Grammar review


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Review of grammar

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Grammar review

  1. 1. Grammar ReviewPart 1: Word Classes
  2. 2. Word Classes• Noun • Preposition• Verb • Particle• Adjective • Conjunction• Adverb • Determiner• Pronoun
  3. 3. Nouns• Often considered to be a “person, place, or thing”• Can be more abstract• Nouns can be pluralized and can be preceded by a determiner.
  4. 4. Adjectives• A word that modifies or describes a noun• Sometimes (but not always) can be made comparative (-er) or s superlative (-est).
  5. 5. Adverbs• A word that modifies or describes a verb.• Often end in the suffix –ly (but not always).• There are different types of adverbs: – Adverbs of time answer the question “when” – Adverbs of place answer the question “when” – Adverbs of manner answer the question “how”• Any modifier that is not an adjective or an article is an adverb.
  6. 6. Prepositions and Particles• Prepositions are small words that introduce a prepositional phrase.• A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its object.• Particles look like prepositions but are associated with a verb.
  7. 7. Conjunctions• Small words that connect other words. – Coordinating conjunctions introduce an independent clause – Subordinating conjunctions introduce a dependent clause – Correlative conjunctions occur as pairs or groups of words within the same independent clause • Both ____ and ____ • Either ____ or _____ • Not only____, but also ______
  8. 8. Determiners• Article – Small word that immediately proceeds a noun or adjective; may be definite or indefinite.• Possessive pronoun – A word used in place of a noun that implies ownership• Demonstrative pronoun – Singles out what it refers to
  9. 9. Pronouns• Personal pronouns – refer to people or animals, and can substitute for specific names of people or animals (I, you, he, we, etc.)• Demonstrative pronouns – Can refer to people or objects; singles out what it refers to (this, that, these, those)• Reflexive pronouns – Refers back to the subject of the sentence (himself, ourselves)• Indefinite pronouns – Pronoun that doesn’t specify the person or thing it refers to (anyone, some, everything, who, which)• Interrogative pronouns – A pronoun that initiates a question (who, what, when, where, why)
  10. 10. Verbs• Words that express action, such as run, jump, or fall• Represent a state of being, such as think, feel, know, or believe• Verbs tell you about the subject of the sentence.
  11. 11. Main Verbs• Past regular (-ed) or past irregular (ran, wrote)• Transitive (takes a direct object) or intransitive (indirect object preceded by a preposition)• Different types – Uninflected (also called infinitives) – Present progressive (-ing) – Past progressive (was/were) – Copula (verb “to be” in various forms)
  12. 12. Copula vs. Auxiliary verbs• Copula verb – The copula is a linking verb because it links or joins the subject of the sentence to the predicate.• Auxiliary verb – Combine with other verbs and are part of the main verb. – When the auxiliary verb is “is” or a variation of “is”, then the main verb end with–ing.
  13. 13. Modal Verbs• A special type of auxiliary verb• Help express the mood or attitude of the speaker, or special conditions (might, should, may, shall, or must)
  14. 14. Secondary Verbs• Infinitive – The verb in its unmarked form – Often preceded by “to” (though not always)• Gerund – A verb with –ing that acts like a noun• Participle – A verb with –ing that acts like an adjective
  15. 15. Grammar Review Pt. 2: Clauses
  16. 16. Independent Clauses• Contain a main verb• Make a complete statement• Can stand alone
  17. 17. Dependent Clauses• Cannot stand alone• Must be linked to an independent clause• Are initiated by subordinate conjunctions (e.g., because, since, although, before, until, after, while, whenever, when, etc.)• Relative clause modifies the noun that precedes it.• Adverb clause modifies a verb that precedes it.
  18. 18. Grammar Review Pt. 3: Phrases
  19. 19. Phrases• A group of words that does not express a subject-predicate relationship.• Phrases are contained within clauses• Usually shorter than clauses.• All sentences must contain a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP).
  20. 20. Many types of phrases!• Noun phrases – “the old man,” “a long story,” “the publisher of this book”• Verb phrases – “saw the sunset,” “was told by grandfather” “is the best deal” – VP’s can include noun phrases• Prepositional phrases – Always contains a preposition and its object along with any modifiers – “Mary went to the new school”
  21. 21. Other phrases• Participal phrases – “Reaching the sharp turn, the Dutch cyclist took the lead.” – “Reading the evening paper, a dog started barking,” (Note that this is grammatically unacceptable—who is the subject?)• Gerund phrases – Consists of a gerund and its object, along with any modifiers – “Sending Jenny away was a big mistake.”• Infinitive phrases – Consists of an infinitive and its object, along with any modifiers – “To win the Olympic Marathon was the highlight of her running career.”
  22. 22. Grammar Review Pt. 4: Sentences
  23. 23. Sentences• Simple – Contains one independent clause and no subordinate clause.• Compound – Consists of two independent clauses joined by a coordination conjunction.• Complex – Contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause• Compound-complex – Two independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause