Lecture presentation-11790 [compatibility mode]


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Lecture presentation-11790 [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Introduction and Tissues Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus
  2. 2. What is Anatomy?Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structurePhysiology: study of body’s functionStructure reflects Function!!!Branches of Anatomy Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
  3. 3. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism
  4. 4. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Chemical level Atoms combine to make molecules 4 macromolecules in the body Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
  5. 5. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Cellular Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules) Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions (“small organs”) http://cmweb.pvschools.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html
  6. 6. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Tissue Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 4 basic types of tissue in the human body: Epithelium Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue www.emc.maricopa.edu
  7. 7. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Organ Made up of tissue Heart Brain Liver Pancreas, etc…… Pg 181
  8. 8. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganizationOrgan system (11) Made up of a group of related organs that work together Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Circulatory Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Pg 341 Urinary System
  9. 9. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Organism An individual human, animal, plant, etc…… Made up all of the organ systems Work together to sustain life
  10. 10. Anatomical DirectionsAnatomical positionRegions Axial vs. AppendicularAnatomical Directions-It’s all Relative! Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Deep Proximal vs. DistalAnatomical Planes Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal Pg 5
  11. 11. Reference PointAnterior – (ventral) Posterior – (dorsal) Frontal PlaneCloser to the front surface of Closer to the rear surfacethe body of the bodyMedial – Lateral – Sagittal PlaneLying closer to the midline Lying further away from the midlineSuperior – (cranial) Inferior – (caudal) Horizontal PlaneCloser to the head in relation to Away from the head orthe entire body towards the lower part of(More General) the bodySuperficial – Deep – Surface of body orTowards the surface Away from the surface organProximal – Distal – Origin of a structureCloser to the origin of a body Further away from thepart origin of a body part(More Specific)
  12. 12. 4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous
  13. 13. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated thathave a similar structure and perform a related function Four types of tissue Epithelial = covering/lining Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
  14. 14. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets ofcells cover a surface or line a cavity Functions Protection Secretion Absorption Ion Transport
  15. 15. Characteristics of Epithelium Cellularity Composed of cells Specialized contacts Joined by cell junctions Polarity Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative
  16. 16. Classification of Epithelium-basedon number of layers and cell shape Layers Simple Stratified Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer Psuedostratified Shapes Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional
  17. 17. Types of Epithelium Simple squamous (1 layer) Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity Simple cuboidal Kidney tubules, glands Simple columnar Stomach, intestines Pseudostratified columnar Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Stratified squamous (>1 layer) Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina Named so according to apical cell shape Regenerate from below Deep layers cuboidal and columnar Transitional (not shown) Thins when stretches Hollow urinary organs All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
  18. 18. Special EpitheliumEndothelium Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e.g. lymphatic & blood vesselMesothelium Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
  19. 19. Features of Apical Surface ofEpitheliumMicrovilli: (ex) in small intestine Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorptionCilia: (ex) respiratory tubes Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
  20. 20. Features of Lateral Surface of EpitheliumCells are connected to neighboring cells via: Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common) Desmosomes Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue Tight Junctions Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes Gap junction Proteins allow small molecules to pass through
  21. 21. Features of the Basal Surface of EpitheliumBasement membrane Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below Made up of: Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of proteins Superficial layer Acts as a selective filter Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells Reticular fiber layer Deeper layer Support
  22. 22. Glands Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as: Unicellular vs. multicellular Exocrine vs. Endocrine Page 138
  23. 23. Glands: epithelial cells that make andsecrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity Activity is local Have ducts Unicellular or Multicellular (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver
  24. 24. Glands: epithelial cells that make andsecrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands Secrete product into blood stream Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) No ducts (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
  25. 25. 4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous
  26. 26. 4 Types of Connective Tissue 1) Connective Tissue Proper 2) Cartilage 3) Bone Tissue 4) Blood
  27. 27. Connective Tissue (CT):most abundant and diverse tissue Four Classes Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Contains a variety of cells and fibers Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme Embryonic connective tissue
  28. 28. Fibers in Connective Tissue Fibers For Support Reticular: form networks for structure & support (ex) cover capillaries Collagen: strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments Elastic: long + thin, stretch and retain shape (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
  29. 29. Components of Connective Tissue Fibroblasts: cells that produce all fibers in CT produce + secrete protein subunits to make them produce ground matrix Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid derived from blood in CT proper medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells found in ground matrix Ground Matrix (substance): part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid Made and secreted by fibroblasts jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
  30. 30. 1) Connective Tissue ProperTwo kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT Functions Support and bind to other tissue Hold body fluids Defends against infection Stores nutrients as fat Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue
  31. 31. Defense from Infection Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood Macrophages-eat foreign particles Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
  32. 32. Loose CT Proper Areolar CT All types of fibers present All typical cell types present Surrounds blood vessels and nerves
  33. 33. Specialized Loose CT Proper Adipose tissue Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity Insulates, produces energy, supports Found in hypodermis under skin Reticular CT Contains only reticular fibers Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal “skeleton” of some organs Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen
  34. 34. Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. Irregular Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones Dense regular Dense irregular
  35. 35. Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells Collagen fibers -macrophages Reticular fibers -white blood cells Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  36. 36. 2) Cartilage Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells Reside in lacunae More abundant in embryo than adult Firm, Flexible Resists compression (eg) trachea, meniscus Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage growth/repair of cartilage resists expansion during compression of cartilage
  37. 37. Cartilage in the Body Three types: Hyaline most abundant fibers in matrix support via flexibility/resilience (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose Elastic many elastic fibers in matrix too great flexibility (eg) external ear, epiglottis Fibrocartilage resists both compression and tension (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
  38. 38. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  39. 39. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ) Well-vascularized Function: support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs protect (eg) skull, vertebrae mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component) movement (eg) walk, grasp objects blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
  40. 40. Bone Tissue Osteoblasts Secrete organic part of bone matrix Osteocytes Mature bone cells Sit in lacunae Maintain bone matrix Osteoclasts Degrade and reabsorb bone Periosteum External layer of CT that surrounds bone Outer: Dense irregular CT Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts Endosteum Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae Contains osteoblasts and osteoclastsacademic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../skeletal.htm
  41. 41. Compact Bone External layer Osteon (Haversian system) Parallel to the long axis of the bone Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon Contains blood vessels and nerves Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/.../CartilageandBone03.htm
  42. 42. Bone Anatomy: Spongy boneSpongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes no canal for vessels space filled with bone marrow not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
  43. 43. Shapes of BonesFlat = skull, sternum, clavicle Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae Short = carpals, patella Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus
  44. 44. Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis Medullary Cavity Nutrient Artery & Vein 2 Epiphyses Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Artery & Vein Periosteum Does not cover epiphyses Endosteum Covers trabeculae of spongy bone Lines medullary cavity of long bonestraining.seer.cancer.gov/.../illu_long_bone.jpg
  45. 45. 2 Types of Bone Formation Intramembranous Ossification Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes Endochondral Ossification: All other bones Begins with a cartilaginous model Cartilage calcifies Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
  46. 46. Bone Growth & RemodelingGROWTH Appositional Growth = widening of bone Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts Lengthening of Bone Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate) Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis sideREMODELING Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to body fluids from bone Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!
  47. 47. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Fibroblasts Collagen fibers Osteocytes Osteoclasts
  48. 48. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue Function: Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system Helps regulate body temperature Protects body by fighting infection Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells Occurs in red bone marrow In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  49. 49. Blood CellsErythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting most abundant in blood no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of bodyLeukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies*Platelets = Thrombocytes: fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
  50. 50. Components of Blood SummarizedCells MatrixErythrocytes Plasma(red blood cells) (liquid matrix)Leukocytes NO fibers(white blood cells)*Platelets(cell fragments)
  51. 51. 4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous
  52. 52. Muscle TissueMuscle cells/fibers Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & MyosinFUNCTION Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat GenerationThree types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  53. 53. Skeletal Muscle Tissue(each skeletal muscle is an organ) Cells Long and cylindrical, in bundles Multinucleate Obvious Striations Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components: Endomysium-surrounds fibers Perimysium-surrounds bundles Epimysium-surrounds the muscle Attached to bones, fascia, skin Origin & Insertion academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../muscular.htm
  54. 54. Cardiac Muscle Cells Branching, chains of cells Single or Binucleated Striations Connected by Intercalated discs Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle Pumps blood through vessels Connective Tissue Component Endomysium: surrounding cells www.answers.com
  55. 55. Smooth Muscle TissueCells Single cells, uninucleate No striationsSmooth Muscle-Involuntary 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)Found in hollow organs, blood vesselsConnective Tissue Component Endomysium: surrounds cells
  56. 56. 4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous
  57. 57. Nervous TissueNeurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses Cell body, dendrite, axonCharacterized by: No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate www.morphonix.com
  58. 58. Nervous Tissue: control Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment, insulation, protection Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS) Microglia-phagocytes Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  59. 59. Integumentary System Functions Protection Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV Cushions & insulates deeper organs Prevention of water loss Thermoregulation Excretion Salts, urea, water Sensory reception
  60. 60. Microanatomy - Layers of theSkin Epidermis Epithelium Dermis Connective tissue Hypodermis / subcutis Loose connective tissue Anchors skin to bone or muscle Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis Hair follicles Sweat and Sebaceous glands Nails www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
  61. 61. Cell Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum Dead keratinocytes Stratum lucidum Only in “thick” skin Dead keratinocytes Stratum granulosum Water proofing Stratum spinosum Resists tears and tension Stratum basale Sensory receptors Melanocytes Keratinocytes (in all layers) 15minbeauty.blogspot.com
  62. 62. Layers of the Dermis Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers: Papillary layer (20%) Areolar CT Collagen & Elastic fibers Innervation Hair follicles Reticular layer (80%) Dense irregular CT Glands sebum 2.5 million sweat glands!! www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg Smooth muscle fibers Innervation
  63. 63. Hypodermis Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions Store fat Anchor skin to muscle, etc. Insulation
  64. 64. Structure of Tubular Organs LUMENTunica Mucosa Lamina epithelialis Lamina propria Lamina muscularis mucosaTunica SubmucosaTunica Muscularis Inner circular Outer longitudinalTunica Adventitia / Serosa Adventitia – covers organ directly Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity