Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

From Podcasting to Coursecasting: Implications for teaching and learning, presented at CNIE

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. From Podcasting to Coursecasting: Implications on Teaching and Learning Presented at CNIE Pat Brogan, PhD [email_address] Graphic used with permission from Mica Ovadia
  2. 2. Echo 360 Company Background <ul><li>2000: Anystream created to target high-end broadcast and media companies with media conversion and delivery services </li></ul><ul><li>Used by top broadcast companies: Fox, MLB, MSNBC </li></ul><ul><li>2003: MIT, Temple, Harvard drove demand for HED specific product for lecture capture: Apreso </li></ul><ul><li>2007: Lectopia acquired, company and products relaunched as echo360 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pat Brogan, PhD Background <ul><li>Worked for high tech companies: IBM , Apple, Borland, Macromedia, Academic Systems, Giga Information </li></ul><ul><li>Adjunct Faculty member Santa Clara University Leavy school of business </li></ul><ul><li>Researched and published in field of elearning: articles, whitepapers, dissertation, part of book </li></ul><ul><li>Worked on worldwide learning initiatives: Clinton education committee, New Media Center’s learning objects committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Board member of non-profit educational initiatives for at-risk youth; bilingual counselor and legal advocate for sexually abused children and adults </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Changing Landscape in higher ed </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing and Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Next </li></ul>
  5. 5. Changing Landscape of Higher Education <ul><li>The number of students over 25 has doubled in the past twenty-five years </li></ul><ul><li>30% of students are parents </li></ul><ul><li>40.9% of students attend school full-time, full-year </li></ul><ul><li>15% live on campus </li></ul><ul><li>55% have voted </li></ul><ul><li>19.7% speak another language in home </li></ul>
  6. 6. NetGen Students: <ul><ul><li>Have watched 10k hours of TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent 15k text messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have played 10k hours of videogames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have the discipline to read books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate different brain wave patterns of discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have earbuds affixed to their ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit behavior that previously required medication! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Campus Challenges <ul><li>Campuses are competing for students: recruit, retain, matriculate </li></ul><ul><li>Students vote with attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Have many more options: AZUM, Rio Salado </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of failure high </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway courses problematic: math </li></ul><ul><li>NCAA compliance for athletes </li></ul><ul><li>ESL students and teachers: language fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Working students </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking new paradigm </li></ul>
  8. 8. Podcasting and Coursecasting <ul><li>Podcast: Audio only file </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Podcast: Audio plus book cover or thumbnails </li></ul><ul><li>VODcast: Movie played on a mobile device </li></ul><ul><li>Can be video only, or an echo VGA and audio are the “movie” </li></ul><ul><li>Coursecast: Video, audio, VGA input from classroom devices, captioning (optional) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Podcasting and Coursecasting: Usage Models <ul><li>Capture and replay </li></ul><ul><li>Typically used to supplement the current classroom experience; typically perishable </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor creates mini lessons to supplement teaching, can be shared among professors </li></ul><ul><li>Student Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Students generate content as part of the product of their classwork </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifted or synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Events, branding, intellectual assets </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example of Rich Media Capture
  11. 11. Product Options for Every Classroom Capabilities of the Classroom Visual Richness of Curriculum Podcasting Rich Media, Web-based Lectures Basic Smart Echo Classroom Audio, Video, VGA & Devices Echo Enhanced Podcast Echo Podcast Echo Classroom VODcast Echo Classroom Audio, VGA & Video
  12. 12. Applications of Lecture Capture <ul><li>Tutorial support </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded classes for homebound or home-schooled student interviews </li></ul><ul><li>District or campus updates or announcements for parents and community </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction for emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Music and language education </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of instructional methods by master teachers, laureates </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of other professional development resources </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting events, audio plays or other productions </li></ul><ul><li>Student poetry projects </li></ul><ul><li>Sound-seeing tours </li></ul><ul><li>Audiobooks or supplemental textbook materials </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness planning: archiving content </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Legal archives </li></ul><ul><li>Events: sporting, entertainment, recruiting, parent weekends </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting disabled populations </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign language practice </li></ul>
  13. 13. Deciding What to Capture <ul><li>Nature of the content : Content that is visually complex, such as math or science problems or medical procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom environment: Smart classrooms typically have the richest media presentation tools and are typically are simple to set up for automated coursecasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Budget: What will it cost to capture? Do I need full rich media or audio only? Podcasting inexpensive way to start: $10K plus microphones </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing resources: What can/will be automated. Who will manage the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Intended use of the content: Will it have a short or long shelf life? Is it mission critical or for review? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Publishing Options <ul><li>Publish to a course management system </li></ul><ul><li>Blackboard, Moodle, Sakai, WebCT </li></ul><ul><li>RSS to ITunesU </li></ul><ul><li>Playback on Ipods, other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Push to a website </li></ul><ul><li>Write to CD/DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Stream </li></ul>
  15. 15. Output Options <ul><li>Format choices: </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 Files </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Podcasts (.m4b) </li></ul><ul><li>Audiobooks </li></ul><ul><li>Video files (Flash, Real, Windows Media, Quicktime) </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with screen readers and captioned audio </li></ul>
  16. 16. ITunes U <ul><li>Free to Campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Apple hosts content, manages traffic bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>One ITunes U interface on computer for sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Apple strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upsell to ITunes store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer affiliate program (5% to school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote legitimate use of music, movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand Apple brand in schools to sell more products </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Accessibility and Learning Differences <ul><li>Represents 20+% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508 of the American’s with Disability Act </li></ul><ul><li>Requires that disabled students have equal access and functionality for Web software </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies categories of support that are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates procurement of the most compliant vendor (via a VPAT filed with government) </li></ul><ul><li>Mandated by some laws </li></ul>
  18. 19. University of Western Australia Accessibility Initiative
  19. 21. Brevard Student Survey of Value Perception <ul><li>Perception of Value High Some None </li></ul><ul><li>Audio of presenter 61% 32% 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Video of presenter 55% 40% 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading for offline use 29% 42% 29% </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down playback 35% 48% 17% </li></ul><ul><li>Speed up playback 36% 48% 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting of instructor 44% 49% 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Document camera visuals 51% 42% 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Computer visuals 61% 34% 5% </li></ul>
  20. 22. Accessibility Support <ul><li>Support for closed-captioning </li></ul><ul><li>Import smile file and synchronize </li></ul><ul><li>Intent is to support line 21 for Ipod/Iphone deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Support for screen readers </li></ul><ul><li>Volume controls </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation to content </li></ul><ul><li>Support for assistive technologies </li></ul>
  21. 23. Captioning <ul><li>Echo360 system captures audio files </li></ul><ul><li>Audio files (.aac, .mp3) sent to transcription service </li></ul><ul><li>Can be human: Rapidtext PeopleSupport, Vitac or </li></ul><ul><li>System: Docsoft, AST </li></ul><ul><li>Can be edited and trained, translated into different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Files captioned and imported and synchronized with audio, video and visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Once captioned files are created, search tools can be used within and across lectures </li></ul>
  22. 24. Editing A Captioned File
  23. 25. Echo360 System With Captions
  24. 26. Deciding What to Caption Key factors: budget, time, quality No Low Short Student content Both Low Long Events Yes Low Short or long Distance learning Yes Low Long Supplemental learning Maybe High Short Lectures Translation and or transcription Volume Shelf Life Type of content
  25. 27. UWA Student Survey <ul><li>58% respondents with learning disabilities use Lectopia because they are ‘unable to take notes’, compared to 27% of those with non-learning disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>38% respondents with medical or mobility disabilities use Lectopia because they are ‘unable to attend live lectures dueto their disability’, compared to 11% of those with nonmedical/ mobility disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60% respondents requested that the system should either be compulsory for all lectures, or at least more widespread. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Lecturing Styles <ul><li>Some styles more suitable to capturing: those who organize lectures logically with clear learning objectives and use appropriate visual aids and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Brown and Bakhtar (1988) : 5 lecturer styles </li></ul><ul><li>(“Giver”), Exemplary Lecturer, Eclectic Lecturer (“Self-doubter”), and Amorphous Lecturer </li></ul><ul><li>Behr (1988) found styles: dramatic presenter, information provider, structured presenter, and visual presenter </li></ul>
  27. 29. Flexible learning Enhanced Comprehension & Retention Access Content on the go (online or podcasting) Benefits of Lecture Capture Create lectures during absences Same natural teaching style Improved student satisfaction Improved student participation during class Faculty Institution Expanded enrollment Reduced failure rates Improved course results and completion rates Recruiting Tool Students
  28. 30. Implementation Examples: <ul><li>University of Western Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Temple University </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purdue University </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of California Berkeley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Wyoming Community College </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Massachusetts-Lowell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Colleges of Health Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Creighton University </li></ul>
  29. 31. University of Western Australia <ul><li>Early adopter of lecture capturing </li></ul><ul><li>Built home-grown system: iLecture, Lectopia </li></ul><ul><li>2006 recorded over 400 lectures each week with 15,000 hits per week </li></ul><ul><li>>12,000 lectures were recorded with over 500,000 views of the lectures after posting </li></ul><ul><li>More research and usage data is available at http:// / . </li></ul>
  30. 32. Study: Observations <ul><li>58% respondents with learning disabilities use Lectopia because they are ‘unable to take notes’, compared to 27% of those with non-learning disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>38% respondents with medical or mobility disabilities use Lectopia because they are ‘unable to attend live lectures dueto their disability’, compared to 11% of those with nonmedical/ mobility disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60% respondents requested that the system should either be compulsory for all lectures, or at least more widespread. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Satisfaction With Lecture Capture <ul><li>64% said it was “essential” </li></ul><ul><li>34% said it was useful </li></ul><ul><li>1% said “not important” </li></ul>
  32. 34. Temple University Data <ul><li>80% - improved student learning </li></ul><ul><li>29% - helped students earn a better grade </li></ul><ul><li>73% - helped improve the quality of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>85% - student attendance stayed the same or increased </li></ul><ul><li>94% - students would pick a class with Apreso lecture capture over one without it </li></ul>
  33. 35. Temple’s Program
  34. 36. Western Colleges of Health Sciences <ul><li>Greater Los Angeles Area </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate only, medical and health sciences </li></ul><ul><li>2500 students across all programs </li></ul><ul><li>Three classrooms capture stations capturing all classes </li></ul><ul><li>System in place 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Over 500 unique users per day </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance issue: ok to miss class if you stay current. 8 am class saw 50% of students stopped attending, logged on at 9:15 </li></ul><ul><li>Grades were equal to those attending </li></ul><ul><li>College is able to increase number of students with minimal overhead increases </li></ul>
  35. 37. Creighton University <ul><li>44 States suffer a shortage of pharmacists </li></ul><ul><li>Added the Doctor of Pharmacy distance learning program to reach rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded content, published using Apreso/echo360 </li></ul><ul><li>Positive results: graduation rates, student satisfaction and exam pass rates </li></ul>
  36. 38. Central Wyoming College <ul><li>Nursing program with large geographical area and barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated from video tapes, CCTV to lecture capture solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing decision for podcast (lecture capture with audio/visual): </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use  for both students and faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Meet current needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal ongoing maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>No interruption in flow of classroom </li></ul>
  37. 39. Benefit to Students <ul><li>Can use to supplement the content covered in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>More accurate and complete lecture notes </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of content review options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire class period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific topics that require increased comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can review prior to clinical for accurate application of content, or to enhance previous clinical experience </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Benefit to Students, con’t <ul><li>If miss a class, have timely access to content covered </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to material during long commutes to maximize time management </li></ul><ul><li>Students will use to review content for final exam, can choose specific topics they may not have scored well on during unit assessments </li></ul><ul><li>With the initial data analysis, student cohorts using podcasting demonstrated an average of 6.5% increased performance on comprehensive final exams when compared to scores on same final exams from previous cohorts. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Benefit to Faculty <ul><li>Easy to use, no need to change teaching style </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Less time consuming than previous procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty mentoring </li></ul>
  40. 42. Benefit to Institution <ul><li>Enhances colleague/supervisor performance evaluation of faculty classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for specific student instruction institution-wide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NLNAC Self Study: Identified procedure for access to online library services was problematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian recorded podcasts with screen shots demonstrating steps for access, now part of all nursing WebCT courses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires minimal resources for start up and ongoing maintenance </li></ul>
  41. 43. Current Data – Student Survey Question “How often do you use Podcasts?”
  42. 44. Current Data – Student Survey Question “About how much of a podcast do you listen to?”
  43. 45. Current Data – Student Survey Question “How do you access the podcasts?”
  44. 46. Current Data – Student Survey Question “ Do you feel that podcasting has been beneficial to your learning experience?”
  45. 47. Current Data – Student Survey Question “Would you miss podcasts if they were no longer available?”
  46. 48. Current Data – Student Comments <ul><li>“ Love it!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Extremely helpful” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I love having podcasts. I drive 2 to 3 hours per day, so I can listen to most of a podcast during my commute.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It helps to reinforce concepts.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I use podcasts all the time as a supplement.” </li></ul>
  47. 49. Brevard Uses of Capture <ul><li>Sharing of Faculty Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Tips for Students Tip </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Class Student Captures </li></ul><ul><li>Online Course Orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Test Review </li></ul><ul><li>Guest lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Development and Employee Training </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory student worker training </li></ul>
  48. 50. Brevard Community College Data <ul><li>From Where do you access BCC Capture? </li></ul><ul><li>On Campus 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Work/office 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Home 88% </li></ul><ul><li>Public area (Library, Cafe, Airport, Hotel) 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Other, please specify </li></ul><ul><li>Does BCC Capture improve your learning experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Definitely 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately 31% </li></ul><ul><li>No change 15% </li></ul>Source: =L22WMGAUC8E4
  49. 51. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Check all that apply- BCC Capture helps faculty by: </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing or eliminating out-of-class tutoring 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically starting/stopping for every class 13% </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing or eliminating out-of-class review 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically posting captures to BlackBoard 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing student need to take notes 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Providing the opportunity to review your own teaching 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Helping faculty to share teaching with colleagues and others 40% </li></ul><ul><li>BCC Capture did not work when I used it 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Other 27% </li></ul>
  50. 52. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Perception of value High Some None </li></ul>5% 34% 61% Computer visuals 7% 42% 51% Document camera visuals 7% 49% 44% Handwriting of instructor 15% 48% 36% Speed up playback 17% 48% 35% Slow down playback 29% 42% 29% Downloading for offline use 5% 40% 55% Video of presenter 7% 32%` 61% Audio of presenter
  51. 53. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Does BCC Capture improve the learning experience for your students? </li></ul><ul><li>Definitely 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately 47% </li></ul><ul><li>No Change 7% </li></ul>
  52. 54. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>What effect does BCC Capture have on your classroom teaching quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Much higher quality 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately higher quality 47% </li></ul><ul><li>No change 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Lower quality 0% </li></ul>
  53. 55. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Faculty were asked: BCC Capture Helps students: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the need to take notes 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Study for upcoming exams 64% </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify complicated or confusing issues 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Review instruction more often 59% </li></ul><ul><li>Earn a higher grade 36% </li></ul><ul><li>BCC Capture did not work when you used it 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Other, please specify 9% </li></ul>
  54. 56. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Students were asked--What effect does BCC Capture have on your class attendance? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in attendance 22% </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in attendance 1% </li></ul><ul><li>No change 76% </li></ul>
  55. 57. Brevard Community College Survey Data <ul><li>Faculty were asked--BCC Capture helps students: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the need to take notes 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Study for upcoming exams 64% </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify complicated or confusing issues 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Review instruction more often 59% </li></ul><ul><li>Earn a higher grade 36% </li></ul><ul><li>BCC Capture did not work when you used it 10% </li></ul>
  56. 58. Pedagogical Implications <ul><li>Research on teaching and learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes improve when: </li></ul><ul><li>Students have control over learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is personalized-Content & Context </li></ul><ul><li>Learning inputs are optimized: multi-sensory learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pavio’s dual coding theory: increased absorption and retention when multiple senses are engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer & Moreno Multimedia Processing </li></ul>
  57. 59. U Mass Lowell Student Lecture Capture The video lectures contribute to my understanding Strongly Agree 15% Agree 57% Disagree 10% Strongly disagree 2% Do not access 15% 72% felt that video lectures contributed to their understanding of Calculus concepts.
  58. 60. Before lecture capture With Apreso lecture capture
  59. 61. Note: The success rate (C or better) went from 33% in Fall 04 to 44% in Fall 05. The percentage of D’s, F’s & W’s went down from 62% to 53%.
  60. 62. U Mass Lowell Student Lecture Capture <ul><li>1. How often have you accessed the online video lectures this semester? </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 per semester 32% (n=19) </li></ul><ul><li>< 1 per week 22% (n=13) </li></ul><ul><li>about 1 per week 28% (n=17) </li></ul><ul><li>every lecture 5% (n=3) </li></ul><ul><li>never 13% (n=8) </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of class accessed about 1 per week or more. </li></ul>
  61. 63. Student Reaction “ If you don't understand something that the instructor just explained you can pause and play back. You can't do that in class.” “ You can see classes you missed and go back and look at what happened when you weren't paying attention.” “ Being able to go back and take notes on something I missed because my teacher was going at a fast pace.” survey
  62. 64. Faculty Reaction “ The capture technology for student review on Bb is great.” “ I love this technology, thanks for bringing it to BCC.” “ Best of all I like the ability for 24/7 student review of materials.” “ The students rely on BCC Capture heavily now.”
  63. 65. Benefits to U Mass Lowell <ul><li>Evaluate technology and implementation plan to improve learning and meet students’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in grades, retention of content, course completion rates (=$ and improved success metrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Support faculty with use of technolgoy </li></ul><ul><li>Innovate to attract new Net-gen students </li></ul>
  64. 66. The echo360 Edge <ul><li>Learned through research and talking to faculty and competitors </li></ul><ul><li>HED only!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Take a solutions approach: outcomes matter </li></ul><ul><li>Support implementation with research plan </li></ul><ul><li>Technically superior media handling </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>508 compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Best value in market </li></ul>
  65. 67. Barriers: Real and Perceived <ul><li>Fear of failure (technically) </li></ul><ul><li>Students will no longer come to class </li></ul><ul><li>Captures can be used to evaluate me </li></ul><ul><li>What if I make a mistake? </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who owns content? </li></ul></ul>
  66. 68. Data Analysis Methodologies <ul><li>Quantifiable data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades: compare grades to similar classes or historical classes by same professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass Rates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No names associated with grades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would be nice to capture gender if math or science courses are used due to gender biases towards these courses and to assess the potential technology usage gender biases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-post facto statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a statistical test of significance to establish whether there exists a significant (non-chance) difference among sample means, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) which tests relations between independent variables and dependent variables while controlling for covariates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 69. Attendance <ul><li>Question the students to determine their perception if the availability of the lecture outside the classroom impacted their attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Probe to see if the students and faculty felt that attendance should matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare grade to historical attendance if possible, if attendance is not measured, measure it using clickers or alternative methods </li></ul>
  68. 70. Attitudes <ul><li>Conduct Pre and Post attitude surveys towards discipline and technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Point Likert scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate changes + or - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could use Math Attitude Scale and Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI) (Sandman, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study habits </li></ul></ul>
  69. 71. Literature on Technology Mediated Learning <ul><li>Research shows learning outcomes improve when: </li></ul><ul><li>Students have control over their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is personalized </li></ul><ul><li>Learning optimizes their brain patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Key research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavio et al </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kulik & Kulik </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer & Moreno </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campus studies: Cal Poly study </li></ul></ul>
  70. 72. The Echo360 System – Workflow Blackboard Enterprise iTunes U Angel
  71. 73. Automated Workflow Captures repeated automatically every class session, all semester <ul><li>Courses pre-scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule managed by administrator </li></ul><ul><li>-Integration with school scheduling system </li></ul>Schedule once - Instructors teach normally. -Microphone required. Teach normally - Capture starts and stops according to schedule. -Interactive, Web-based version of lecture instantly generated Capture automatically - Students click link to review -Interactive navigation View immediately Show Blackboard course - Automated distribution -Automated posting to CMS Distribute automatically