Chap.01.Revised

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  • Chap.01.Revised

    1. 2. <ul><li>Psychologists as “parenting experts” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid feeding schedules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional parenting makes children emotionally weak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benjamin Spock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urged open displays of affection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid too much conflict over weaning and toilet training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet Web site “Experts” </li></ul></ul>Perspectives on Development
    2. 3. Nature versus Nurture <ul><li>Idealists or Rationalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plato, Descartes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some knowledge is inborn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All human beings are naturally good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek experiences that help promote growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Empiricists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tabula Rasa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All knowledge is created from experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors change development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 4. Nature versus Nurture <ul><li>G. Stanley Hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones were dictated by inborn developmental plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children can be trained through manipulation of the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Little Albert” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Internal and External Influences <ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically programmed sequential patterns of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively impervious to environmental influences </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Continuity-Discontinuity Issue <ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discontinuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative change </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Internal and External Influences <ul><li>Timing of Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience may be needed to trigger genetic programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goslings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A time when a particular experience can be best incorporated into the maturational process </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Internal and External Influences <ul><li>Behavior Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of identical and fraternal twins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted children studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity affects a broad range of behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Height, body shape, tendency towards obesity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial visual ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading disability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholism, schizophrenia, depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament – emotionality, activity, sociability </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Internal and External Influences <ul><li>Gene-Environment Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s genetic heritage may predict something about environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritage may affect the way a child behaves with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s interpretations of their experiences are influenced by genetic tendencies </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Internal and External Influences <ul><li>Internal Models of Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of core ideas about the world, him/herself, relationships with others – through which all subsequent experiences are filtered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aslin’s Model of Environmental Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 models of possible gene-environment interaction (see next slide) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Aslin’s Model of Environmental Influence Aslin’s Model
    11. 12. The Ecological Perspective <ul><li>Ecology – context in which each child develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urie Bronfenbrenner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children are raised in a complex social ecology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterson’s research on origins of antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents using poor discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection by peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deviant peer group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is a large influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism versus collectivism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Patterson’s Model
    13. 14. Vulnerability and Resilience <ul><li>Vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult temperament, physical abnormality, allergies, alcoholism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protective factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High intelligence, good coordination, easy temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitative environments encourage development </li></ul><ul><li>Children high in protective factors show resilience even in difficult environments </li></ul>
    14. 15. Figure 1.3 Horowitz’s Model
    15. 16. Theories of Development <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is governed by unconscious as well as conscious processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libido </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Id, ego, superego </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosexual Stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Psychoanalytic Theories <ul><li>Eric Erikson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children are influenced by cultural demands that are age related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children must interact in a positive way with the environment for a healthy personality to form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust versus Mistrust </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caregivers must be responsive and loving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistrust may lead to difficulty in forming intimate relationships as an adult </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation - the nature of the human organism is to adapt to its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage theory of cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All children go through the same kinds of sequential discoveries about their world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children must progress through 4 distinct stages </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding the child’s learning by a skilled social partner through modeling and structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That range of tasks which are too hard to do for the child by themselves but that they can do with the help of a skilled social partner </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Information Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains how the mind manages information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses computer models to explain learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit theories about memory formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Identified both age-related and individual differences in information processing </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Figure 1.4 Information Processing Research
    21. 22. Learning Theory <ul><li>Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences emotional responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Learning Theory <ul><li>Social Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational learning or modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for learning both abstract concepts and concrete skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal reinforcers such as pride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not indicate developmental changes that accompany age </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Comparing Theories <ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active or passive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature or nurture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability or change? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate predictions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic value? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical value? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eclectic Approach </li></ul>
    24. 25. Questions to Ponder? <ul><li>Examine your own childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are three influential factors from your childhood environment that helped to shape who you are today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are three important biological or genetic traits that helped to shape who you are today? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Research Designs and Methods <ul><li>Four Goals for the scientific study of human development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Age-Related Changes <ul><li>Cross-Sectional Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional research is very useful because it is relatively quick to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can give indications of possible age differences or age changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohort – age-related differences due to grouping by age </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Age-Related Changes <ul><li>Longitudinal Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Only by studying the same children over time </li></ul><ul><li>(that is, longitudinally), can developmentalists identify consistencies (or changes) in behavior across age </li></ul><ul><li>Study of individuals or groups over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Can identify individual differences and compare them to group differences </li></ul>
    28. 29. Age-Related Changes <ul><li>Sequential Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for comparison of cohorts while incorporating some degree of individual differences. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Figure 1.5 A Hypothetical Sequential Study of Attention Span
    30. 31. Identifying Relationships Between Variables <ul><li>Naturalistic Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe people in their normal environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have limited generalizability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth examinations of single individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely useful in making decisions about individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently the basis of important hypotheses about unusual developmental events </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Identifying Relationships Between Variables <ul><li>Correlations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number ranging from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-1.00 to +1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the strength of a relationship between two variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High scores on one variable are usually accompanied by high scores on the other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two variables that move in opposite directions </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Limits of Correlations <ul><ul><li>They do not reveal causal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is, one variable does not cause another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to occur </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Experiments <ul><li>Control Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quasi-experiments </li></ul>
    34. 35. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH <ul><ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive study of one culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct comparison of two or more cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fernald & Morikawa (1993) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 Japanese mothers and infants were compared to 30 American mothers and infants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Figure 1.6
    36. 37. <ul><li>Protection of animal rights and human subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul>RESEARCH ETHICS
    37. 38. Prenatal Development And Birth 1 End Show <ul><li>“ This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, pf any images; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” </li></ul></ul>

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