- first of all there is a general introduction part to videogames, including the timeline and a three-step's general trend - Characteristics of V-Games - 3rd part, general issues aroused by videogames - last part, social influence of videogames
- most of us have played videogames, either on a home-based console, or arcades in public places, or on a computer or your mobile phones - we take them for granted, we never think about what is a so called videogame - and no specific definition & discussion spurring - but what are the general features for videogames?
- undoubtedly, we know there is always a display device for a videogame - The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms
console- a customised computer for users to play games at home
arcade- a customised computer housed in large cabinets & for users to play games in some public location
PhD student A.S. Douglas developed a version of Noughts and Crosses/ OXO game for EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) at the university of Cambridge. Slow
-1954Physicist William Higinbotham runs the game TENNIS FOR TWO based on an oscillograph as a demostration tool at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. hard to control & easily get bored
-Steven Russell and friends developed the two-player space shooter SPACEWAR! at MIT. -Spacewar! was a two player game, where the players took control of a spaceship each and tried to shoot each other down. The center of the screen featured a star, whose gravity affected the movement of the ships (but not the ships’ missiles, as there wasn’t enough processing power available). The game is very similar to Asteroids, including the hyperspace feature which can move the player’s ship to a random location on screen to escape danger.
in 1971, the first arcade game, Computer Space, is released. based on the idea of SPACEWAR! but more messy and said to be hard to control
in 1972, the influential early game developer Atari released the PONG arcade game. It was regarded as the first commercially video game in the history and a huge success.
Magnavox released their 1st console Odyssey, aka "brown box" in 1972, which is regarded as the first home video game console.
university mainframe game development blossomed in the early 1970s. those games were not marketed nor regarded as a serious endeavor. mostly written by students on expensive computing resources, treated as misusing or illegality - not marketed nor regarded as a serious endeavor - mostly written by university students - based on expensive computing resources - treated as misusing or illegality
- some amateur programmers programme their own simple games based on early home computers like Apple, Commodore, Tandy and others - those games are at first clones of mainframe or arcade classics like Star Trek - games were also distributed by physical mailing & selling of floppy disks, cassette tapes, ROM cartridges - soon, a small cottage industry was formed with programmers selling disks in plastic bags put on the shelves of local shops or sent through the mail
- not as the 1st generation of consoles where games were hardcoded into microchips using discrete logic and no additional games could ever be added. - programmes of the 2nd generation were burned onto ROM chips that were mounted inside plastic cartridge casting that could be plugged into slots on the console
a decade of transition from sprite-based graphics to full fledged 3D graphics, gave rise to several genres of video games including first-person-shooter, real time strategy, survival horror and massively multiplayer online games
the phenomena of user-created modifications for games was one trend that began around the turn of the millennium. Sega, Nintendo's main rival during the 80s and 90s, left the console market & got back to be a third party company as they once were. operation mode includes sensors, touch screen, wireless control, and instant audio over IP
Increasing capacity and availability of Internet connections enabled the evolution of complex multiplayer and online gaming.
light up the most obvious feature of a modern videogame is the player has many lives, you can always pause, restore or reload when you feel like losing or dying what would happen if human are multi-life in real life?...
as an interactive medium, saying one of the characteristics of video games is interactivity may sound a bit Quatsch, anyway, the interactivity here includes User-control, visual feedback, and revealing sth in the virtual game world - video games are strongly interactive because the imaginative actions are rendered only after players' interactions, whereas in traditional media forms like film the audience encounters the work after it has been rendered already (in the form of a film reel or digital file) - and in video games, everything the user does is largely based upon visual feedback, although auditory & tactile feedback are also present, immediate visual feedback dominates in the vast majority of video games - by revealing in the game world, users can experience complex actions of reality but beyond their ability or situations where purely within the comtext of the game. - thus, users can get rich first-hand fictional experiences on a emotional aspect and there comes the second char. of v-games
- because of some emotionally provocaitve situations in videogames, it is possible to be worried about harming a fictional character, guilty for doing actions, or having sympathey for some characters. - the user can experience some additional emotions, like frustration, confusion, confidence, comfort, anger, or pleasure, due to the extreme nature of videogames
storytelling can be another characteristic of videogames, but it seems to be under discussion
A study which had been carried out in 2010 shows that : in 2010 , there are 67% American households play computer or video games. What make video games so popular?
The world of warcraft has 5.5 million players , it makes $82.5million a month in subscriptions
but there are some arguemetns about videogames
- most video games are about hitting, killing, shooting and stuff, there are female players but very limited - here comes a gender prob. does the name videogame equals to men only? - the well-known pac-man was a pioneer for female videogame characters of the future
It sounds incredible but some players are so into the life in games and count on these and take these into account seriously
Ridiculous video about a man married a game character
Spend loads of time on it Spend a lot of money buy devices and currency ,clothes equipments in the video games even they are not real clothes or swords. Win or lose in the game will have effects on your mood You will be inclined to buy T-SHIRTS which have your favorite game character printed on it.
There are debates about the issue concerned with life and games.
An increase in emotional disorder symptoms An increase in and behavioral disorder symptoms Declines in verbal memory performance Somatic complaints Attention problems such as hyperactivity, ADD or ADHD Detrimental school performance (as video game usage increases, GPA and SAT scores decrease)
Family interaction problems such as less positive parental relations Significant reduced amounts of slow-wave (REM) sleep Modifications in visual selective attention Playing violent video games is a significant risk factor for later physically aggressive behavior
Effects/ social influence of videogames to other industry
- tv series: LOST - • It is a Game with 6 levels • There are specific objectives for each level • There are time limits in each level • There are numerous roles that each character is manipulated into and out of • There are points that can be earned for certain activities • There are specific instructions/rules for the game • And there are game prompts that lead the player through the game and result in all the duplicates
even most film-critics complained those films are hard to understand without having play the original games before hand, they both topped the box office although... there are waterloos like final fantasy, dead or alive, prince of persia...
there is the discussion: IF people can learn something through video games?
Videogames can assist children in setting goals, ensuring goal rehearsal, providing feedback, reinforcement, and maintaining records of behavioral change Videogames can be useful because they allow there searcher to measure performance on a very wide variety of tasks, and can be easily changed, standardized and understood Videogames can be used when examining individual characteristics such as self-esteem, self-concept, goal-setting and individual differences
Tasks can provide elements of interactivity that may stimulate learning Videogames also allow participants to experience novelty, curiosity and challenge. This may stimulate Learning Videogames can act as simulations. These allow participants to engage in extraordinary activities and to destroy or even die without real consequences
Videogames have been used in comprehensive programmes to help develop social skills in children and adolescents who are severely retarded or who have severe developmental problems like autism. With enough training, changes become automatic and lead to improvements in grades, sociability, and organizational skills.