Princes In The Tower

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Princes In The Tower

  1. 1. Cultural Studies Year 7 History The Princes in the Tower Mystery
  2. 2. WALT Whether Richard III really killed the princes in the Tower. How the story of the murder (?) began. Think about the reliability of evidence being given in the lesson. WILF Detailed explanations answering the question (level 3a/4c) Detailed explanations answering the question with use of evidence (4b/4a) Use of the PEE format to answer the question (5c/5a) Try to question the reliability of evidence being used in the answer (5a/6b) The story King Edward IV died suddenly in 1483. He had two sons, Edward, aged 12, and Richard, aged 9. Before the king died, he made his trusted younger brother, Richard Duke of Gloucester, Protector of the young princes. This meant that Richard would effectively run the country until his nephew, Prince Edward, was old enough to rule by himself. If Richard could make people believe that the young princes had no right to the throne then, he would be next in line and become King! However, he needed them removed from the problem altogether (otherwise his enemies might use the princes as a way of getting rid of him and putting the eldest child (Edward) on the throne with either Henry Tudor or the Duke of Buckingham as the Protector). In June 1483, Richard announced that his brother, the dead King Edward IV, had never been legally married to the princes’ mother. This made the boys illegitimate and so neither of them could inherit the throne. In July 1483, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was crowned King Richard III. The two princes were never seen again. What had happened to them? Were they dead? Had Richard ordered their murder? People have been arguing about this ever since. Remember – there is no right answer. No one knows for sure whether or not Richard was involved. It’s a question of weighing up the evidence and coming to a judgement, based on the evidence. The trial of Richard III begins!
  3. 3. The Family Tree Henry Tudor – later to be Henry VII was a distant cousin to Richard III This is Richard, who the King These are the two boys who asked to look after his sons Richard was to look after. when he died. He is the King’s Edward would be King when brother. he was seen as old enough. Also known as Richard III when he was crowned King.
  4. 4. The Case for the Prosecution Evidence A: Domenico Mancini After June 1483 all the young Prince Domenico Mancini was an Italian writer Edward’s servants were kept from him. He who visited England between 1482–1483. and his brother Richard were taken to His English was very, very poor so he won’t rooms further inside the Tower of London. have talked to many ordinary people. They were seen less and less often, behind bars and windows, until finally they He never travelled outside London, his were seen no more. writing is full of factual mistakes and he left England soon after Richard III’s I have seen men burst into tears at the coronation (being crowned King). mention of Prince Edward’s name – for already some people suspected that he had been done away with. So far I have not discovered if he has been killed, nor how he might have died. Evidence B: The Croyland Chronicler For a long time the two sons of King The Croyland chronicler was probably a Edward remained under guard in the monk at Croyland Abbey. Tower, Finally, in September 1483 people of the South and West began to think of Some historians think he got his freeing them by force. The Duke of information from a councillor (King’s Buckingham, who deserted (left) King adviser) at the royal court. Richard, was declared their leader. But then a rumour was spread that the Princes Others think he got his information from had died a violent death, but no one knew John Morton the Bishop of Ely, or how. Margaret Beaufort, both of whom were enemies of Richard. Evidence C: The History of Richard III by Thomas More From The History of King Richard III, After his coronation in July 1483, King Richard decided that he must kill his written by More in 1513. nephews. This was because as long as they were alive, no one would believe him to be Sir Thomas More was five years old when the true king. Sir James Tyrell agreed to Richard was crowned king, so his plan the murder. He decided that the information was second-hand. Princes should be murdered in their beds. He chose Miles Forest and John Dighton He got most of his information from John to do the deed. The two men pressed Morton who was a sworn enemy of Richard
  5. 5. feather beds and pillows hard on the III. children’s faces until they stopped Morton was Bishop of Ely under Richard breathing. The story is well known to be III and later Archbishop of Canterbury. true because Sir James Tyrell confessed to it when he was imprisoned in the Tower in 1502. Evidence D: Shakespeare’s Richard III said by Sir James Tyrell The tyrannous and bloody act is done. William Shakespeare was born in 1564, so Dighton and Forrest, who I did ask everything he wrote about King Richard To do this piece of ruthless butchery, III was learned from someone else. Melted with tenderness and wept at what they had to do. Plays do not have to be historically Hence both are gone with conscience and accurate. However, people would not have remorse flocked to see Shakespeare’s historical They could not speak; and so I left them plays if they had not believed them to be both more or less true. To bear these tidings to the bloody king. Shakespeare was a keen supporter of the Tudors and would not have had royal support if he had written a play about an English king with which the Tudors had disagreed. Tasks 1. Read the introduction. What motivation is given for Richard wanting the boys killed? Explain your answer using evidence to support your point. 2. For this task you will use the Venn diagram worksheet. You need to compare evidence A and B. These two sources are the nearest written to the event and we need to see what facts are supported and not supported in the two sources.
  6. 6. Anything said by Anything said by both goes in the Mancini but not middle where by the the two circles Chronicler goes overarch in the Mancini segment (likewise for the chronicler). 3. Then you are going to decide how reliable the case for the prosecution is. The living graph worksheet allows you to decide how reliable the evidence is – all you do is colour in the graph as to how you rate it. Remember it is all subjective. (Example only) 4. Then decide which piece of evidence is the most useful and explain why. Remember the PEE principle (Point, Evidence and Explain) Overall I think the most reliable piece of evidence is….. Sentence Starters This is because in the source it says…. This is reliable because…
  7. 7. In 1485, Henry Tudor, the son of Margaret Beaufort, invaded England and challenged King Richard III for the throne. In the Battle of Bosworth on 22 August 1485, Henry Tudor defeated King Richard III and became King Henry VII, the father of King Henry VIII.
  8. 8. Richard III’s last charge! By now you will have realised that nothing to do with King Richard III is simple! You have viewed the case for the prosecution. Now let’s explore the case for the defence.
  9. 9. The Case for the Defence Evidence E: Polydore Vergil Richard decided to try all he could to Polydore Vergil was the historian of King make his peace with Queen Elizabeth Henry VII, who had defeated King Richard Woodville (the princes' mother) and after III in the Battle of Bosworth, August a while she agreed to send her daughters 1485. Vergil was asked by Henry VII to to stay with Richard at Court. After this write a history of England. He therefore she wrote secretly to the Marquis of wrote what would please the Tudors. Dorset (her son by another marriage) advising him to forget Henry Tudor and return to England where he would be sure to be treated well by King Richard III. Evidence F: The Croyland Chronicler In 1484, after strong persuasion from The Croyland Chronicler was probably a Richard, Queen Elizabeth Woodville (the monk at Croyland Abbey. Some historians princes' mother) sent all her daughters to think he got his information from a Richard’s court at Westminster. councillor (adviser) at the royal court. Christmas that year was celebrated with great splendour. There was far too much Others think he got his information from dancing and gaiety. King Richard John Morton the Bishop of Ely, or presented Queen Anne (his wife) and Lady Margaret Beaufort, both of whom were Elizabeth (his niece and sister of the enemies of Richard. princes) with a similar set of new and fashionable clothes. Evidence G: Philip Lindsay I am certain that the Princes were alive Philip Lindsay, an historian writing in the when Henry came to London in August 20th century. People writing later can often 1485. He issued a proclamation, giving out get a better perspective than people living all Richard’s supposed crimes and this list at the time. This is because they have a does not include the killing of the Princes. much wider range of material to help them That to my mind is proof that they were with their conclusions. not even missing. Richard had no reason to kill them; Henry had every reason. If they lived, all he had fought for would be useless because Prince Edward had more right to be king than Henry Tudor. Henry spread the word that Richard had done the killing. Henry Tudor, murderer and liar
  10. 10. – it is time the truth was known! Written in Argosy magazine, 1972. Evidence H: Josephine Tey Don't you see, Richard had no need of any Josephine Tey, a writer best known for mystery; but Henry's whole case her mystery stories. Remember, people depended on the boys' end being writing a long time after an event are able mysterious. Sooner or later Richard would to use a much wider range of material to have had to account for the boys not help them draw their conclusions. being there. If Richard had killed the boys, all he had to do was to let them lie in state while the whole of London wept over two young things dead before their time, supposedly of a fever. But he didn't, and he didn't because they were still alive. But Henry had to find a way to push them out of sight. Henry had to hide the facts of when and where they died. Henry's whole case depended on no-one's knowing what exactly happened to the boys. From The Daughter of Time, written in 1951. Tasks 5. You need to compare evidence E and F. These two sources are the nearest written to the event and we need to see what facts are supported and not supported in the two sources. Anything said by Vergil but not by the Chronicler goes in the Vergil segment (likewise for the chronicler). Anything said by both goes in the middle. (use the Venn Diagram sheet provided) 6. Then you are going to decide how reliable the case for the defence is. The living graph worksheet allows you to decide how reliable the evidence is – all you do is colour in the graph as to how you rate it. Remember it is all subjective. (use the Living Graph sheet) 7. Then decide which piece of evidence is the most useful and explain why. 8. Elizabeth Woodville, the boys’ mother wants a report from you explaining who you think was responsible. Use the writing frame to create a report.
  11. 11. Topic: Murder! Who killed the Princes in the Tower Key Question: Was Richard III guilty of the murder of the boy princes in the Tower of London? Point After looking at both sides of the case I believe that Richard III was… ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... Evidence The evidence to support my judgement is that… ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... Explanation The evidence supports my judgement because… ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................

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