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  1. 1. Protists<br />Ryan Keyes<br />AP Biology<br />
  2. 2. Protista<br />Kingdom abandoned – Many protists are more similar to animals, plants or fungi<br />The term “protist” is still used to describe any eukaryote which is not animal, plant, or fungi<br />Protists are more diverse than any other organism<br />Diverse because one cell must carry out all of the average functions<br />
  3. 3. Complexity<br />Mostly unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular<br />Some photo-autotrophs, some hetertrophic, and some are both<br />Some are asexual, while others undergo meiosis<br />
  4. 4. Endosymbiosis<br />Key factor in diversity of protists<br />Mitochondria from alpha proteobacteria<br />All eukaryotes studied from a certain point either have mitochondria or had them at some point<br />
  5. 5. Plastids of endo. sym.<br />Red and green algae from a photosynthetic cyanobacteria, supported by similar DNA between algae plastids and cyanobacteria<br />R & G algae were also taken in and remain in many other protists<br />
  6. 6. Modified mitochondria<br />Diplomonads and parabasalids contain remnants of mitochondria<br />Remnants aid in digestion, but do not contain electron trans. chain<br />TrichomonasVaginalis– the infection of the vagina resulting from an anaerobic eukaryote resembling bacteria found in the vagina.<br />
  7. 7. Kinetoplastids<br />Contains an organelle, kinetoplast, which stores extranuclear DNA<br />African sleeping sickness results from kinetoplastids<br />Evades immunity by switching surface proteins every generation<br />A third of the genome codes for surface proteins<br />
  8. 8. Dinoflagellates<br />Flagellated protists which are the foundation of many water based food-chains<br />Have blooms, or massive growths, causing red tides<br />Tides can be toxic to both fish and humans<br />
  9. 9. Apicomplexans<br />Parasites of mammals, forming lethal diseases<br />Intricate, multi-host life cycles<br />Malaria falls into this category<br />Very evasive due to changing of surface proteins<br />Must go through Anopheles mosquitoes and humans to complete cycle<br />
  10. 10. Ciliates<br />Protists using cilia to move and eat<br />Contain macro and micro-nuclei<br />Macro nuclei split to reproduce, but micronuclei simply mix, or conjugate, at times when ciliates cross paths<br />Reproduction and sharing of genes are completely separate ideas<br />
  11. 11. Brown Algae<br />One of the largest and most complex protists<br />Their color is due to carotenoids in their plastids<br />
  12. 12. Seaweed<br />A collective group of largest marine algae, i.e. brown, red, and green algae<br />Complex multi-cellular anatomy<br />Closely resemble land based plants<br />Body is known as a thallus, containing the stem and root systems, which support the photosynthetic leaves branching off<br />
  13. 13. Kelp<br />Seaweed inhabiting the deep sea beyond the intertidal zone<br />Can grow up to 60 meters in length<br />All seaweed have alternation of generations<br />