Diversity of Living
This presentation is about
the five kingdom system of
classification of organisms.
It was first proposed by
Robert Whittaker in 1969.
• Once upon a time, all living things were lumped
together into two kingdoms, namely plants and
• Animals included every living thing that moved, ate,
and grew to a certain size and stopped growing.
Plants included every living thing that did not move
or eat and that continued to grow throughout life.
• It became very difficult to group some living things
into one or the other, so early in the past century
the two kingdoms were expanded into five
kingdoms: Protista (the single-celled eukaryotes);
Fungi (fungus and related organisms); Plantae (the
plants); Animalia (the animals); Monera (the
• Many biologists now recognize six distinct
Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular
organisms without a nucleus (i.e., a prokaryotic
cell organization), such as bacteria.
• Monera is further divided into two subkingdoms: Archaebacteria and the Eubacteria by
Archaebacteria:- Most archaebacteria are
autotrophs and only a few, photosynthesize.
They derive their energy from their metabolic
activities, from the oxidization of chemical
energy sources such as the reduced gases –
Ammonia (NHO₃) , hydrogen sulphide
Eubacteria:- Bacteria constitute a large
domain or kingdom of prokaryotic
microorganisms Typically a
few micrometeres in length, bacteria have a
wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to
rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first
life forms to appear on Earth.
• This group includes
many kinds of
organisms such as
algae, protozoans and
unicellular fungi. Some
of these organisms use
appendages, such as
hair-like cilia or whip
like flagellum. Their
mode of nutrition can
be autotrophic or
Kingdom, Fungi, is separate
from plants, animals, protis
ts and bacteria. One major
difference is that fungal
cells have cell walls that
contain chitin, unlike the
cell walls of plants and
some protists, which
contain cellulose, and
unlike the cell walls of
Their body is filamentous
and multicellular and is
called mycelium and the
thread like structure is
They include lichens too.
• Plantae includes all
• They are eukaryotes ie
their each cell has a well
• Reserve food for plants is
starch and and lipids.
• Growth in plants is
generally indefinite due to
presence of growing
• Body form of the plants is
irregular due to presence
• They are eukaryotic and
• The cell wall is absent.
• They are heterotrophic
and hunt for their own
• The locomotion is with
the help of special
organs like foot.