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E learning&engineering education -h. anis- session 7


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Education in a Changing Environment Conference 2011 session 7

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E learning&engineering education -h. anis- session 7

  1. 1. E-Learning in Engineering Education – General Challenges And the Egyptian Experience Hussein Anis [email_address] Cairo University
  2. 2. <ul><li>IEEE (Nov. 2009): Of the 14 “Engineering Grand Challenges” in the future, the following two are related to e-learning: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Enhance virtual reality” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Advance personalized learning” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Types of E-Learning-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Education </li></ul><ul><li>Formal (degree-bound) education </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing professional education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Categories of students </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resident student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance learning student </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Challenges of E-learning in </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Education </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the skills required by admitted students. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the progress of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the appropriate teaching strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing to use electronic means in laboratory work & </li></ul><ul><li>the resource required for sharing remote labs. </li></ul><ul><li>Accrediting e-learning-based engineering programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting regulations for credit transfer in engineering </li></ul><ul><li>especially with campus-based institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting interactions with international engineering </li></ul><ul><li>education bodies . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Challenges of E-learning in </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Education – Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the cost of resources serving online </li></ul><ul><li>engineering education. </li></ul><ul><li>Facing inevitable new changes in teaching loads and the </li></ul><ul><li>trade-offs in teachers' time between online and on- </li></ul><ul><li>campus teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating required human and technical infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing student and staff satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Facing changes in student advising protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing class software requirements. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Engineering Laboratories in E-Learning ABET’s engineering criteria state that: “ All engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have ability to:- design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data; design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs; and use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.&quot;
  7. 7. <ul><li>ABET’s Objectives for Engineering Class Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Apply appropriate sensors, instrumentation, and/or software tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the strengths and limitations of theoretical models as predictors of real world behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Devise an experimental approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the ability to collect, analyze, and interpret data. </li></ul><ul><li>Design, build, or assemble a part, product, or system. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize unsuccessful outcomes due to faulty equipment, parts, code, construction, process, or design. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate creativity in real-world problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor: Demonstrate competence in selection, modification, and operation of engineering tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Recognize health, safety, and environmental issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: Communicate effectively about laboratory work with a specific audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork: Work effectively in teams </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics in the Lab: Behave with highest ethical standards, including re­porting information objectively and interacting with integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Awareness: Use the human senses to gather information and to make engineering judgments. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Laboratories in e-learning- engineering education </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Simulations , experiments are simulated on computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>National Instruments DAQ (data acquisition), Field Point, Measurement Studio, LabVIEW…….. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Remotely controlled physical laboratories , physical laboratory equipment are located away from where students perform experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>MIT (, </li></ul><ul><li>Johns Hopkins U. (, </li></ul><ul><li>U. of Texas (, </li></ul><ul><li>Lab-on-Web (, </li></ul><ul><li>Linkoping U. ( ),.............. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Egyptian Data </li></ul><ul><li>Population = nearly 87 million, </li></ul><ul><li>19 public universities, 17 private universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Total university student body = 2 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Public universities enroll 97% of students. </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 students enroll in higher institutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Students enrolled in university engineering programs </li></ul><ul><li>is 158,000 (31% females), </li></ul><ul><li>93.2% of engineering students attend public </li></ul><ul><li>universities. </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 students study engineering/technology in </li></ul><ul><li>higher institutes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Motivation of E-learning in University </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Education in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to improve the quality of instruction in </li></ul><ul><li>engineering education to keep pace with international </li></ul><ul><li>development: </li></ul><ul><li>Developing technology skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating the diverse needs of engineering </li></ul><ul><li>students. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating efficient cooperation and team-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>collaborations among students. </li></ul><ul><li>Catering to the industry’s request of emphasis on skills </li></ul><ul><li>and deep understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information with other universities and </li></ul><ul><li>corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate combining work and study. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Increase access. (Current Participation Ratio of about 29%; Government aspires for a 40% ratio within 10 years). Help engineering education – a traditionally &quot;urban&quot; discipline- reach remote areas. Access to all sources of technical knowledge and information. Combat the present crowding in public higher education institutions, Ease the current large average students-to-teachers ratio. Egypt is targeted to be the hub of e-Learning in Arab Region. The aspiration for being able to export e-learning technology to the outside world, especially Africa, Middle East and Arab countries. Reducing education cost (buildings, teachers' salaries, classroom costs, transportation cost, ..,……..
  12. 12. <ul><li>E-learning Technologies in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Open Learning Centers: </li></ul><ul><li>courseware material on video tapes and CDs. </li></ul><ul><li>Further support through TV (VHF, UHF, and </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite) broadcast. </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based courseware [strictly asynchronous]: </li></ul><ul><li>added advantage: off-line interactive tools as </li></ul><ul><li>blogs, Wikis, collaborative software, e-Portfolios, </li></ul><ul><li>discussion boards, and email. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tiers of E-courseware Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain only the course structure and assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add text material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add references and links (in hypertext) to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supplementary reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add illustrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add audio/video clips. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add simulations and animations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include interactive virtual reality . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hierarchy of e-learning technologies versus educational functions
  15. 15. <ul><li>E-Learning Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>( The Five pillars of E-learning ) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning effectiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>Student satisfaction, </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty satisfaction, </li></ul><ul><li>Access, </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness </li></ul>
  16. 16. Accreditation of E-Learning-based Engineering Education (1) Traditional Institutional Accreditation , assesses Students, Quality of Delivery, Staff and Staff Development, Support Services, Administrative Services, Physical Resources. (2) Program (Professional, Discipline..) Accreditation. Additional Criteria with E-Learning : (3) E-learning-specific Institutional & Program Accreditation (4) Courseware certification
  17. 17. <ul><li>Courseware Certification </li></ul><ul><li>efficiency of interface, </li></ul><ul><li>course compatibility, </li></ul><ul><li>production quality, </li></ul><ul><li>appropriateness of instructional design </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Relevant Egyptian Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>1] The Egypteducation Site : ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Hosted on Virtual Private Server (VPS) in US. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 80 instructors & about 16,000 registered </li></ul><ul><li>users. </li></ul><ul><li>2] YouTube Site : ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction in local Arabic with English technical </li></ul><ul><li>terms. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>3] Using Learning Management Systems : </li></ul><ul><li>LMS &quot; Moodl e &quot; is used in some courses: functions: </li></ul><ul><li>online exams, </li></ul><ul><li>announcements, </li></ul><ul><li>links to other universities </li></ul><ul><li>online submission of   assignments and </li></ul><ul><li>projects ( not very successful ). </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>4] Egypt’s National E-Learning Center (NELC) </li></ul><ul><li>To create e-learning sub-centers in all universities. </li></ul><ul><li>To build adequate e-learning infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>To support the development of e-courses. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide e-course development standards. </li></ul><ul><li>To certify e-courses to be used by universities. </li></ul><ul><li>To monitor the use of e-courses. </li></ul><ul><li>To coordinate e-learning development at the </li></ul><ul><li>national level. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide necessary information, training and </li></ul><ul><li>support. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Alternative Sources of E-Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Free courseware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Course Ware (example MIT). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Learning Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connexions (Wikipedia style) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchased courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Developed courseware </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>NELC’s Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning sub-centers established in all 19 public </li></ul><ul><li>universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-centers partially staffed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware and software provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10 universities developed online courses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training programs to faculty and staff. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 7 Engineering courses out of a total of 292 </li></ul><ul><li>courses (2.4%) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding Virtual Laboratories in chemistry, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physics, biology, anatomy, physiology, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accounting & economics. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>E-course Content Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Data = Raw Media Elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Object (IO) = set of data </li></ul><ul><li>elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable Learning Object (LO) = </li></ul><ul><li>combination of IOs (concepts, facts, </li></ul><ul><li>processes……,). </li></ul><ul><li>Course (lesson) = combination of LOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Module = collection of courses. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>NELC now supports development of LO's </li></ul><ul><li>for engineering courses </li></ul><ul><li>LO Development : </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler / easier to manage / requires less time / </li></ul><ul><li>requires less cost. </li></ul><ul><li>850 LO’s (serving 70 e-courses) developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Share of e-courses increased from 5.46% in </li></ul><ul><li>2007/2008 to 20.09% in 2009/2010. </li></ul><ul><li>E-courses are used by 73,000 students. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Impediments to Engineering Education Based on E-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Academic factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of academic and administrative readiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage in on-line courseware. </li></ul><ul><li>Social/cultural resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex legal consequences (IPRs). </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of formal clear procedures and criteria for nationally accrediting online programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in teaching load at the expense of other functions. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><ul><li>Technical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability of suitable infrastructure. Although it was markedly improved over the past five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility of computers and Internet services to students. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in choosing media and technologies . </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Economical factors </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) Initial high capital cost of e-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>2) High cost items are: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of producing / purchasing courseware . (Cost of developing a 3-credits e-course in Egypt ranges from $ 2000.- to 10,000.-) . </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of instruction online (preparation, training,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of providing network services. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of acquiring LMS, SIS, assessment,... </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of technical and educational infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Determining the economical break-even number of students & courseware lifetime. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>C O N C L U S I O N S </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Issues to be Addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Identify skills of new generation of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess skills of faculty. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase awareness of e-learning benefits in </li></ul><ul><li>engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate potential authors & technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek proper technical infrastructure. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Build new organizational structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Set suitable accreditation and certification </li></ul><ul><li>criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways to lower e-course development costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize [Certificate programs / Graduate / </li></ul><ul><li>Under-graduate] . </li></ul><ul><li>Implement soft laboratories and then remote </li></ul><ul><li>laboratories. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Thank you