Five Kingdom Classification


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Five Kingdom Classification:
Phylum Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantate (Angiosperms And Gymnosperms) and Animalia (Porifera, Coelentrata, Platyhelminths, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordata, Vertebrata)

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Five Kingdom Classification

  1. 1. Classification of Organisms Prepared by: Mr. Mudaser Ahmad
  2. 2. 1. A. Kingdom Monera Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms without a nucleus (i.e., a prokaryotic cell organization, such as bacteria. Some of them have cell wall as well. E. coli This group includes Bacteria, Blue-Green Algae, and Mycoplasma Streptococcus
  3. 3. Mycoplasma Mycoplasma are the smallest living cells yet discovered Also called as jokers of micro biology Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall. Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin or other betalactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases, can survive without oxygen.
  4. 4. Moneran Kingdom continued.. Simple single celled. Helpful types • • a. Decomposers b. Yogurt Harmful types • • Clostridium tetani a. Pathogeic – cause disease eg. Clostridium tetani
  5. 5. 2. Kingdom Protista The term Protista was first used by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Protists are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, which belong to the kingdom Protista. Complex , single celled organism Some are autotrophs while as some are heterotrophs Euglenas- are autotrophs. Euglena Protozoans – are heterotrophs. Some Have appendages like Cilia and Flagella for locomotion. Other examples are unicellular algae, diatoms(a group of algae) etc. Protozoa
  6. 6. Trypanosoma use flagellum to move
  7. 7. Peramecium have hair like structures called cilia
  8. 8. 3. Kingdom Fungi Fungi or Fungus are the eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants and some protists, which contain cellulose, and unlike the cell walls of bacteria.
  9. 9. Kingdom Fungi continued…. They are usually multicellular. They are saprophytic organisms Most of them are parasitic Some show symbiotic relationship as well Some are edible Some are poisonous Examples are: Mushroom, yeasts, moulds etc.
  10. 10. A picture of Bread Mold
  11. 11. And here are some Mushrooms
  12. 12. Some Yeasts
  13. 13. 4. KINGDOM PLANTAE Kingdom Plantae contains all autotrophic multicellular plants. They form a clad that includes the flowering plants, Conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts etc. Plants are the eukaryotic multicellular organisms which contain a cell wall made of cellulose. Green plants characteristically obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using chlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize.
  14. 14. Sub Groups of Kingdom Plantae 1. THALLOPHYTA OR ALGAE Algae or thallophytes are the plants that do not have a differentiated body design (Roots, Stem, and Leaves). They are also called Simple Plants or Lower plants. They are predominantly aquatic They are autotrophs They have hidden Reproductive system therefore also called cryptogamae (That reproduce through spores, without flowers or seeds). Example: Spirogyra, Cladophora and Chara.
  15. 15. Spirogyra Cladophora Chara
  16. 16. 2. Bryophyta After flowering plants bryophytes are the most diverse group of plant kingdom, with more than 10,000 species. Bryophytes are also called amphibians of the plant Kingdom. Because they can survive well in both land and water. Usually they need water to complete their life cycle that is they need water during sexual reproduction. Their body is differentiate into stem and leaf like structures. They have no vascular tissue (Xylem) or wood for support. They also reproduce through spores (Cryptogams). Moses play an important role in reducing erosion along streams. Examples are Mosses and Marchantia
  17. 17. Moses Marchantia
  18. 18. 3. Pteridophyta Pteridophytes are vascular plants that are differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. They have specialized tissues for conduction of water (Xylem). Some of them have hidden reproductive system i.e. they reproduce through spores (Cryptogams). Most of them produce seeds as well which contains an embryo having stored food for germination. Pteridophytes are further classified into two groups based upon whether the seeds are naked or enclosed in fruits. 1. Gymnosperms (Have naked Seeds) and 2. Angiosperms (Have Seeds closed in fruits) Examples : Marsilea , Ferns (cryptogams) Pinus and Cycas (Gymnosperms) Fruit plants or trees (Angiosperms)
  19. 19. Marselia Pinus Angiosperm
  20. 20. Gymnosperms The term “gymnosperm” comes from a Greek Word gymnospermos meaning “Naked Seeds”. The gymnosperms are the group of plants which produce seeds but these seeds are not enclosed in fruits that is they are naked. They are vascular plants having well developed xylem and phloem. These plants are perennial, almost all are evergreen and woody. They produce cones which protect seeds and are not fruits. The Plant List includes 4,588 scientific plant names of species rank for the Gymnosperms. Of these 1,088 are accepted species names. Examples are: Pines (Deodar, Kairu etc)
  21. 21. Pine Cones Deodar Kairu
  22. 22. Angiosperms Angiosperms are Flowering plants and bear seed in fruits. The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae are the most diverse group of land plants. Their reproductive structures are flowers in which the ovules are enclosed in an ovary. Angiosperms are found in almost every habitat from forests and grasslands to sea margins and Deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, submerged aquatics, bulbs and epiphytes. There are an estimated 352,000 species of flowering plants or angiosperms.
  23. 23. E. The Animal Kingdom
  24. 24. Animalia Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance. The word "animal" comes from the Latin word animalis, meaning "having breath"
  25. 25. Animalia Continued… Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and most protists. They are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking rigid cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.
  26. 26. The Animal Kingdom cont. 1. Many Celled Organisms 2. Consume other Organisms for food 3. The Subdivision of this Kingdom a. Naming Organisms b. Common names – house cat c. Scientific Names – Felis catus Genus Species d. How are scientific names made?
  27. 27. Animals are further classified into phylums on the basis of extent and type of the body design or differentiation found. 1. Porifera 2. Coelentrata 3. Platyhelminths 4. Nematoda 5. Annelida 6. Arthropoda 7. Mollusca 8. Echinodermata 9. Protochordata 10.Vertebrata
  28. 28. 1. Phylum Porifera Word Porifera means "pore bearer” animals. These are also called Sponges. These are multicellular organisms that have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them. These animals are Non Motile. (Attached to some solid support) They do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. Instead, mostly rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. These animals are covered with a hard outside layer of Skelton. They are mainly found in marine habitats. Examples are Sycon, Spongilla, Euplectella
  29. 29. More about sponges Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. Unlike other animals, they lack true tissues and organs, and have no body symmetry. The shapes of their bodies are adapted for maximal efficiency of water flow through the central cavity, where it deposits nutrients, and leaves through a hole called the osculum. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules of calcium carbonate or silica. All sponges are sessile aquatic animals. Although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt water) species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 m (5.5 mi). They also have no blood.
  30. 30. Sycon
  31. 31. Spongilla
  32. 32. Euplectella
  33. 33. Porifera – in short a) Sessile (permanently attached as adults.) b) Have Pores c) Two cell layers Inner and Outer. d) Both marine and fresh water. e) Respiration- Oxygen absorbed by inner cells. f) Digestion- Food absorbed by inner cell layer. Circulationi. Flagellum create a water current. ii. Blood is abscent
  34. 34. 2. Phylum Coelentrata The name comes from the Greek word "koilos" ("full bellied"), referring to the hollow body cavity. They have very simple tissue organization, with only two layers of cells, external and internal lining. All coelenterates are aquatic, mostly marine. The body has a single opening hypostome surrounded by sensory tentacles leading into a spacious cavity called the gastrovascular cavity or coelenteron. Digestion is both intracellular and extracellular. Respiration and excretion are accomplished by simple diffusion. A network of nerves is spread throughout the body.
  35. 35. Phylum Coelentrata continued Many forms exhibit polymorphism, wherein different types of individuals are present in a colony for different functions. These individuals are called Zooids. Some of these species live in colonies (Corals) and are Sessile. While others live in solitary and are motile (movable). These animals generally reproduce asexually by budding, though sexual reproduction does occur in some groups. Some of them are poisonous and have stinging cells on tentacles. They also have no blood. Examples are: Jelly Fish, Sea Anemones , Hydra etc.
  36. 36. Jelly Fish
  37. 37. Hydra
  38. 38. Sea Anemone
  39. 39. Coelenterata in short Jellyfish and Coral a. They have tentacles. b. They have stinging cells. c. Some are sessile/ some free-living
  40. 40. 2. Phylum: Coelenterata cont. d. Respiration – Oxygen absorbed by inner cell layer e. Digestion – 1. Food absorbed by inner cell wall 2. Single opening mouth f. Circulation – water current distributes gas/food
  41. 41. 3. Phylum Platyhelminthes Word Platyhelminth comes from two Greek Words: Platy meaning “Flat” and Helminth meaning “Worm”. So Platyhelminthes are also called Flat Worms. They are relatively simple bilaterial, unsegmented, soft bodied invertebrates. Unlike other bilaterians, they are acoelomates (without Coelome) (having nobody cavity), and no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. They have no digestive system.
  42. 42. Phylum Platyhelminthes continued… The digestive cavity has only one opening for both the ingestion (intake of nutrients) and egestion (removal of undigested wastes); as a result, the food cannot be processed continuously. They have three layers of cells in their body and hence are called Triploblastic. These animals are either free living or parasitic. Examples are : Planarians (which is free living) Liver Fluke , Tape worm (which are parasitic)
  43. 43. Planarians
  44. 44. Liver Fluke Or Fasciola Hepatica
  45. 45. Tape Worm Or Taenia solium
  46. 46. 4. Phylum Nematoda The Nematodes are also called round worms. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a very broad range of environments. There are about 25,000 nematode species that have been described, of which over more than half are parasitic. Unlike flatworms, nematodes have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends. Most nematodes have the same simple body plan. A true coelom is lacking, instead, nematodes have a “Pseudocoel" Their bodies are bilaterally symmetrical (one half is a mirror image of the other), and while most are microscopic, some can grow to as long as 8 meters. They are also triploblastic. Many have a canal (called an alimentary canal). Food enters the alimentary canal on one end, and waste is expelled through the anus on the tail end. While nematodes have digestive, reproductive, nervous and excretory systems, they do not have a distinct circulatory or respiratory system.
  47. 47. Phylum Nematoda Continued… They absorb oxygen through skin. Nematodes have tissues but no real organs. As discussed Nematodes are Free living as well as parasitic. Different Free Living species feed on materials like algae, fungi, small animals, fecal matter, dead organisms and living tissues. Free-living marine nematodes are important as they play an important role in the decomposition process, aid in recycling of nutrients in marine environments. There are so many parasitic Nematodes among which some are parasitic to humans like Ascaris Lambricoids, Pin Worm (Wuchereria Bancrofti), Filarial worm (Causes Elephentiasis) etc.
  48. 48. Ascaris Lambricoids
  49. 49. Filariasis or Elephantiasis Wuchereria Bancrofti
  50. 50. 4. Phylum Nematoda - in short a. Many are parasites / some free - living b. Respiration – Oxygen absorbed through the skin d. Digestion 1. Nutrients absorbed by inner cell layer. 2. Complete digestive system system ( Two Openings)
  51. 51. 5. Phylum ANNELIDA Word Annelid has been derived fro a Latin Worn anellus meaning “Little Ring”. So Annelids are also called “ringed worms” they include a large phylum of segmented worms, with over 2,000 modern species including earthworms and leeches. They are found in marine environments, in freshwater, and in moist terrestrial environments. They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate organisms. They have segmented body like in earthworms. They have true organs made of tissues and are in segmented fashion. Some of them have parapodia for locomotion Examples are Nereis, Earthworm, Leech etc.
  52. 52. Phylum ANNELIDA continued.. In addition, annelids exhibit a body wall with both longitudinal and circular muscle layers (which, along with segmentation mentioned above, allows these animals to be quite mobile). A complete digestive tract, a nervous system, a closed circulatory system, and an excretory system is present. Some of them are Hermaphrodites like earthworm, leech etc.
  53. 53. NEREIS (Having Parapodia)
  54. 54. Earth Worm (Pheretima posthuma)
  55. 55. Leech (Hiridinea) Hiridinea Medicenalis is used to treat people
  56. 56. Phylum Annelida The Segmented Worm a. Segmented body b. Respiration – Gas exchange through the skin. c. Digestion – 1. Specialized organs 2. Complete System 3. Nutrients absorbed through inner cell layer.
  57. 57. 6. Phylum - Arthropoda Word Arthropod has been derived from two Greek words Arthron Meaning “Joint” and Podos meaning “Legs or limbs”. Arthropods are invertebrates with segmented bodies and jointed limbs. Arthropoda is probably the largest group of animals. They have an exoskeleton (External Skelton) or cuticle, which is mainly made of α-chitin, a derivative of glucose. Their limbs are also a part of their exoskeleton. They have an open circulatory system, i.e. blood does not flow in well defined blood vessels.
  58. 58. Phylum – Arthropoda Continued…. They have a complete digestive system. They have a coelome which remains filled with blood. The body of Arthropods is also bilaterally symmetrical. The cuticle of Arthropods is also biomineralized with calcium carbonate. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. In Terrestrial arthropods respiration takes place through trachea having openings called Spiracles and in case of aquatic species like prawn have Gills. Some of the examples of Arthropods are : Prawns, Butterflies, Houseflies, Spiders, Scorpions, Crabs etc.
  59. 59. Prawn
  60. 60. Butterflies
  61. 61. Spider Scorpion Cockroach
  62. 62. Phylum Arthropods in short…. a. Have Exoskeleton (outside) b. Jointed legs c. Segmented body d. Circulation – open system e. Respiration 1. Vents and spiracles ( land arthropods) 2. Gills (aquatic arthropods) f. Digestion – complete with specialized organs
  63. 63. 7. Phylum - Mollusca The word Mollusca has been derived from a Latin word Mollus meaning “Soft”. All mollusks have a soft body, which is generally protected by a hard, calcium- containing shell. In some forms however, the shell has been lost in the course of evolution. Mollusks are the invertebrate animals and belong to largest marine phylum. There are about 85,000 species of Mollusca identified. There body is also bilaterally symmetrical. But their coelome is reduced. They have an open circulatory system. And have kidney like Nephredia for excreation.
  64. 64. Phylum – Mollusca Continued….. Mollusks are also characterized by a toothed tongue, the radula, composed primarily of chitin. Their digestive system is complete, with a mouth, anus and complex stomach. They also have an open circulatory system. Their coelome is filled with blood and is called hemocoel. Most of them have feet for locomotion. Examples are: Octopus, Chiton, Unio, Pila, snails etc
  65. 65. Octopus
  66. 66. Chiton
  67. 67. Unio
  68. 68. Snails
  69. 69. Phylum: Mollusca – in short…. a. Mostly Shell-builders b. Mantle – Fleshy covering that secretes the shell. c. Well developed sense organs
  70. 70. 6. Phylum: Mollusca – The Mollusks d. Respiration – Gills for gas exchange e. Digestion – complete with specialized organs. f. Circulation – hearts for pumping blood. g. Mostly aquatic h. Examples Octopus ,squid, Snails and clams
  71. 71. 8. Phylum - Echinodermata Word Echinodermata has been derived from two Greek Words: echinos meaning “Hedgehog” and derma meaning “Skin”. So Echinoderms are also called Spiny Skinned invertebrate Organisms. The phylum contains about 7000 living species All echinoderms are free living. All echinoderms are marine and nearly all are benthic. They are also triploblastic. They have a true Coelome.
  72. 72. Phylum – Echinodermata Continued… They have radial symmetry (many planes of division). Their symmetry varies from bilateral (in larvae) to Pentamerous (in adults). They have a hard exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate. Respiration takes place through gills. They have a water vascular system involved in feeding, locomotion, and respiration. Examples are: Star fish, Feather Star, Sea Cucumber, Sea Urchin etc.
  73. 73. Star Fish
  74. 74. Feather Star
  75. 75. Sea Cucumber
  76. 76. Phylum: Echinodermata in short A. Spiny skin B. Radial design C. Examples: star fish
  77. 77. 9. Phylum - Protochordata The name Protochordates literally means 'the first chordates. Protochordates can be defined as the primitive group of organisms from which chordate animals developed. The important character of group Protochordates is that they have a small rod like structure on the dorsal side of their body which is called notochord. But this notochord may not have a proper notochord present at all stages of their lives. They have the dorsal tubular nervous system which is not very welldeveloped and is of primitive type. Protochordate animals may have the notochord in the different places like in tail region or in head region and in one half region of the body.
  78. 78. Phylum – Protochordata continued… They are triploblastic and have a Coelome. They are bilaterally symmetrical. All protochordates are marine. Since they are aquatic so respiration takes place through gills. Examples are: Balanglossus, Herdmania, Amphioxus
  79. 79. Balanglossus
  80. 80. Herdmania
  81. 81. 10. Phylum Vertebrata Or Chordata The word vertebrate is derived from the Latin word vertebratus, meaning joint of the spine. It is closely related to the word vertebra, which refers to any of the bones or segments of the Vertebral column. There are currently about 64,000 species of vertebrates described. which include the amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds, as well as the jawless fish, bony fish, sharks and rays. Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.3 inch), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (110 ft). Vertebrates make up about 4% of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack backbones.
  82. 82. Phylum Vertebrata continued…. These vertebrates are characterized chiefly by a vertebral column, hence their name. The majority of the extant vertebrates are the jawed vertebrates, or gnathostomes, but lampreys are jawless vertebrates. Vertebrates are also interesting because they are easy to find. Many other groups of organisms cannot be seen with the naked eye or reside in places inhospitable to humans, like the sea floor. Vertebrates have a long history on this earth -- more than 500 million years. These first vertebrates lacked jaws, like the living hagfish and lampreys. Jawed vertebrates appeared 100 million years later. The vertebrates show affinities with other chordates but some characters make them unique.
  83. 83. Phylum Vertebrata continued…. Vertebrates are bilaterally symmetrical. They have a coelome. They are triploblastic. They are segmented. Some of them are aquatic having Paired gills and some having lungs. Some are terrestrial having Lungs. (Pulmonary Respiration) While as some are amphibians having both gills and lungs. They have a dorsal nerve chord. They have jointed vertebral column or back bone. They have a multi chambered heart and a closed circulatory system.
  84. 84. Phylum Chordata ( in short) A. Circulatory system 1. Closed (veins and arteries) 2. Multi chambered heart B. Digestive System – Complete system with specialized organs C. Respiratory System 1. Lungs on land 2. Gills in most cases in water
  85. 85. There are five classes of Vertebrates: 1. Pisces 2. Amphibia 3. Reptelia 4. Aves 5. Mammals Let us discuss them one by one…
  86. 86. Class - 1 : Pisces or fishes Pisces, commonly known as fish, contain over 20,000 different species. There are a wide variety of fish, ranging from the goby which is less than one half an inch long, to the whale shark which can be over 60 feet long. All fishes are aquatic and hive gills for respiration. They take dissolved oxygen from water. Some fish, like sharks and lampreys, possess multiple gill openings. However, bony fish have a single gill opening on each side. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called an operculum. They have scales present all over their body. They have a streamlined body with a muscular tail for navigation. All fishes have two chambered heart and closed circulatory system
  87. 87. Class: Pisces continued…. Most of the fishes are cold blooded. Tuna, swordfish, and some species of sharks show some warm-blooded adaptations. Almost all fishes are Oviparous i.e. they lay eggs. The exoskelton of fishes varies: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes. Examples are Salmon, Herring, Cat fish, Scoliodon etc. Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes. This includes Sharks, Ray etc There are two types of fishes based on whether jaw is present or not: 1. Gnathastoma: Fishes with Jaws. 2. Agnathastoma: Jaw less fishes.
  88. 88. Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes Salmon Herring
  89. 89. Catfish Scoliodon (Indian Dogfish)
  90. 90. Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes Whale Shark Shark
  91. 91. Jawless Fishes Lamprey Hagfish
  92. 92. Class – 2 : Amphibia Word Amphibia has been derived from two Greek Words: Amphi meaning “both” and bios meaning “life”. Which means that they can survive in water as well as on land. The term amphibian was initially used as a general adjective for animals that could live on land or in water, including seals and otters. Traditionally, the class Amphibia includes all tetrapod vertebrates that are not amniotes. The animals that belong to this class of vertebrates are called amphibians. All amphibians are tetrapods i.e. they have four limbs.
  93. 93. Class: Amphibia Continued…….. Their young ones generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult with lungs. They are superficially similar to reptiles but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes. The hearts of amphibians have three chambers, two auricles and one ventricle. Amphibians require water bodies for reproduction and laying of eggs. They are not found in the sea with the exception of one or two frogs. On land, amphibians are restricted to moist habitats because of the need to keep their skin moist. Respiration either through gills or lungs Amphibians are cold blooded
  94. 94. Examples are: Tadpole Common Frog (Rana Tigrina)
  95. 95. Salamanders
  96. 96. Class: Amphibia in Short….. a. Live in water and on land b. Smooth moist skin ( exceptions: toads) c. Cold blooded d. Breathe through gills as babies
  97. 97. Class: Amphibia inshort e. Breathe through lungs and skin as adults f. Lay eggs in water g. Three chambered heart h. Metamorphisms (tadple to frog) i. Examples newts, salamanders, frogs and toads
  98. 98. Class - 3 : Reptilia Word Reptilia means “Creeping” A reptile is any amniote (a tetrapod whose egg has an additional membrane, originally to allow them to lay eggs on land) that is neither a mammal nor a bird. In earlier classification Reptiles and amphibians were grouped in one class. It was not until the beginning of the 19th century that it became clear that reptiles and amphibians are, in fact, quite different animals. All reptiles are cold blooded. Reptiles are tetra pods with two sets of paired limbs. Most of these animals have five clawed toes on each limb. All reptiles have spinal columns and a strong skeletal system with a rib cage. They have a well-developed brain and a central nervous system.
  99. 99. Class : Reptilia Continued… Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not pass through an embryonic stage with gills. These animals breath with well-developed lungs, right from birth. Most of them have two lungs, except some snakes. All reptiles have three-chambered hearts, except crocodilesa, which have four-chambered hearts (2 atria, 2 ventricles), like mammals and birds. The skin has a few cutaneous glands, Scales and high levels of keratin, which prevents water loss through the skin. The offspring of reptiles resemble the adults at the time of birth itself. There is no metamorphosis, as in the case of amphibians. Examples are: Crocodile, Snakes, Turtle, House Lizard etc
  100. 100. Crocodile
  101. 101. Snakes
  102. 102. Class: Reptilia in Short…. a. Cold blooded b. scales c. Lay eggs on land
  103. 103. Class: Reptilia in short d. Incomplete four chambered heart e. Breath with lungs from birth f. Example: snakes, lizards, turtles
  104. 104. Class - 4 : Aves Aves or Birds are feathered, winged, two-legged, tetrapod vertebrates. There are about 10,000 species of birds classified till now. Their fore limbs are usually modified into wings while as hind limbs are used for Perching, Walking and Swimming. They have foot with four toes. Their size ranges from 5cm (2 inch) in Bee Hummingbird to 2.75 meter (9ft.) of Ostrich. Modern birds have a beak with no teeth. They are amniotes (having an extra membrane to protect embryo in egg). They all lay eggs (covered with a hard shell) on land or on trees etc. Almost all of them have a stream lined body for flight
  105. 105. Class: Aves Continued… Most of the birds fly in air and some like Falcon, eagles and Bar-Headed Goose can fly upto the altitude of 4,000 meters while as some birds cannot fly like ostrich etc. Birds are also warm-blooded vertebrates. They have a skeletal system with bones having air cavities in them replacing bone marrow to great extent. They have a well developed Nervous system. They have an excretory system having kidneys but bladder in absent. They have a four Chambered heart and a closed circulatory system. They breathe through lungs
  106. 106. Class: Aves in short a. Warm blooded b. Complete four chambered heart c. Streamlined body d. Have Feathers
  107. 107. e. Lay eggs on land f. Light weight skeleton g. Examples: Eagles, Seagulls, Turkeys
  108. 108. Class - 5 : Mammalia Mammals are the amniotic vertebrates distinguished from the raptiles and the birds by having Hair on body with some exceptions. They are warm blooded and regulate their body temperature. The mammals include the largest animals on the planet like Blue Whale weighing about 180 tonnes. They also include the most intelligent animals like Primates, Elephants, Dolphins etc because of having the most complex structure on the earth THE WELL DEVELOPED BRAIN. All mammals have mama from which female mammals nurse their young ones thus giving them name as Mammals. The mammals also have placenta form which mothers feed their offspring. Mammals range in size from 30-40 mm (1.2 – 1.6 in.) bumblebee bat to 33 meter (108 ft) Blue whale.
  109. 109. Class: Mammalia Continued… They have gland from which milk is secreted called Mammary Gland. Their skin also has glands like oil and sweat glands. Almost all of them give birth to their young ones with some exception like Platipus and Echidna which lay eggs. They have three middle ear bones. They have a complete digestive system with teeth which are Heterodont, Diphyodont and thecodont. They have a well developed Nervous system With Brain , Spinal Chord , nerves and sense organs. They have four limbs which contain five digits with some exception like Sea Mammals. They have a well developed circulatory system with four chambered heart. Excretory system is also well developed with pair of kidneys.
  110. 110. Blue Whale
  111. 111. Class: Mammalia in short.. a. Warm blooded b. Have Hair c. Live birth (placentals) Placenta- nourishes baby while developing
  112. 112. d. Mammary glands - produce milk - nurse young e. Two pairs of limbs f. High functioning brain and sense organs