Memory PowerPoint

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  • can you please send me powerpoint on memory techniques, am having challengestomy email fred.gyamera412@gmail.com we currently studying the brain..thank you so much
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  • same here. renan.rico2@gmail.com
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  • Would you mind sending me this powerpoint at rossimatthew.rossi@gmail.com. I'd really appreciate it! I'd like to show it to my grade 10 science class. We are currently studying the brain. Thank you much!
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Memory PowerPoint

  1. 1. Memory chapter 8
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Reconstructing the past </li></ul><ul><li>The power of suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>In pursuit of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Three-box model of memory </li></ul><ul><li>How we remember </li></ul><ul><li>Why we forget </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiographical memories </li></ul>chapter 8
  3. 3. The manufacture of memory <ul><li>Memory is the capacity to retain and retrieve information. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a reconstructive process. </li></ul><ul><li>Source misattribution </li></ul><ul><li>The inability to distinguish what you originally experienced from what you heard or were told later about an event </li></ul>chapter 8
  4. 4. The fading flashbulb <ul><li>Some unusual, shocking, or tragic events hold a special place in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Called flashbulb memories because of their surprise, illumination, and photographic detail </li></ul><ul><li>Even flashbulb memories have errors. </li></ul>chapter 8
  5. 5. Conditions of confabulation <ul><li>Confabulation </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or. . . </li></ul><ul><li>A belief that you remember something when it never actually happened </li></ul><ul><li>Confabulation is most likely when. . . </li></ul><ul><li>you have thought or heard about the event many times. </li></ul><ul><li>the image of the event contains many details. </li></ul><ul><li>the event is easy to imagine. </li></ul>chapter 8
  6. 6. The eyewitness on trial <ul><li>Eyewitnesses are not always reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Cross race identification </li></ul><ul><li>Question wording (e.g., “crashed” vs “hit”) </li></ul><ul><li>Misleading information </li></ul>chapter 8
  7. 7. Children’s testimony <ul><li>Under what conditions are children more suggestible? </li></ul><ul><li>When they are very young </li></ul><ul><li>When interviewers’ expectations are clear </li></ul><ul><li>When other children’s memories for events are accessible </li></ul>chapter 8
  8. 8. Children’s testimony <ul><li>When asked if a visitor committed acts that had not occurred, few 4–6 year olds said yes. </li></ul><ul><li>100% of 3-year olds said yes. </li></ul><ul><li>When investigators used techniques taken from real child-abuse investigations, most children said yes. </li></ul>chapter 8
  9. 9. Explicit memory <ul><li>Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or item of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall: The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously learned material </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition: The ability to identify previously encountered material </li></ul>chapter 8
  10. 10. Implicit memory <ul><li>Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions. </li></ul>chapter 8
  11. 11. Relearning <ul><li>Compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material. </li></ul>chapter 8
  12. 12. Priming <ul><li>A person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on another type of task. </li></ul>chapter 8
  13. 13. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) <ul><li>Model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network, and all operating in parallel </li></ul>chapter 8
  14. 14. Three-box model of memory chapter 8
  15. 15. Sensory memory <ul><li>A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>The identification of a stimulus on the basis of information already contained in long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Information that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever. </li></ul>chapter 8
  16. 16. Short-term memory <ul><li>A limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods </li></ul><ul><li>Also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul><ul><li>A memory system which includes STM and mental processes that control retrieval of information from LT memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task </li></ul><ul><li>Chunk </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful unit of information which may be composed of smaller units </li></ul>chapter 8
  17. 17. The value of chunking <ul><li>You have 5 seconds to memorize as much as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Then draw an empty chess boards and reproduce the arrangement of the pieces. </li></ul>chapter 8
  18. 18. Long-term memory <ul><li>The memory system involved in the long-term storage of information </li></ul><ul><li>One way information is organized is in semantic categories (e.g., animals). </li></ul>chapter 8
  19. 19. Conceptual grid chapter 8
  20. 20. Types of long-term memories chapter 8
  21. 21. Your turn <ul><li>What kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semantic memory </li></ul><ul><li>3. Episodic memory </li></ul><ul><li>4. Flashbulb memory </li></ul>chapter 8
  22. 22. Your turn <ul><li>What kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semantic memory </li></ul><ul><li>3. Episodic memory </li></ul><ul><li>4. Flashbulb memory </li></ul>chapter 8
  23. 23. Contents of long-term memory <ul><li>Procedural memories </li></ul><ul><li>Memories for performance of actions or skills </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowing how” </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative memories </li></ul><ul><li>Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events; includes semantic and episodic memory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowing that” </li></ul>chapter 8
  24. 24. Contents of long-term memory <ul><li>Semantic memories </li></ul><ul><li>General knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic memories </li></ul><ul><li>Personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred </li></ul>chapter 8
  25. 25. Serial-position effect <ul><li>The tendency for recall of first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list </li></ul>chapter 8
  26. 26. Your turn <ul><li>You are asked to recall the following list of letters: </li></ul><ul><li>Z, S, E, R, F, V, B, H, U, I, K, M, N, G, B, F, O </li></ul><ul><li>Which letters are you most likely to remember in long-term memory ? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Z, S, E, R </li></ul><ul><li>2. F, V, B, H </li></ul><ul><li>3. U, I, K, M </li></ul><ul><li>4. G, B, F, O </li></ul>chapter 8
  27. 27. Your turn <ul><li>You are asked to recall the following list of letters: </li></ul><ul><li>Z, S, E, R, F, V, B, H, U, I, K, M, N, G, B, F, O </li></ul><ul><li>Which letters are you most likely to remember in long-term memory ? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Z, S, E, R </li></ul><ul><li>2. F, V, B, H </li></ul><ul><li>3. U, I, K, M </li></ul><ul><li>4. G, B, F, O </li></ul>chapter 8
  28. 28. Rehearsal <ul><li>Maintenance rehearsal: rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal: association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable </li></ul>chapter 8
  29. 29. Deep processing <ul><li>In the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus </li></ul>chapter 8
  30. 30. Mnemonics <ul><li>Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as use of a verse or a formula </li></ul><ul><li>MDAS </li></ul><ul><li>ROYGBIV </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty days hath September. . . </li></ul>chapter 8
  31. 31. Decay theory <ul><li>The theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed </li></ul><ul><li>Applies more to short-term than long-term memory </li></ul>chapter 8
  32. 32. Forgetting curve <ul><li>Herman Ebbinghaus tested his own memory for nonsense syllables. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting was rapid at first and then tapered off. </li></ul>chapter 8
  33. 33. Linton’s forgetting curve <ul><li>In contrast to Ebbinghaus, Linton’s memory for personal events was retained over a period of several years and then decreased rapidly. </li></ul>chapter 8
  34. 34. Replacement <ul><li>The theory that new information entering memory can wipe out old information </li></ul><ul><li>In one study, researchers showed subjects slides of a traffic accident. </li></ul><ul><li>The experimental group was misled into thinking there was a stop sign instead of a yield sign. </li></ul><ul><li>Even after being debriefed on the purpose of the study, subjects insisted that they really saw the stop sign. </li></ul><ul><li>The new information which came from the researchers replaced what the subjects saw. </li></ul>chapter 8
  35. 35. Interference <ul><li>Similar items interfere with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Retroactive interference: forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive interference: forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material </li></ul>chapter 8
  36. 36. Cue-dependent forgetting <ul><li>The inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall </li></ul><ul><li>Physical state can be a memory cue </li></ul><ul><li>State-dependent memory: the tendency to remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning </li></ul>chapter 8
  37. 37. Mood-congruent memory <ul><li>The tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood and overlook or forget experiences that are not. </li></ul>chapter 8
  38. 38. Amnesia <ul><li>The partial or complete loss of memory for important personal information </li></ul><ul><li>Psychogenic amnesia: the causes of forgetting are psychological, such as the need to escape feelings of embarrassment, guilt, shame, disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic amnesia: the forgetting of specific traumatic events, sometimes for many years </li></ul>chapter 8
  39. 39. The repression controversy <ul><li>Repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are more likely to struggle with forgetting traumatic events. </li></ul><ul><li>It is hard to distinguish repression from other forms of forgetting. </li></ul>chapter 8
  40. 40. When should we question recovered memories? <ul><li>If a person claims memories of first year or two of life </li></ul><ul><li>If over time the memories become more and more implausible </li></ul><ul><li>If therapist used suggestive techniques such as hypnosis, dream analysis, age regression, guided imagery, or leading questions </li></ul>chapter 8
  41. 41. Childhood amnesia <ul><li>The inability to remember events and experiences that occurred during the first two or three years of life </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive explanations: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Impoverished encoding </li></ul><ul><li>A focus on the routine </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of thinking about the world </li></ul>chapter 8

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