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C13 technology management


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C13 technology management

  1. 1. Operations Management Technology Management Chapter 13 OPM 533 13-
  2. 2. <ul><li>Technology is not a cure-all, but managing technology is certainly a major ingredient in building firms with a future. </li></ul>Technology OPM 533 13-
  3. 3. Using the Internet <ul><li>Boeing & Lufthansa put maintenance info online for worldwide access </li></ul><ul><li>Medical equipment manufacturer exchange 3D design info, in real time, with customers around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics manufacturer has web-enabled factory </li></ul><ul><li>Master lock uses Internet to make info available to suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Tool Co. builds product from customer specs sent via the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar Inc sells industrial parts through e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>State Street Bank uses the web to support global customer relationships </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  4. 4. Design Technology 1. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) <ul><li>Refers to the use of computers to interactively design products and prepares engineering documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) – enables testing of design integration before manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D Object Modeling – enables the building of small models of the product </li></ul></ul>OPM 533 13-
  5. 5. 3-D Object modeling OPM 533 13-
  6. 6. <ul><li>Standard for exchange of CAD data </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 3-D CAD data </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances collaboration using talent wherever it is in the world reducing design lead time and development cost </li></ul>OPM 533 13- Design Technology 2. Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP)
  7. 7. Design Technology 3. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) <ul><li>Refers to the use of specialized computer programs to direct and control manufacturing equipment </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  8. 8. <ul><li>Product quality </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter design time </li></ul><ul><li>Production costs reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Database availability </li></ul><ul><li>New range of capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces need for “similar” parts </li></ul>Design Technology Benefits of CAD/CAM OPM 533 13-
  9. 9. Design Technology 4. Virtual Reality <ul><li>Enables creation of a “virtual model” </li></ul><ul><li>Help test integration of design </li></ul><ul><li>Enables users to “try product” before manufacturing (also enables customer to try product before purchase) </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  10. 10. Virtual Reality Technology OPM 533 13-
  11. 11. Production Technology <ul><li>Numerically controlled machines </li></ul><ul><li>Process control </li></ul><ul><li>Vision Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  12. 12. <ul><li>Numerical Control (NC) – machine can be controlled electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) – machine actually has its own microprocessor and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Numerical Control (DNC) – wired to a central computer </li></ul>Production Technology 1. Numerical Control OPM 533 13-
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sensors, often analog devices, collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Analog devises read data on some periodic basis, perhaps once a minute or once a second </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements are translated into digital signals, and transmitted to a digital computer </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programs read the file (the digital data) and analyze the data </li></ul><ul><li>Output may be a: message on printer or console, signal to a motor to change a value setting, warning light or horn, process control chart, etc. </li></ul>Production Technology 2. Process Control OPM 533 13-
  14. 14. Process-control software OPM 533 13-
  15. 15. <ul><li>Combine video and computer technology </li></ul><ul><li>Often used in inspection roles </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently accurate, do not become bored, of modest cost </li></ul>Production Technology 3. Vision Systems OPM 533 13-
  16. 16. Vision System OPM 533 13-
  17. 17. <ul><li>Machines that hold, move, or grasp items </li></ul><ul><li>Perform monotonous or dangerous tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Used when speed, accuracy, or strength are needed </li></ul>Production Technology 4. Robots OPM 533 13-
  18. 18. Types of Robots Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP OPM 533 13-
  19. 19. <ul><li>Provide for automated placement and withdrawal of parts and products into and from designated places in the warehouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly useful in inventory and test areas of manufacturing firms </li></ul>Production Technology 5. Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS) OPM 533 13-
  20. 20. <ul><li>Material handling machines </li></ul><ul><li>Used to move parts & equipment in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>May be used to deliver mail & meals in service facilities </li></ul>Production Technology 6. Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) OPM 533 13-
  21. 21. <ul><li>Using automated machines (DNC) & materials handling equipment together </li></ul><ul><li>Often connected to centralized computer </li></ul><ul><li>Also called automated work cell </li></ul>Production Technology 7. Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) OPM 533 13-
  22. 22. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster, lower-cost changes from one part to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower direct labor costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent, and perhaps better quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited ability to adapt to product mix changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires substantial preplanning and capital expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological problems of exact component positioning and precise timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooling and fixture requirements </li></ul></ul>Production Technology FMS – Pros & Cons OPM 533 13-
  23. 23. Production Technology Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) OPM 533 13-
  24. 24. <ul><li>Manufacturing system that combines CAM with engineering (CAD), & production and inventory control </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided design (CAD) creates code to run DNC machine </li></ul>Production Technology 8. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) OPM 533 13-
  25. 25. Equipment Options and Utilization OPM 533 13-
  26. 26. Use of Information Technology at North American Manufacturing Plants OPM 533 13-
  27. 27. Technology Impacts in Services <ul><li>Financial services </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities and government </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurants and foods </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Wholesales/retail trade </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Airlines </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  28. 28. Technology in Services OPM 533 13- Service Industry Example Financial services Debit cards, electronic funds transfer, ATMs, Internet stock trading Education Electronic bulletin boards, on-line journals Utilities and government Automated one-man garbage trucks, optical mail sorters, scanners, flood warning systems Restaurants and foods Wireless orders from waiters to kitchen, robot butchering, transponders on cars to track drive-thru Communication Electronic publishing, interactive TV Hotels Electronic check-in/check-out, electronic key/lock systems Wholesale/retail trade Point-of-sale terminals, e-commerce, electronic communication between store and supplier, bar coded data
  29. 29. Technology in Services - Continued OPM 533 13- Service Industry Example Transportation Automatic toll booths, satellite-directed navigation systems, route planning, progress monitoring Health care On-line patient monitoring, on-line medical information systems, robotic surgery, expert system diagnosis assistance Airlines Ticket less travel, scheduling, Internet ticket sales, improved navigation and route planning
  30. 30. Technology in service OPM 533 13-
  31. 31. DSS, MIS and Transaction Processing in Operations Management OPM 533 13-
  32. 32. MIS and Transaction Processing in Operations Management OPM 533 13-
  33. 33. Expert System <ul><li>Make decisions faster than the expert </li></ul><ul><li>Derive the benefits of having the expert present </li></ul><ul><li>Equal and surpass, at least in terms of consistency, the human expert </li></ul><ul><li>Free the human expert for other work </li></ul><ul><li>Can be disseminated to numerous non-experts for education and training </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  34. 34. How an Expert Scheduling System Works OPM 533 13-
  35. 35. To Gain Competitive Advantage Through Technology <ul><li>Have a strategic vision </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for a distant time horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Have a focused product line and know your product and customer </li></ul><ul><li>Tie strong internal technical capabilities to your strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Build learning organizations that can effectively implement the changes necessary for constructive use of technology </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  36. 36. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) <ul><li>Packaged business software systems that allow companies to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate and integrate the majority of their business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share common data and practices across the entire enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce and access information in a real-time environment </li></ul></ul>OPM 533 13-
  37. 37. Example of an ERP Systems OPM 533 13-
  38. 38. MRP and ERP Information Flows, Integrated with Other Systems Prepared by: Shatina Saad @ FPP OPM 533 13-
  39. 39. Advantages of ERP <ul><li>Provides integration of supply-chain, production and administrative processes </li></ul><ul><li>Creates commonality of databases </li></ul><ul><li>Can incorporate improved, redesigned, “best processes” </li></ul><ul><li>Increased communication and collaboration worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Helps integrate multiple sites and business units </li></ul><ul><li>Is packaged with a software core that is off-the-shelf coding </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide a strategic advantage over competitors </li></ul>OPM 533 13-
  40. 40. Disadvantages of ERP <ul><li>Is very expensive to purchase, and even more costly to customize </li></ul><ul><li>Requires major changes in the company and its processes to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Is such a complex program that many companies cannot adjust to it </li></ul><ul><li>Involves an ongoing process for implementation, which is often never completed </li></ul><ul><li>expertise in ERP is limited, with staffing an ongoing problem </li></ul>OPM 533 13-