Makinson Tissues

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Makinson Tissues

  1. 1. TISSUES <ul><li>Groups of cells similar in </li></ul><ul><li>structure that perform the </li></ul><ul><li>same function </li></ul><ul><li>Four main types </li></ul><ul><li>Histology is the study of tissues </li></ul>Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous Credits
  2. 2. Epithelial <ul><li>Plays a role in protection, filtration, absorption, excretion, secretion and sensory reception </li></ul>Simple Stratified Tissues
  3. 3. Simple Epithelial <ul><li>Made up of single layer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Used for absorption and filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Six irregular sides </li></ul>Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial
  4. 4. Stratified Epithelial <ul><li>Having two or more cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Stack on top of one another </li></ul><ul><li>Used for protection </li></ul>Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Transitional Epithelial
  5. 5. Simple Squamous <ul><li>Shape: Flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Diffusion and Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels </li></ul>Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Simple Epithelial Epithelial
  6. 6. Simple Cuboidal <ul><li>Shape: Single layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Secretion and Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Kidney tubules, ovary surface, ducts and secretory portions of small glands </li></ul>Simple Squamous Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Simple Epithelial Epithelial
  7. 7. Simple Columnar <ul><li>Shape: Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei, may contain cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Absorption, Secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands, and some regions of uterus </li></ul>Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Pseudostratified Columnar Simple Epithelial Epithelial
  8. 8. Pseudostratified Columnar <ul><li>Shape: Single layer of cells with different heights, some do not reach free surface </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Secretion and Propulsion of mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Male Sperm and Trachea </li></ul>Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Simple Epithelial Epithelial
  9. 9. Stratified Squamous <ul><li>Shape: Thick membrane composed of several layers of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function: protection of underlying areas subject to abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Found: external part of skin’s epidermis and linings of the esophagus, mouth and vagina </li></ul>Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Transitional Stratified Epithelial Epithelial
  10. 10. Stratified Cuboidal <ul><li>Shape: Generally to layers of cube-like cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Largest ducts of sweat glands and salivary glands </li></ul>Stratified Squamous Stratified Columnar Transitional Stratified Epithelial Epithelial
  11. 11. Stratified Columnar <ul><li>Shape: Several cell layers, basal cells usually cuboidal, superficial cells elongated and columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Pharynx, male urethra and lining of some glandular ducts </li></ul>Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Transitional Stratified Epithelial Epithelial
  12. 12. Transitional <ul><li>Shape: Several cell layers. Basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Lining of urinary bladder, ureters and part of urethra </li></ul>Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Stratified Epithelial Epithelial
  13. 13. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Found everywhere in body </li></ul><ul><li>Four main classes </li></ul><ul><li>Functions include binding and support, protection, and insulation </li></ul>Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Blood Tissues
  14. 14. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Contain cells, fibers and a ground </li></ul><ul><li>Loose and dense tissues proper </li></ul>Loose Connective Tissues Dense Connective Tissues Tissues
  15. 15. Loose Connective Tissues <ul><li>Often used to link epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>Found in epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished by vascularity and cellularity </li></ul>Areolar Connective Tissue Adipose Connective Tissue Reticular Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Tissue
  16. 16. Dense Connective Tissues <ul><li>Has collagen fibers as main matrix element </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Forms tendons and ligaments </li></ul>Dense Regular Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Proper Connective Tissues
  17. 17. Areolar Connective Tissues <ul><li>Shape: Gel-like matrix with all three connective tissue fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Wraps and cushions organs </li></ul><ul><li>Found: widely distributed under epithelia of body </li></ul>Adipose Connective Tissue Reticular Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
  18. 18. Adipose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Shape: Matrix similar to aerolar with closely packed adipocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Function:Reserves food stores, insulates heat loss, supports and protects </li></ul><ul><li>Found: under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and in breast </li></ul>Areolar Connective Tissue Reticular Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
  19. 19. Reticular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Shape: Loose ground substance with reticular fibers, line on a fiber network </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Forms a soft internal skeleton, or stroma, that supports other cell types </li></ul><ul><li>Found: lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen </li></ul>Areolar Connective Tissue Adipose Connective Tissue Loose Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
  20. 20. Dense Regular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Shape: Parallel collagen fibers with a few elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Attaches muscles to bone or to other muscles and bone to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Found: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses </li></ul>Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
  21. 21. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Shape: Irregularly arranged collagen fibers with some elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Withstand tension in many directions providing structural strength </li></ul><ul><li>Found: dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules </li></ul>Dense Regular Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Connective Tissue
  22. 22. Cartilage <ul><li>Stands up to both tension and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Tough but flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks nerve fibers and is avascular </li></ul>Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Connective Tissue
  23. 23. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Shape: Amphorous, firm matrix with imperceptible network of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Supports, reinforces, cushions and resists compression </li></ul><ul><li>Found: embryonic skeleton, the end of long bones, nose, trachea and larynx </li></ul>Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage Cartilage Connective Tissue
  24. 24. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Shape: Similar to hyaline cartilage but with more elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Maintains shape structure while allowing flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Found: support of external ear and the epiglottis </li></ul>Hyaline Cartilage Fibrocartilage Cartilage Connective Tissue
  25. 25. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Shape: matrix similar to hyaline cartilage but less form with thick collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Provides tensile strength and absorbs compression shock </li></ul><ul><li>Found: intervertebral discs, the pubic symphysis, and in discs of the knee joint </li></ul>Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Cartilage Connective Tissue
  26. 26. Bone <ul><li>Shape: Hard, calcified matrix with collagen fibers found in bone </li></ul><ul><li>Function: support and protection, also provides levers for muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Found: Bones </li></ul>Connective Tissues Tissues
  27. 27. Blood <ul><li>Shape: Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix called plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Function: transport of respiratory gases, nutrients and wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Found: blood vessels </li></ul>Connective Tissues Tissues
  28. 28. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Shape: branched neurons with long cellular processes and support cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function: transmitting electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Found: the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves </li></ul>Tissues
  29. 29. Muscle Tissues <ul><li>Highly textured </li></ul><ul><li>Well vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for most types of body movement </li></ul>Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Tissues
  30. 30. Skeletal Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Shape: long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells with obvious striation </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Initiates and controls voluntary movement </li></ul><ul><li>Found: skeletal muscles that attach to bones or skin </li></ul>Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Muscle Tissues
  31. 31. Cardiac Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Shape: Branching, striated, uninucleated cells interlocking at intercalated </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Propels blood into the circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Found: walls of the heart </li></ul>Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Muscle Tissues
  32. 32. Smooth Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Shape: sheet of spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei that have no striation </li></ul><ul><li>Function: propels substances along internal passageways called peristalsis. </li></ul><ul><li>Found: walls of hollow organs </li></ul>Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Muscle Tissues
  33. 33. Credits http://www.innvista.com/health/anatomy/connect.htm http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/histology/labmanual2002/labsection1/Connective Tissue03.htm http://biology.about.come/library/weekly/aa011801a.htm http://cellbio.utmb.edu/microanatomy/connective_tissue/loose_connective_tissue.htm Human Anatomy and Physiology Google Images Flickr images Heather and Olivia pictures Inc.

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