 Constitution who has lost his citizenship at the time of the time of the ratification of the new Constitution is not a citizen of
  12. 12. The purpose of section 1 is to protect the status of those who were already citizens at the time the new Constitution took effect. A Filipino citizen under the 1973 Constitution who has lost his citizenship at the time of the time of the ratification of the new Constitution is not a citizen of the Philippines.
  13. 13. Citizenship by Blood Relationship. The Philippines, in accordance with section 1, paragraph 2, follows the principle of the jus sanguinis. In the determination of the citizenship of the child, Filipino mothers are placed by the Constitution on equal footing with their husbands. This dignifies the Filipino woman. The Father or Mother may be a natural-born Filipino or a Filipino by naturalization or by election. If the child is born in a state where the rule of jus soli obtains, or the child’s father or mother is an alien, it would be a case of a dual citizenship.
  14. 14. This dignifies the Filipino woman. The Father or Mother may be a natural-born Filipino or a Filipino by naturalization or by election. If the child is born in a state where the rule of jus soli obtains, or the child’s father or mother is an alien, it would be a case of a dual citizenship.
  15. 15. Citizen Through Election Under the 1935 Constitution. Under the 1935 Constitution, a child born of the Filipino mother, who was married to a foreigner, is born an alien and remains an alien during his minority until he elects Philippines citizenship. The rule then, as it is now, is that a Filipina does not lose her citizenship by her marriage to an alien. However, it was not clear whether those who had elected citizenship under the 1935 Constitution are to be considered as natural-born Filipino citizens.
  16. 16. Citizen by naturalization. 1. Certain rights and privileges, duties and obligations limited to Filipino citizens. under our constitution and our laws there are certain rights and privileges that could be enjoy only by Filipino citizens. under the constitution, only qualified citizens can exercise the right of suffrage.
  17. 17. Note: No person may be elected as President or Vice President or member of Congress, or appointed member of the supreme Court or any lower collegiate court, or member of any of the Constitutional Commissions, or of the Central Monetary Authority, Ombudsman or his Deputy unless he is a natural-born citizen of Philippines.
  18. 18. 2. Constitution nationalistic in character. 3. Care in granting or denying privilege of naturalization essential. if the privilege of naturalization would be granted on easy terms to foreigner not seriously intent on acquiring Filipino citizenship but not only desirous of improving his economic condition, then it is likely that the nationalistic provisions of the Constitution would be reduced to a barren form or words.
  19. 19. 4. Ideals policy on naturalization. the policy on naturalization should be guided by our own national interest. Perhaps the ideal is that only those who have come to love the country, who have integrated themselves into the citizenry and who can contribute to the develop of the nation should be conferred
  20. 20. Perhaps the ideal is that only those who have come to love the country, who have integrated themselves into the citizenry and who can contribute to the develop of the nation should be conferred citizenship by naturalization.
  21. 21. Meaning of naturalization Naturalization is the act of formally adopting a foreigner into the political body of the state and clothing him with the rights and privilege of citizenship. It implies the renunciation of a former nationality and the fact of entrance to a similar relation towards a new body politic.
  22. 22. Nature of naturalization. An alien does not have a natural, inherent or vested fight to be admitted to citizenship in a state. Citizenship is a matter of grace, favor or privilege which a sovereign government may confer on, or withhold from , an alien or grant to him under such conditions as it sees fit without the support of any reason whatsoever. Citizenship in our Republic, be it ever Most powerful nation f the world, can take such Citizenship for granted or assume it as a matter of Right. In view of the above principles , the rule is that in case of doubt concerning the grant of citizenship, such doubt be resolved in favor of the state and against the applicant for naturalization.
  23. 23. Ways of acquiring by naturalization.  A person may be naturalized in three ways: 1.By judgment of the court. the foreigner who wants to become a Filipino citizen must apply for naturalization with the proper Regional trail court .the revise naturalization act is the present naturalization law. such law shall also continue in force pursuant to the transitory provision of the Constitution (Art. XVIII, Sec.3.);
  24. 24. 2.By direct act of congress in this case our law-making body simply enacts an act directly conferring citizenship or a foreigner. 3.By administrative proceeding Under R.A. No.9139 (Jan, 8, 2001), Known as the administrative naturalization law of 2000,”aliens born and residing in the Philippines may be granted Philippine citizenship by administrative proceedings before a special committee on naturalization. The petition for citizenship shall be filled with the committee which has the power to approve, deny or reject application as provided in the law.
  25. 25. Kinds of citizens under the constitution. They are: 1. Natural-born citizens. they refer to those: a. Who at the moment of their birth are already citizens of the Philippines, and b. Do not have perform any act to acquire His Philippine Citizenship.
  26. 26. So a child born of Filipino Parents, or a Filipino Father, or a Filipino Mother after the Ratification of the 1973 constitution on January 17, 1973, is natural-born Citizen .It would seemed that a natural born citizen who hast lost his citizenship but subsequently reacquired it is not a natural born citizen in view of letter. .
  27. 27. 2. Citizens at the time of adoption of the new Constitution. they refer to those who are considered citizens of the Philippines under the 1973 Constitution at the time of the adoption of the new Constitution. 3. Citizens through election.  they refer to those born of Filipino mothers before January 17, 9173 who upon reaching the age of majority elect Philippines citizenship after the ratification of the 1973 constitution (Even prior to the affectivity of the new constitution on Feb. 2, 9187) pursuant to the provisions of the 1935 Constitution. They are placed on the level as those born of Filipino mothers on or after January 17 9173.
  28. 28. Citizens through election. they refer to those born of Filipino mothers before January 17, 9173 who upon reaching the age of majority elect Philippines citizenship after the ratification of the 1973 constitution (Even prior to the affectivity of the new constitution on Feb. 2, 9187) pursuant to the provisions of the 1935 Constitution. They are placed on the level as those born of Filipino mothers on or after January 17 1973.
  29. 29. 4. Naturalized citizens they refer to those who were originally citizens of another country, but who, by an intervening act (i,e., naturalization), have acquired new citizenship in a different country.
  30. 30. Loss of citizenship. A Filipino citizen may lose his citizenship in any of the following ways: 1. Voluntarily.  they are: a. by naturalization in foreign country (see R.A. No.9225 infra.) b. by express renunciation of citizenship; c. by subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the constitution and laws of a foreign country; d. by rendering service to, or accepting commission in the armed forces of a foreign country ( except under certain circumstances).
  31. 31. 2. Involuntary they are a. by cancellation of his certificate of naturalization by the court: and b. by having been declared by competent authority, a disaster in the Philippine armed force in the time of war. The voluntary lost or renunciation of one’s nationality is called expatriation. In time of war, however, a Filipino citizen cannot expatriate himself.
  32. 32. Reacquisition of lost Philippine citizenship. Citizenship may be reacquired: 1. by naturalization provide the applicant possesses none of the disqualifications provided in the naturalization law.
  33. 33. 2. by repatriation of deserters of the Philippines armed forces and women who lost their citizenship by reason of marriage to an alien, after the termination of their marital status: and
  34. 34. 3. by direct act of the congress of the Philippines. Repatriation is affected by merely taking the necessary oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines and registering the same in the proper civil registry.
  35. 35. Effect of marriage of citizens to an alien. Under the section 4, a citizen of the Philippines who marries an aliens does not lost his/her Philippine citizenship even if by the law s of his/her wife’s/ husband’s country, he/she acquires her/his nationality.
  36. 36. The exception is where “by their act or omission they are deemed under the law, to have renounced their citizenship,” such as (under an existing law) subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the constitution and the laws of a foreign country. A Filipino Woman, who upon marriage to an alien acquires his citizenship, will possesses two citizenships Philippine citizenship and that of her husband.
  37. 37. Dual allegiance of citizens. Section 5 prohibits more particularly naturalized Filipinos from practicing what is called “dual allegiance” which refers to the continued allegiance of naturalized national to their country even after they have acquired Filipino citizenship. It is declared inimical to national interest. And congress is required that it be dealt with by law.
  38. 38. Note: That the Section 5 prohibits is not dual citizenship but dual allegiance of citizenship arises because our laws cannot control laws of other countries on citizenship. While it is not per se objectionable, the status of dual citizenship may be regulated or restricted by law where it is conductive or could lead to dual allegiance.
  39. 39. Dual citizenship, on the other hand, refer to the possession of two citizenships by an individual, that of his original citizenship and that of the country where he became a naturalized citizen.
  40. 40. Retention and reacquisition of citizenship. Filipinos aboard may now acquire dual citizenship. R.A. No. 9225, the “Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003” (approved August 29, 2003), declares it the policy of the State that all Philippines citizens who become citizens of another country shall be deemed not to have lost their Philippines citizenship under the conditions of the Act.
  41. 41. 1. Retention of Philippines citizenship.  any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, natural-born citizens of the Philippines who have lost their Philippines citizenship by reason of their naturalization as citizens of a foreign country are deemed to have re-acquired Philippine citizenship upon taking the following oath of allegiance to the Republic: Retention and reacquisition of citizenship
  42. 42. 2. Derivative citizenship.  The unmarried child, whether legitimate, illegitimate or adopted, below 18 of age, of those who re-acquired Philippines citizenship upon affectivity of the Act shall be deemed citizens of the Philippines.
  43. 43. 3. Civil and political rights and liabilities.  those who retain or re-acquire Philippines citizenship under the Act shall enjoy full civil and political rights and be subject to all attendant liabilities and responsibilities under existing laws of the Philippines and the following conditions:
  44. 44. Rights with corresponding obligations. Citizens should realize that for every right (see Art. II.) There must be a corresponding duty. If the people are aware not only of their rights but also of their obligations, there will be less misunderstanding and less conflict in society.
  45. 45. One of the reasons for the turmoil and ferment in many countries is the attitude of demanding one’s rights under the law and yet being forgetful of one’s duties as a citizens.
  46. 46. Rights become fully available for enjoyment only when all the citizens, without exception, comply loyally with all their obligations. The rights to life, liberty, and property, for instance, are but partially available foe enjoyment so long as there are members of the political community who are deficient in that necessary compliance.
  47. 47. Duties and obligations of citizens. 1. To be loyal to the republic.  by loyalty, we mean faith and confidence in the republic and love and devotion to the country. The citizen must be proud of his country, its customs, traditions, language, and institutions. He must share in its glories and feel sad in its misfortunes. It is the “home of our people, the seat of our affections and the source of our happiness and well-being.”
  48. 48. 2. To defend the state. Men may differ and do differ on religious beliefs and creeds, government policies, the wisdom and validity of laws, even the correctness or judicial decisions and decrees, but in field of love of country, national unity, and patriotism, they can hardly afford to differ for these are matters in which they are mutually and vitally interested, for to them they mean national existence or survival as a nation or national extinction.
  49. 49. 3. To contribute to the development and welfare of the state.  the development and welfare of the state should be the concern of every citizen for he will be the first to enjoy the benefits thereof. Anything that affects him, individually and personally. He is affected by its ills and disorder, growth and stability.
  50. 50. 4. To uphold the constitution and obey the laws.  the constitution is the expression of the sovereign will of our people. It is the shrine for all the hopes and visions for our nation. Laws are enacted in accordance with it for the good of all. It is therefore the duty of every citizen to defend and respect the constitution and obey the laws. If the people would disregard them, the government would collapse, and this would mean lawlessness and the disintegration of the social order. The constitution contains provisions designed to insure that is the accord
  51. 51. 5. To cooperate with duly constituted authorities. community living imposes obligation and responsibilities upon the individual. The larger interest of the group and the nation that he must serve necessarily involve his own. And he would be recreant to the claims of that interest if he did not actively concern himself with the affairs of his government. It is not enough for example that a citizen should take care that in his daily life he does not violate any of the multitudinous rules.
  52. 52. Regulations and ordinance of the states. He must also to it that the laws are observe by the whole community. That the officers of the laws attends to their enforcement and properly perform their duties supine and passive inaction is worse than actual and flagrant infringement of the laws of the land. In the letter case, the laws itself provides a remedy and administer a corrective measure to the erring individual.
  53. 53. 6. To exercise rights responsibly and with due regard for the rights of others. society is composed of men, each with interest of his own. In the course of life, the interest of man conflict with those of many others. Amidst the continuous clash on interest, the ruling social philosophy should be that, in the ultimate social order, the welfare of every man depends upon the welfare of all.
  54. 54. 7. To engage in gainful work.  Employment is not the obligation solely of the state. Every citizen should consider it his own responsibility and should strive to become a useful an productive member of society to assure not only himself but, perhaps, more important, his family a life worthy of human dignity.
  55. 55. 8. To register and vote. suffrage is both a privilege and a duty which every qualified citizen must perform. Ts is through suffrage that the will of the people is expressed. The quality of public official of the government, depend, direct or indirectly, upon the voters.

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