High performance computing

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A look into what makes supercomputers so fast and a historical comparison between different supercomputer architectures all the way to the K computer.

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High performance computing

  1. 1. Its all about the FLOPS
  2. 2. • Computationally expensive problems• Simulation • Weather • Nuclear Explosions and Decay • Petroleum Exploration • Chemical Reactions• Cryptographic Analysis
  3. 3. • 15,000 operations per second• 9800 vacuum tubes• It cost 2.5 Million Dollars• 16 decimal digits• Clock: 1ms• RA CRT mem: 3600 words• Magnetic tape: 8 units,• 4-track, 510 char/inch, 71,500 char/sec.
  4. 4. • williams tube• A CRT tube that can hold 512 to 1024 bits of data• stored 2000 words with 4 bits per 16 decimal digits representation
  5. 5. • 1 MegaFLOP• 1 CPU 10 PP (Peripheral Registers)• $8 Million• 60 bit words with 18 bit address • Instructions:• 256k total memory Add, Shift, Multiply• Not Pipelined • Divide, Branch, Incre ment
  6. 6. • 64 bit words• 12ns clock time• Speed: 72 MegaFLOPS • Instructions 32 bits with 128 total instruction codes• Memory: 1,048,576 words - 4 words read per cycle• Power: 115 KiloWatts• Cost: $8.8 Million• No wire more than 4 ft long• Freon Refrigeration
  7. 7. • Mem: 256 Million x 64 bit words• Instruction: 32 bit address• 128 Instructions total• Clock: 4.1nanosecs• Speed: 1.2 GigaFLOPS• CPU: 8 CPUS• Power: 150 - 200 kW• Cost: $17 Million• Vector Registers
  8. 8. • 104 Cabinets, 76 computers, 8 switches, 20 disks• PFS- Parallel File System allow for more than 1GB/S of data on system busses• Mem: 1.2 Terabytes• Speed: 1.3 TeraFLOPS• CPU: 10,000 Intel Pentium Pros at 200 mhz each• Power: 850 kW• Cost: $50 Million
  9. 9. • Mem: 1.4 Petabytes• Speed: 10 PetaFLOPS• CPU: 705,024 cores• with SPARC64 2.0 8 cpu cores• Power: 12,659 kW• Cost: $1.25 Billion
  10. 10. Speed Comparison1 MegaFLOP Playstation 2 = Or1964 CDC 6600 3 iPhones
  11. 11. Speed Comparison (cont...) >2011 IPAD 2 1985 Cray II 1.5 GigaFLOPS 1.2 GigaFLOPS
  12. 12. Speed Comparison (final) ≈2011 Intel Knights Corner 1996 Intel ASCI RED50 core processor - x86 1.3 TeraFLOPSUsing MIC (Multi Integrated Core) 1.5 TeraFLOPS
  13. 13. • Massively parallel• Hundreds of thousands of nodes• K will have 800,000 nodes
  14. 14. • Multithreaded programming by hand is hard.• Peta-scale multithreaded programming by hand is impossible.• OpenMP• OpenMPI
  15. 15. • With such a large number of nodes, communication between the nodes is a major aspect of supercomputer design.• Communication Networks • Grid Networks • N-dimensional Torus Networks
  16. 16. Commodity hardwarenetworked togetherwith special software.

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