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Philippine Government: The Executive Branch

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Lecture slides outlining provisions in the 1987 Philippine Constitution regarding the Executive branch of government.

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Philippine Government: The Executive Branch

  1. 1. The Executive Department
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Office of the President: Executive Branch of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications for Running for Office </li></ul><ul><li>Powers and Privileges of the Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Vacancy and Succession </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Executive Branch <ul><li>Charged with the execution and administration of a country’s laws </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the executive branch sets the direction of national policy </li></ul><ul><li>Executive power in the Philippine government is vested in the office of the President of the Republic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Running for President <ul><li>Natural born citizen of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Registered voter </li></ul><ul><li>Literate (can read and write) </li></ul><ul><li>At least 40 years old on election day </li></ul><ul><li>Resident of the country for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Elected at large by plurality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Term Limits <ul><li>The term of the President is for six years (no re-election) </li></ul><ul><li>No person who has succeeded and served as President for four (4) years can run again </li></ul><ul><li>Vice-President: maximum two (2) terms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Presidential Privileges <ul><li>Appoint the heads of the different executive departments </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint ambassadors, consuls and public ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint armed forces personnel from the rank of colonel or naval captain </li></ul><ul><li>Contract / guarantee foreign loans </li></ul>
  7. 7. Presidential Privileges <ul><li>Negotiate foreign treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments not otherwise provided for by law </li></ul><ul><li>Suspend the writ of habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Declare martial law </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the national budget </li></ul><ul><li>Perform acts of clemency </li></ul>
  8. 8. Acts of Clemency <ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><li>Pardon </li></ul><ul><li>Commutation </li></ul><ul><li>Reprieve </li></ul><ul><li>Remission of fines and forfeitures </li></ul>
  9. 9. The President Cannot: <ul><li>Hold any other office or enjoy any other form of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments two months prior to the next elections </li></ul><ul><li>Make appointments within the 4 th civil degree of consanguinity </li></ul>
  10. 10. The President Cannot: <ul><li>Increase his/her salary or that of the Vice-President during his/her term </li></ul><ul><li>Ratify foreign treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Grant clemency in cases of impeachment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Causes of Vacancy <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation </li></ul><ul><li>Impeachment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes of Vacancy <ul><li>Written declaration that s/he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Office </li></ul><ul><li>If a majority of the Cabinet makes a written declaration that the President cannot discharge the powers and duties of the Office </li></ul>
  13. 13. More on Vacancy <ul><li>The President can, at a later time, inform Congress s/he is fit to perform her/his duties again </li></ul><ul><li>Congress can judge otherwise by a two-thirds vote of both houses voting separately </li></ul>
  14. 14. Even More on Vacancy <ul><li>If the President falls seriously ill… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public will be informed of his/her state of health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations shall have access to the President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces shall have access to the President </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Philippine Presidents <ul><li>Aguinaldo (1898-1902) </li></ul><ul><li>Quezon (1935-44) </li></ul><ul><li>Laurel (1943-45) </li></ul><ul><li>Osmeña (1944-46) </li></ul><ul><li>Roxas (1946-48) </li></ul><ul><li>Quirino (1948-53) </li></ul><ul><li>Magsaysay (1954-57) </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia (1957-61) </li></ul><ul><li>Macapagal (1961-65) </li></ul><ul><li>Marcos (1965-86) </li></ul><ul><li>Aquino (1986-92) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramos (1992-98) </li></ul><ul><li>Estrada (1998-2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Arroyo (2001-10) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Some Notes <ul><li>The Executive in Philippine politics derives its centrality mostly from its function and roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on its historical evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenty of prestige is associated with the Office of the Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalism has always been prevalent inthe Executive Branch </li></ul>
  17. 17. -fin-

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