Cont.. Three modes of spatial thinking: 1. Perceived space (suppose) 2. Conceived space (imagine) 3. lived space(“therdspace” as a place of transition between built and cognitiverealities, a place in everyday life where conceptions of space aretransformed.)
Cont..Concept of Place;..like a concept of space, is fundamental tounderstandingHuman society.Place is both physical location of activity (the space wherehuman and the historically contextualizedAction occur),construction and reconstruction of conceptions of thatplace.Place is not a predetermined entity, rather place isporous,Dynamic, and unstable yet resilient (flexible).
Space in Archaeology•Archaeologists focused on trying to make sense of the artifacts andfeatures they uncovered.•By examining the characteristics of assemblages it becameapparent that some shared certain traits and that these traitscould be attributed to individual cultures.•Reasoning that different cultures represented different ethnicgroups, and that the characteristics of these groups could beunderstood through their material culture.•These cultures influenced one another and that certain stylesmoved from one society to another through diffusion, migration orinvasion.• Spatial distribution of these “culture traits” was essential tounderstanding change.•Classifying assemblages into groups with a discrete spatial extent;called “culture areas”.
Cont..“…the study of past distribution of culture-traitsin time and space, and the factors governingtheir distribution.” (Clarke, D.L., 1977, Spatial Archaeology)“After an artifacts has been exposed, its positionmust be recorded. This information is assignificant as the artifact itself.” ( Robert Heizer, 1958
Spatial Patterns•Notion of “site”. - defined as a complex relational framework inwhich social action and natural processes are related ina complex, dynamic and dialectical sense. - An archaeological site is the place where socialaction “was” performed. - Social action is never performed isolated or in an abstract vacuum. - Social action is produced in physical space, andthis is not a neutral container.
Cont…- Archaeological site is not a random organized, nor it isresult of chance alone.-Changes in the topology of archaeological spacedetermine changes in the statistical properties of thearchaeological records. Three modes of arch; context, a) Locus b) Site c) Settlement
SETTLEMENT ARCHAEOLOGY AND SPATIAL ANALYSISIn any inquiry about the social past, thefirst question to address is size or scale.Settlement archaeology includes an arrayof techniques and theories dedicatedprecisely to understanding these scalarquestions.Archaeologists generally try to addressspatial concerns first in the process ofdecoding past human behavior.
Investigating activities within a site• the aim is to understand the nature of the activities that took place there, and of the social group that used it.• One important distinction can be drawn between cave sites and open sites.• Ethnoarchaeology – linking the ethnographic present with the archaeological past.
Investigating territories in mobile societies• Off-site archaeology – how do people use the territory between sites? Sampling strategy to determine density of stone tools over large area. Space and density are the two critical factors examined.
SETTLEMENT PATTERNINGPossible site categories include (ascending scale):• hamlet• dispersed village• nucleated village• local center• regional center
A sitehierarchy inMesoamerica. (a)Simplifiedhierarchy ofsite types.(b)Hypotheticalsitehierarchy onthe ground,with themajorregionalcenterservingsecondarycentersspaced atregularintervals.These in turn
Central Place Theory (Walter Christaller, 1933).• Basic tenet: In a uniform landscape, the spatial patterning of settlements would be perfectly regular, forming interconnectin g hexagons.
Site Hierarchies• Sites are organized in rank order by size.• These are but two of many potential models for explaining the distribution of human settlements across given landscapes…
How do we bridge the gap between archaeological remains and the societies those remains represent? The two most commonly proposed approaches are:• middle range theory• analogy
Central Place TheoryThis is theory concerned with the functional importance of places
Central Place• -is a settlement that provides goods & services. It can be small (a village) or large (primate city) all settlements form a link in a hierarchy London 7m Peterborough 156,000 Norwich 122,000 Cambridge 108,000
Settlement hierarchy• Why are there very few large settlements?• Large settlements need a very large population (threshold) to support all of their functions (services)• Large settlements provide very high order functions (Great Ormond St, Houses of Parliament). Because these functions are so highly specialised there is not enough demand to support more than a few of them