Welcome to Biology 111 Laboratory Section:505 506 Room: 314 TA: Jiajie Wei
<ul><li>Are you in the right room? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology 111 Section 505 506 Room 314 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goggl...
TA: Jiajie Wei (JJ) Office: Held 319 Office Hours: Wed. 9am-11am Office phone #: (979)845-4653 E-mail :  weijiajie@neo.tam...
Lab schedule <ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul>
Lab Score <ul><li>Exams: 100 points Х 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes: 20 points Х 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments: 5, a total...
Lab rescheduling <ul><li>Students with verifiable university approved reasons for missing lab will be rescheduled into ano...
<ul><li>Lab Safety </li></ul><ul><li>- Appropriate clothing – long pants and close-toed shoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Goggl...
Today :  Perform Lab #1 and give in-class presentations  for homework #1 as well. Wednesday :  Homework #2 is due at the b...
<ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the structures and describe the functions of the parts of the compound a...
Microscopes!
<ul><li>The Microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a light microscope, light is focused through the slide and specimen, then ...
Compound Microscope <ul><li>For examining smaller details and specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes transmitted light </li>...
Compound microscope
Concepts in Microscopy <ul><li>Field of   View -  the area of a slide that you can see under a certain objective. </li></u...
Concepts in Microscopy <ul><li>Working Distance -  distance between objective and slide, as get to higher objectives, work...
Calculating total magnification <ul><li>Total magnification=ocular power X objective power </li></ul><ul><li>Ocular power=...
How to use a compound microscope   <ul><li>Clean oculars and objectives using lens cleaner and lens paper. </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>When focusing always start with the lowest objective. Move up one objective at a time if needed. </li></ul><ul><li...
Microscopes <ul><li>Types of microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissecting Microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound M...
Dissecting Microscope <ul><li>For looking at larger, 3D or opaque specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes transmitted and ref...
The dissecting microscope
How to use a dissecting microscope   <ul><li>Grasp the microscope arm with one hand and support the microscope under the b...
Differences between compound and dissecting microscope Larger, 3D, opaque Tiny, thin, transparent What to observe Separate...
Steps in The Scientific Method <ul><li>Step  1-  Observe and Formulate Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Step  2-  Check the Imp...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 1-  Observe and Formulate Questions </li></ul>
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 2-  Reflect on the Implications </li></ul>
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 3-  Propose a Hypothesis -come up with a tentative explanation for your observations </li><...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 4-  Test Your Hypothesis -  design an experiment to test your explanation, must exclude all...
Step 4 -  test you hypothesis contd… <ul><li>Variable -   a factor that could influence the outcome of your experiment  </...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 5-  Analyze the Results - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do your results support your hypothesis?  <...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 6-  Support, reject or modify the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your data support y...
<ul><li>Termite Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be very gentle, can use the brush to acquire a termite </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Groups - Hypothesis and results  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Do termites follow pen ink? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are termite...
Summary <ul><li>Names of compound microscope parts </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between 2 kinds of microscope </li></ul><...
Next week:  <ul><li>Bring Goggles!!!!!!!! You will not be allowed in room without them. </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz #1 (over la...
<ul><li>Cleanup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites back in containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any wood remains cleaned up <...
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Week1

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Week1

  1. 1. Welcome to Biology 111 Laboratory Section:505 506 Room: 314 TA: Jiajie Wei
  2. 2. <ul><li>Are you in the right room? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology 111 Section 505 506 Room 314 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goggles! </li></ul><ul><li>Close-toed shoes! </li></ul>
  3. 3. TA: Jiajie Wei (JJ) Office: Held 319 Office Hours: Wed. 9am-11am Office phone #: (979)845-4653 E-mail : weijiajie@neo.tamu.edu (best way to reach me) Please silence your cell phones and please do not text message people while class is going on!!!!
  4. 4. Lab schedule <ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lab Score <ul><li>Exams: 100 points Х 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes: 20 points Х 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments: 5, a total of 65 points. Two points are automatically deducted for late assignments, and an additional point is deducted for each additional day overdue. Late homework may be logged in at HELD 319 or 315. </li></ul><ul><li>TA points: 25 points on participation, cooperation, cleanup etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lab rescheduling <ul><li>Students with verifiable university approved reasons for missing lab will be rescheduled into another lab section during the same week as space permits. There will be NO makeup labs. If you miss for a university approved reason and cannot be rescheduled, then you must contact me within two working days to make arrangements for a makeup quiz or assignment. Please bring your university approved, written excuse to Held 315 to be rescheduled during the same week lab is missed!! </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Lab Safety </li></ul><ul><li>- Appropriate clothing – long pants and close-toed shoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Goggles are MANDATORY, please bring each time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Turn off hot plates / gas lines when not in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Clean materials and surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Don’t sniff or drink chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-No eating, drinking or tobacco use in labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-No mouth pipetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Dispose of waste in proper receptacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill out and return to me Lab Safety Agreement Forms (read the information p.vii-viii) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Today : Perform Lab #1 and give in-class presentations for homework #1 as well. Wednesday : Homework #2 is due at the beginning of class (on-line survey). Quiz #1 over today’s lab only.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the structures and describe the functions of the parts of the compound and dissecting microscopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate proper use of the compound and dissecting microscope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the steps of the scientific method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and conduct an experiment using the scientific method. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Microscopes!
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a light microscope, light is focused through the slide and specimen, then through the glass lenses in the objective and ocular. The light is refracted to magnify the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an electron microscope, a beam of electrons is focused for higher resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEM –transmission electron –thin sections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEM –scanning electron –surface detail </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Compound Microscope <ul><li>For examining smaller details and specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes transmitted light </li></ul><ul><li>Can view specimens under several magnifications aided by the objectives </li></ul>
  13. 13. Compound microscope
  14. 14. Concepts in Microscopy <ul><li>Field of View - the area of a slide that you can see under a certain objective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As you move to higher power, your field of view gets smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parfocal- Once a specimen is focused on low power, it will stay in focus at higher power </li></ul><ul><li>Parcentric- whatever is in the center of your field of view at one power will remain in the center at higher power </li></ul>
  15. 15. Concepts in Microscopy <ul><li>Working Distance - distance between objective and slide, as get to higher objectives, working distance decreases </li></ul>Objectives
  16. 16. Calculating total magnification <ul><li>Total magnification=ocular power X objective power </li></ul><ul><li>Ocular power=10 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective power 4/10/40/100 </li></ul><ul><li>Magnification range=? </li></ul>
  17. 17. How to use a compound microscope <ul><li>Clean oculars and objectives using lens cleaner and lens paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on the illuminator. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the slide in the mechanical stage, and use X/Y-axis knobs to center the specimen. Note: In your right eye ocular, there is a dark line in your field of view, which is a pointer that you use to point sth out to your partners or me. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate the lowest power objective in position (4X) </li></ul><ul><li>Use coarse adjustment knob to raise the stage to the highest point without the slide touching lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly turn the coarse knob so that the objective lens goes away from the slide until the image comes into focus. Then use fine focus knob for further focusing. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to 10X objective lens, and ONLY use the fine focus knob to focus. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use 40X objective lens if you want, and still remember that ONLY focus with the fine focus knob. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>When focusing always start with the lowest objective. Move up one objective at a time if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse focus knob is only used on the lowest objective!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Use ONLY lens paper and lens cleaner to clean lenses </li></ul><ul><li>100x objective can only be used with oil on top of the slide </li></ul><ul><li>When done, turn off light, place on lowest objective, clean and return slides to the box, coil the cord around the base, put back the cover and return the microscope to the cabinet. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Microscopes <ul><li>Types of microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissecting Microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound Microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>two different types of light: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted light - light passes through the specimen to illuminate it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected light - light bounces off of the specimen to view external structures </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Dissecting Microscope <ul><li>For looking at larger, 3D or opaque specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes transmitted and reflected light </li></ul>
  21. 21. The dissecting microscope
  22. 22. How to use a dissecting microscope <ul><li>Grasp the microscope arm with one hand and support the microscope under the base with the other hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a suitable specimen (object) to view, and place it in a shallow container on the stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on illuminators. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the magnification to its lowest power with the magnification knob. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the distance of ocular lenses until seeing a single field with both eyes open. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the focus knob to bring specimen into focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Move to higher magnifications to see a clearer image. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the illuminators, and wrap the cord when done. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Differences between compound and dissecting microscope Larger, 3D, opaque Tiny, thin, transparent What to observe Separate objectives for each ocular One objective at a time and multiple objectives to magnify to different extents objective Transmitted and reflected transmitted Light source dissecting compound
  24. 24. Steps in The Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 1- Observe and Formulate Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2- Check the Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3- Propose a Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4- Test the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5- Analyze the Results </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6- Support, reject or modify the hypothesis </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 1- Observe and Formulate Questions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 2- Reflect on the Implications </li></ul>
  27. 27. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 3- Propose a Hypothesis -come up with a tentative explanation for your observations </li></ul><ul><li>Some features of a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be testable (NOT Anne is nice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be able to be proven false </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can only support your hypothesis, it can never be proven true! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis can be proven false at any time in the future </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 4- Test Your Hypothesis - design an experiment to test your explanation, must exclude all other factors </li></ul>
  29. 29. Step 4 - test you hypothesis contd… <ul><li>Variable - a factor that could influence the outcome of your experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only change ONE variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardized Variables - what is kept the same in all experiments </li></ul>
  30. 30. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 5- Analyze the Results - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do your results support your hypothesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What conclusions can you draw? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT right or wrong! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any trends? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to look cool and important and hope for a Nobel Prize </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Scientific Method <ul><li>Step 6- Support, reject or modify the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your data support your hypothesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, how can you modify your hypothesis based on the new information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any changes you can make to your new experiments? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Termite Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be very gentle, can use the brush to acquire a termite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place a few on the round filter paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw basic geometric shapes and lines only (not filled in) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate one or more hypotheses!!! Be able to revise hypotheses as you conduct experiments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct your experiment mutiple times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure your entire group has ALL of the results….everyone should be ready to talk. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Groups - Hypothesis and results </li></ul><ul><li>1. Do termites follow pen ink? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are termites attracted to a specific color? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does a certain name brand of pen attract termites? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Are the termites attracted to one specific pen? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Do termites follow a certain shape – circles? </li></ul><ul><li>PS: If termites follow something, are they attracted through looking or smelling? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Names of compound microscope parts </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between 2 kinds of microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method steps </li></ul><ul><li>Variables, control </li></ul>
  35. 35. Next week: <ul><li>Bring Goggles!!!!!!!! You will not be allowed in room without them. </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz #1 (over lab #1 only) </li></ul><ul><li>HW 2- Learning Style (5pts). Take the online learning style survey. Submit your results and print the report. Place your name on the report and bring it to next lab. (Due at beginning of class). </li></ul><ul><li>www.metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm </li></ul><ul><li>(It is in your syllabus.) </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Cleanup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites back in containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any wood remains cleaned up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All microscopes put away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All slides placed back in box neatly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All writing utensils gathered neatly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter paper in the garbage </li></ul></ul>

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