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  1. 1. Grammar for Writing CLAUSES Sam An Teng July 2013 Copyright © All rights reserved.
  2. 2. DEFINITION • Clause is a group of related words that contains at least one subject and one verb and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence. • When a clause has complete meaning on its own, it can be used as a sentence. But when it has incomplete meaning, it is used as part of a sentence. Look at the examples below. – He is a news reporter. (As a sentence) – She loves music. (As a sentence) – Where he stays (As part of a sentence) – Who lives next to my house (As part of a sentence)
  3. 3. TYPES OF CLAUSES • There are two types of clauses: independent clause (or main clause), and dependent clause (also called subordinate clause). • Independent clause – is also called main clause, or principal clause. • Dependent clause – is also called sub-clause.
  4. 4. Independent Clauses • An independent clause has a subject and a verb, and can stand alone as a sentence. For examples, – They work in marketing department. – What products are they going to launch this year? – The company didn't perform well last year. – What shall we do?
  5. 5. Dependent Clauses • A dependent clause has a subject and a predicate, but it cannot stand alone as a sentence. • There are three types of subordinate clauses: o Noun clauses o Adjective clauses o Adverb clauses
  6. 6. Dependent Clauses: Noun clauses • A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. For examples, – What you have proposed is acceptable. (Noun clause) – Tell me what your marketing strategies are. (Noun clause)
  7. 7. Dependent Clauses: Adjective clauses • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. For examples, – The man who is standing over there is a product development manager. (Adjective clause) – His team has come up with products that have more features for customers. (Adjective clause)
  8. 8. Dependent Clauses: Adverb clauses • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. For examples, – If the products are fit for the customers, we will maintain sales increase of 10%. (Adverb clause) – There will be some promotion when the new product are available. (Adverb clause)
  9. 9. Related Topics : • What is Clause? • Noun Clause • Adjective Clause • Adverb Clause • Reduced Noun Clause • Reduced Adjective Clause • Reduced Adverb Clause
  10. 10. MY BOOKS ON KINDLE STORE Grammar & Composition: Parts of Speech in English English Grammar: The Verb Tenses Phrases and Clauses in English Short stories: He Deserves! Sympathy and Love
  11. 11. FREE LESSONS ONLINE • If you wish to read free lessons, please click the links below: – –