Philippine Government: The Executive Branch


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Lecture slides outlining provisions in the 1987 Philippine Constitution regarding the Executive branch of government.

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  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To become familiar with the Office of the President of the Philippines as the Executive Branch of the Philippine Government 2.) To become acquainted with the various constitutional mandates surrounding the Executive Branch 3.) To understand the scope and limitations of Presidential powers, as outlines in the 1987 Philippine Constitution 4.) To clearly identify the causes for vacancy of the Presidential office as well as the ranks of succession to the said office
  • Plurality: Meaning that the person with the most votes wins Hence, it is possible (and has in fact happened) that the winner of the Presidential elections is not a majority president If only one candidate runs for President, s/he needs only one vote to win Note: these qualifications also apply to the Vice-President
  • Note: All Presidential appointments (with the exception of the appointment of the Vice-President as Cabinet Secretary) must be cleared by the Commission on Appointments (Congress)
  • Acts of Clemency: Reprieve  Stay of Execution Commutation  Reduction of a sentence to a lesser punishment Pardon  Exemption from the punishment bestowed for the crime committed Amnesty  General pardon, usually for political crimes Remission of fines and forfeitures
  • Appointments of Consanguinity  i.e. those of blood relation
  • Philippine Government: The Executive Branch

    1. 1. The Executive Department
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Office of the President: Executive Branch of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications for Running for Office </li></ul><ul><li>Powers and Privileges of the Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Vacancy and Succession </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Executive Branch <ul><li>Charged with the execution and administration of a country’s laws </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the executive branch sets the direction of national policy </li></ul><ul><li>Executive power in the Philippine government is vested in the office of the President of the Republic </li></ul>
    4. 4. Running for President <ul><li>Natural born citizen of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Registered voter </li></ul><ul><li>Literate (can read and write) </li></ul><ul><li>At least 40 years old on election day </li></ul><ul><li>Resident of the country for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Elected at large by plurality </li></ul>
    5. 5. Term Limits <ul><li>The term of the President is for six years (no re-election) </li></ul><ul><li>No person who has succeeded and served as President for four (4) years can run again </li></ul><ul><li>Vice-President: maximum two (2) terms </li></ul>
    6. 6. Presidential Privileges <ul><li>Appoint the heads of the different executive departments </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint ambassadors, consuls and public ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint armed forces personnel from the rank of colonel or naval captain </li></ul><ul><li>Contract / guarantee foreign loans </li></ul>
    7. 7. Presidential Privileges <ul><li>Negotiate foreign treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments not otherwise provided for by law </li></ul><ul><li>Suspend the writ of habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Declare martial law </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the national budget </li></ul><ul><li>Perform acts of clemency </li></ul>
    8. 8. Acts of Clemency <ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><li>Pardon </li></ul><ul><li>Commutation </li></ul><ul><li>Reprieve </li></ul><ul><li>Remission of fines and forfeitures </li></ul>
    9. 9. The President Cannot: <ul><li>Hold any other office or enjoy any other form of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments two months prior to the next elections </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments within the 4 th civil degree of consanguinity </li></ul>
    10. 10. The President Cannot: <ul><li>Increase his/her salary or that of the Vice-President during his/her term </li></ul><ul><li>Ratify foreign treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Grant clemency in cases of impeachment </li></ul>
    11. 11. Causes of Vacancy <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation </li></ul><ul><li>Impeachment </li></ul>
    12. 12. Causes of Vacancy <ul><li>Written declaration that s/he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Office </li></ul><ul><li>If a majority of the Cabinet makes a written declaration that the President cannot discharge the powers and duties of the Office </li></ul>
    13. 13. More on Vacancy <ul><li>The President can, at a later time, inform Congress s/he is fit to perform her/his duties again </li></ul><ul><li>Congress can judge otherwise by a two-thirds vote of both houses voting separately </li></ul>
    14. 14. Even More on Vacancy <ul><li>If the President falls seriously ill… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public will be informed of his/her state of health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations shall have access to the President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces shall have access to the President </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Philippine Presidents <ul><li>Aguinaldo (1898-1902) </li></ul><ul><li>Quezon (1935-44) </li></ul><ul><li>Laurel (1943-45) </li></ul><ul><li>Osmeña (1944-46) </li></ul><ul><li>Roxas (1946-48) </li></ul><ul><li>Quirino (1948-53) </li></ul><ul><li>Magsaysay (1954-57) </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia (1957-61) </li></ul><ul><li>Macapagal (1961-65) </li></ul><ul><li>Marcos (1965-86) </li></ul><ul><li>Aquino (1986-92) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramos (1992-98) </li></ul><ul><li>Estrada (1998-2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Arroyo (2001-10) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Some Notes <ul><li>The Executive in Philippine politics derives its centrality mostly from its function and roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on its historical evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenty of prestige is associated with the Office of the Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalism has always been prevalent inthe Executive Branch </li></ul>
    17. 17. -fin-