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Holly baubotanik report 2012


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Holly baubotanik report 2012

  1. 1. Living Structures Subject Subject Subject Holly Simon in Europe
  2. 2. 2 Baubotanik Scaffolding Grafting Multiplying Columns Assembly Enclosures and Systems 3 4 5 8 10 11 12 Case Studies Plane Tree Cube Eco Boulevard Fab Tree Hab Park Supermarket 13 14 15 16 Historical Precedents Living Root Bridges Arthur Weichula Konstantin Kirsch Rudoplh Doernach Friedensreich Hundertwasser 17 18 19 20 21 Bibliography 22 Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction
  3. 3. Goal My goal was to research the integration of living plant/food systems into building systems. This goal fits within a broader objective of understanding how architecture responds to and leads environmental sustainability and food production for new urban models. Approach My approach has been to study the use of living plants in building systems, both as an enhancer of passive environmental strategies and towards sustainability and/or food production. Documentation involved online literature research, interviews, site visits and photos. Relevancy to Future Research Increased prevalence of industrialized farming and the spatial arrangement in cities contribute to a distant relationship between humans and nature. Current food production and consumption practices have a heavy ecological impact as cities increasingly promote convenience eating and grocery stores stock processed food manufactured many miles away. Architecture, as both a respondent and shaper of culture, can play a critical role in reconnecting us with food and nature. This research is relevant to my thesis interests that focus on the question: How can architecture affect rituals of growing, buying and consuming food and thus develop more sustainable urban models? Research Subject Baubotanik, Germany Baubotanik, Stuttgart by practicing architects Ferdinand Ludwig, Oliver Storz and Hannes Schwertfeger in Stuttgart, Germany who work from the Institute for Architectural Theory (IGMA) at the University of Stuttgart. “Baubotanik is a method of construction that utilizes living plants as the load bearing systems in architectural structures. Baubotanik takes advantage of the “constructive intelligence” of plants.” In summary, Baubotanik involves the use of a temporary structural scaffold onto which trees are grafted. When the trees reach maturity, the support structure is removed and the trees support the load of the building. Additional Research Profiles Contemporary Case Studies: • Eco Boulevard, Spain • Fab Tree Hab, USA • Park Supermarket, Netherlands Historical Precedents: • Living Root Bridges, India • Arthur Weichula, Germany • Konstantin Kirsch, Germany • Rudolph Doernach, Germany • Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Austria “Primitive Hut”, the first act of architecture made from living trees, source: http://deconstructionand.files. Baubotanik (Stuttgart) Purpose of this Report To fulfill the required 03.0 credit hours of a technology core course at a Master of Architecture level (ARCH 5992). The proposed study has been completed as a technology elective supervised by international visiting Professor Richard Kroeker and submitted through Fachhochschule Düsseldorf. Introduction Introduction
  4. 4. Baubotanik Baubotanik What is Baubotanik? Baubotanik is a building process that uses living earth-bound trees as structural members. Live trees are planted in the ground, roots serving as a foundation and trees as columns. Temporary scaffolding supports the floor plates while grafted trees come to maturity (10-15 years) after which time the scaffolding is removed and the trees support the floor plates. Application Baubotanik buildings are best suited for outdoor pavilion type structures but could support enclosed structures, depending on the program and climate. See Baubotanik future proposals at the end of this section. Topics Covered: • Scaffolding • Grafting • Multiplying • Columns • Construction • Enclosures and Systems • Case study: Nagold Tower Preparation for Building Trees are pre-grown in a nursery and rather than pour footings, the trees are planted and roots act as foundations/footings. Steel scaffolding and floor plates are prefabricated for quick assembly on site. Observations Obviously a major challenge is the construction time, which takes 10-15 years. With that in mind, this structural strategy has a number of benefits. The wood used in the structure is 1:1 compared to traditional wood frame construction which wastes much wood. It is a building method for the long term and if planned as such, can grow along with the program in an environment. Contacts Ferdinand Ludwig Baubotanik
  5. 5. Baubotanik: Technology The “Tower” project, scaffolding and tree wall growth Scaffolding As the trees take 10 - 15 years to reach maturity, temporary scaffolding is put in place and later removed when the floor plates can be supported by the trees. diagram of scaffolding structure. diagram of floor plates. scaffolding with the tree columns in place
  6. 6. Baubotanik: Technology Tree Grafting two year old cross knot of Platanus Acerifolia (Sycamore) An important strategy for Baubotanik building is tree grafting to increase strength of the structural elements. Two or more trees are grafted together. Simply, two branches naturally fuse when they are pressed and held together, a phenomenon that occurs in nature anyway. Tree grafting in the Baubotanik process is used in a strategic way as a whole structural system. Tree grafting significantly increases the amount of wood per living column. Trees which have been tested with successful results are as follows: • Birch (works well but is short-lived) • Sycamore (“Planaten” used in Nagold Tower project) • Black Alder, European Alder or Common Alder • European or common hornbeam • Beech (slow growing) • Willow (works well but is short-lived) two branches merged in a cross-knot The Baubotanik lab is conducting further tests on a number of tree species including ash, hickory, elm and oak. Most of the species are also found in Canada which would suggest the application of this technique there. Title a simple screw holds two branches together so they will merge into one branch
  7. 7. Baubotanik: Technology “The nodal points where the plant struts are joined with the stainless steel handrail make visible how the stability of the structure increases through the growth.” - Ferdinand Ludwig Tree Grafting after the fourth growing season, the branches have encompassed the metal hand rail after the second growing season, the branches start to merge around the metal hand rail
  8. 8. Baubotanik: Technology Parallel knot merge of two young Sycamore branches in the Nagold Tower. Tree Grafting Nagold project from which these details are taken tree columns will eventually envelope the steel connection to the floor plates
  9. 9. Baubotanik: Technology Many trees are grafted together to make each strong earthbound column Multiplying many trees are grafted into fewer larger trees The Baubotanik researchers used multiplying to strengthen the columns in the Nagold Tower, shown here. The main strategic difference between baubotanik and typical “green walls” is that the living trees are all earth bound. This requires less maintenance as the trees perform virtually as they wood in nature. In order to multiple the tree columns using tree grafting, the Nagold Tower has earth boxes on each level. When the trees have merged together, the earth boxes will be removed and only the roots at grade will be feeding the final structure. eventually all but the earth bound roots die and the boxes are removed leaving one stronger tree column ancient fig tree natural multiplying process This strategy comes from the ancient fig tree process where a new trees grow over top of the old one, naturally merging to create a new stronger tree. Eventually the original tree is redundant.
  10. 10. Multiplying By grafting the young tree columns together and planting many trees within the structural system it accounts for variance in the tree growth. Certain trees will die in the process as survival of the fittest takes place. The Baubotanik researchers believe that enough trees have been planted in their structures to prevent the building from collapses when a few die. They also prune the trees regularly so the South facing trees do not get too big and shade the North facing ones. diagram showing possible scenarios for surviving trees in the structure. diagram showing different possible structural configurations for the trees Baubotanik: Technology conceptual diagram: multiple trees merge to form fewer stronger trees
  11. 11. Baubotanik: Technology Tree Columns plan and long section showing foot bridge with willow columns section showing foot bridge with willow columns detail of column connecting to steel foot bridge The first time the Baubotanik group experimented with living trees as structure was in this foot bridge built in 2005. Young willows were planted as columns that instantly beared the load of the walking bridge. Willows have a short life span but can be easily removed and replaced if they die, making them an effective tree for this experiment. “The footbridge does not possess a foundation in the usual sense of the word. The vegetable supporting structure absorbs all the load exclusively and redirects it into the ground where the structure is anchored by the roots.” - Ferdinand Ludwig
  12. 12. Tower Assembly Baubotanik’s first tower project construction is shown here. All the parts are pre-fabricated and pre-grown so assembly was quick. trees grown in a greenhouse after only a couple of days the tower comes together the first steel columns are driven into the ground construction completed trees in earth planters go up with floor plates after one growing season Baubotanik: Technology Baubotanik’s first tower under construction
  13. 13. summer Baubotanik: Technology winter evaporation / transpiration uptake by the roots trench / water storage evaporation / transpiration grey water roof water surface water filtration Enclosure and Systems These images* are from a recent competition submission by Ferdinand Ludwig and the Baubotanik team. They demonstrate proposals for living spaces, like exterior living rooms to supplement single and multi-family living space. * These images are not for public distribution without permission from Ferdinand Ludwig interior rendering section
  14. 14. Plane Tree Cube Nagold, Germany The Plane-Tree-Cube is a contribution to the regional horticultural show 2012 in Nagold, south west of Stuttgart. It is the largest baubotanik building to date and the first to be constructed in an urban environment. The trees used are the “Plane tree”, most similar to American sycamore. The initial structure is quite heavy including 36 tonnes of steel which will be 25 after the temporary scaffolding is removed. Also 20 tonnes of earth in the planter boxes will also to be removed. section / summer section / winter tanik: logy view of scaffolding and inner courtyard Case Study: Baubotanik Nagold Tower is set to open Spring 2012
  15. 15. Case Study: Eco Boulevard Living plants, sun and wind are used to create micro-climates and generate electricity Eco Boulevard Madrid Eco Boulevard is a pilot project in Vallecas, a suburb of Madrid by Urban Ecosystem (Belinda Tato and Diego José Luis Vallejo García) to test the climatic adaptation of outdoor spaces. components in axo structure tree 1: “mediático” media The “trees” are made with recycled materials like linoleum, steel and concrete. The structure stands about 60 metres tall with a radius of 29 metres. tree 1: “lúdico” playful tree 1: “mediático”
  16. 16. wind turbine refrigeration conduit crawling plants water mist collected from plants cools air further tubular air space lights skin protects from sand, wind and debris earth for plants wind break and barrier to preserve microclimate Eco Boulevard Madrid Case Study: Eco Boulevard photovoltaic panel
  17. 17. Case Study: Eco Boulevard Title 16 tubular conduits create a micro-climate Eco Boulevard Madrid The “tree” cylinder is made up of sixteen tubular conduits with wind catchers at the top. The wind catchers have sensors which expell air hotter than 27 º C. The rest is pushed down and cooled by water spray from the plants in the wall. This reduces the air temperature by 10 º C. It also purifies toxins in the air. interior view with plants solar panels wind intake cool air vent
  18. 18. Case Study: Eco Boulevard interior showing structure and plants Eco Boulevard Madrid view of interior ceiling view sunken plaza helps promote micro-climate by providing a sheltered space columns at grade
  19. 19. Case Study: Park Supermarket model view of supermarket landscape Park Supermarket Netherlands The Park Supermarket was designed by Van Bergen Kolpa Architects of Rotterdam. This “landscape supermarket” will be used for cultivating and selling food with departments for rice, fish, meat, fruits, and vegetables. The project includes inter-dependant energy and growing systems and micro climates using, for example, “warmth accumulating snake walls and more contemporary solutions as insulating water spray ‘roofs’ and floor heating on the basis of thermal warmth.” plan view section showing micro climate strategies
  20. 20. Case Study: Fab Tree Hab Section of Fab Tree Hab Fab Tree Hab USA Mitchell Joachim, Ph.D. of Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the Human Ecology Design team, has designed a home made of living plants, called Fab Tree Hab. detail of facade showing water collection, ventilation, and root system in section section Solar radiation is linked to the importance of water cycles in the structure. In the winter, sun shines in the south windows, heating the thermal mass inside. In summer the overhanging roof shades the interior and uses the sun for photo-synthesis. A buoyancy-driven ventilation draws in cooler air at floor level. Solar hot water activates radiant floor pipes. The roof-top harvests water for human activity. A composting system recycles human waste and grey water which returns nutrients to the ecosystem. stages of development
  21. 21. Historical: Living Root Bridges Umshiang Double-Decker Root Bridge Living Root Bridges India Using a species of Indian Rubber Tree, people have been growing Living Root Bridges for more than 500 years. Using a hollowed out tree trunk as a guide, they force the roots to grow straight out across a river. In ten to fifteen years, the bridges are strong enough to carry humans, some bridges up to fifty people. detail of bridge Indian root bridge As they are alive and still growing, they continue to get stronger over time.
  22. 22. Arthur Wiechula Germany conceptual drawing of bridge supported by living trees conceptual drawing of living tree house Wiechula (1868 - 1941) was a German landscape engineer who explored “arborsculpture.” He believed it was absurd to cut down trees and saw them into planks when buildings could be made of living plants. He exploited the possibility of trees to be grafted together in a structural pattern. sketch of grafted cross-knot Historical: Arthur Wiechula tree grafting and shaping by Arthur Wiechula
  23. 23. Konstantin Kirsch Germany Konstantin Kirsch (born 1966) lives in Bauhaus, Germany. He has conducted research for living architecture since 1986. He is very involved in the permaculture movement and inspired the Baubotanik researchers. example of tree grafting structure Konstanin Kirsch in his living tree chair inside the “Ash Dome” Historical: Konstantin Kirsch “Living” room by Konstantin Kirsch
  24. 24. Historical: Rudolph Doernach Rudolph Doernach Germany In the early 1960s, architect Rudolph Doernach investigated a marine colony made of living plant material, a form of “Biotecture” in a form he coined Hydropolis. He was interested in creating a material like a polymer made of self-generating raw materials and a built-in intelligence. He envisioned the dwellings as living, floating islands. Doernach’s sketches of “Hydropolis”
  25. 25. Historical: Hundertwasser growing roof top by Hundertwasser, Vienna, Austria Hundertwasser Austria Friedensreich Huntertwasser (1928 - 2000) was an artist who was also interested in architecture and environmental issues. Hundertwasser focused on a type of architecture in harmony with nature. He promoted the preservation of the natural environment and “demanded a life in accordance with the laws of nature.” The drawing on the left demonstrates his commitment to promoting natural life cycles in building. He designed composting toilets and integrated the principles of a constructed wetland. Hundertwasser’s diagram of a living house
  26. 26. by project Baubotanik Most information was collected through two interviews on January 16, 2012: - Ferdinand Ludwig, Institute for Basics of Modern Architecture (IGMA), University of Stuttgart - Moritz Bellers from the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology at the University of Stuttgart “Living Plant Constructions,” Ferdinand Ludwig official website, accessed January 12, 2012, html “Baubotanik,” Baubotanik: Background of a Building Technique, accessed January 10, 2012, Other information was gathered from site visits to the Nagold Tower project. Photographs are courtesy of Ferdinand Ludwig or personal photographs of Beth MacLeod and Holly Simon. They may not be published on line or for broad distribution without permission. Eco Boulevard Park Supermarket “Park Supermarket,” van Bergen Kolpa Architecten, accessed January 7, 2012, http:// “Park Supermarket by Kolpa Architects will grow food onsite,” EcoFriend, accessed January 7, 2012, park-supermarket-by-kolpa-architects-willgrow-food-onsite/ Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY * Images and information were collected from the following websites. Root Bridges “The Root Bridges of Cherrapunji,“ Atlas Obscura, accessed January 15, 2012, http:// “Living Root Bridges,” Living Root Bridges Blog, accessed January 15, 2012, ht tp:// Arthur Wiechula image (two black and white side by side) blog/ “History of Arborsculpture,” Design Boom: Arthur Wiechula (1868 - 1941), accessed Janury 17, 2012, education/trees_wiechula.html “ECOSISTEMA URBANO ARQUITECTOS,” MIMOA Modern Architecture, accessed February 19, 2012, Spain/Madrid/Eco%20Boulevard Konstantin Kirsch Images are from the above sites and Kevin Lo. “Primitive Hut” from Introduction source: Architnet Discussion Forum http://archinect. com/forum/thread/56986/grow-your-ownhome Fab Tree Hab M. Joachim, “Fab Tree Hab,” 306090 08: Autonomous Urbanism, Monson & Duval, ed., Princeton Architectural Press, 2005. M. Joachim, J. Arbona, L. Greden, “Fab Tree Hab,” Thresholds Journal #26 DENATURED, MIT, 2003. “Local Biota Living Graft Structure,” Whole Ecological Design, accessed February 18, 2012, Images are from the last website listed. “The Tree Dome,” Konstantin Kirsch Project Website, accessed January 24, 2012. http:// Rudolf Doernach “SeaFoam,” The Millenial Project 2.0, accessed January 18, 2012, SeaFoam Hundertwasser “Friedensreich Hundertwasser,” Wikipedia, accessed January 10, 2012, http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Friedensreich_Hundertwasser “Roots: Hundertwasser, Veg.itect,” Veg.itecture: Beyond Green, accessed January 19, 2012, hundertwasser.html Techniques “Eco Boulevard in Vallecas,” WikiArchitectura, accessed February 18, 2012, http://