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Pdar 51013 8


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2012-01-08 lecture by Mr. Ranjith Bandara

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Pdar 51013 8

  1. 1. Postgraduate Diploma Program 2011 – 2012 Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology Lecture 8Ways of Knowing and Narrating the Past Ranjith Bandara Dissanayake
  2. 2. mqrdúoHd;aul ióCIKfha úêl%u(Archaeological Survey Methods)* foaYk jHqyh 1. .fõIKh: Ndú;h yd úêl%u 2. u;=msg .fõIK l%u 3. N+ fN!;sl .fõIK l%u 4. oqria: ixfõoS .fõIK l%u
  3. 3. bf.kq ï M,* mqrdúoHdfõ fCIa;% Ndú;dj* mqrdúoHdfõ nyqúIhSh m%fõYh* mqrdúoHd ióCIK i|yd fhdod .kakd úêl%u
  4. 4. What isSpace ?
  5. 5. Cont.. Three modes of spatial thinking: 1. Perceived space (suppose) 2. Conceived space (imagine) 3. lived space(“therdspace” as a place of transition between built and cognitiverealities, a place in everyday life where conceptions of space aretransformed.)
  6. 6. Cont..Concept of Place; a concept of space, is fundamental tounderstandingHuman society.Place is both physical location of activity (the space wherehuman and the historically contextualizedAction occur),construction and reconstruction of conceptions of thatplace.Place is not a predetermined entity, rather place isporous,Dynamic, and unstable yet resilient (flexible).
  7. 7. Space in Archaeology•Archaeologists focused on trying to make sense of the artifacts andfeatures they uncovered.•By examining the characteristics of assemblages it becameapparent that some shared certain traits and that these traitscould be attributed to individual cultures.•Reasoning that different cultures represented different ethnicgroups, and that the characteristics of these groups could beunderstood through their material culture.•These cultures influenced one another and that certain stylesmoved from one society to another through diffusion, migration orinvasion.• Spatial distribution of these “culture traits” was essential tounderstanding change.•Classifying assemblages into groups with a discrete spatial extent;called “culture areas”.
  8. 8. Cont..“…the study of past distribution of culture-traitsin time and space, and the factors governingtheir distribution.” (Clarke, D.L., 1977, Spatial Archaeology)“After an artifacts has been exposed, its positionmust be recorded. This information is assignificant as the artifact itself.” ( Robert Heizer, 1958
  9. 9. Spatial Patterns•Notion of “site”. - defined as a complex relational framework inwhich social action and natural processes are related ina complex, dynamic and dialectical sense. - An archaeological site is the place where socialaction “was” performed. - Social action is never performed isolated or in an abstract vacuum. - Social action is produced in physical space, andthis is not a neutral container.
  10. 10. Cont…- Archaeological site is not a random organized, nor it isresult of chance alone.-Changes in the topology of archaeological spacedetermine changes in the statistical properties of thearchaeological records. Three modes of arch; context, a) Locus b) Site c) Settlement
  11. 11. SETTLEMENT ARCHAEOLOGY AND SPATIAL ANALYSISIn any inquiry about the social past, thefirst question to address is size or scale.Settlement archaeology includes an arrayof techniques and theories dedicatedprecisely to understanding these scalarquestions.Archaeologists generally try to addressspatial concerns first in the process ofdecoding past human behavior.
  12. 12. Investigating activities within a site• the aim is to understand the nature of the activities that took place there, and of the social group that used it.• One important distinction can be drawn between cave sites and open sites.• Ethnoarchaeology – linking the ethnographic present with the archaeological past.
  13. 13. Investigating territories in mobile societies• Off-site archaeology – how do people use the territory between sites? Sampling strategy to determine density of stone tools over large area. Space and density are the two critical factors examined.
  14. 14. SETTLEMENT PATTERNINGPossible site categories include (ascending scale):• hamlet• dispersed village• nucleated village• local center• regional center
  15. 15. A sitehierarchy inMesoamerica. (a)Simplifiedhierarchy ofsite types.(b)Hypotheticalsitehierarchy onthe ground,with themajorregionalcenterservingsecondarycentersspaced atregularintervals.These in turn
  16. 16. Central Place Theory (Walter Christaller, 1933).• Basic tenet: In a uniform landscape, the spatial patterning of settlements would be perfectly regular, forming interconnectin g hexagons.
  17. 17. Site Hierarchies• Sites are organized in rank order by size.• These are but two of many potential models for explaining the distribution of human settlements across given landscapes…
  18. 18. How do we bridge the gap between archaeological remains and the societies those remains represent? The two most commonly proposed approaches are:• middle range theory• analogy
  19. 19. (Somadeva 2005).
  20. 20. Central Place TheoryThis is theory concerned with the functional importance of places
  21. 21. Central Place• -is a settlement that provides goods & services. It can be small (a village) or large (primate city) all settlements form a link in a hierarchy London 7m Peterborough 156,000 Norwich 122,000 Cambridge 108,000
  22. 22. Why are there very fewlarge settlements?
  23. 23. Settlement hierarchy• Why are there very few large settlements?• Large settlements need a very large population (threshold) to support all of their functions (services)• Large settlements provide very high order functions (Great Ormond St, Houses of Parliament). Because these functions are so highly specialised there is not enough demand to support more than a few of them
  24. 24. u;= m s g .fõIK úêl% u ^Surface survey&fuys l%ufõo folls. tkï, 1 wl%uj;a ióCIK ^unsystematic survey&fuh b;d ir, jQjls. .fõIlhdf.a wNsu;h mrsos fCIq;%fha ksoyfiaweúÈñka, wod< o%jH tla/ia lrñka, u;=msg lsishï boslsrSula fõ kïtajd w;r we;s iïnJO;dj jd¾;d .; lrhs. fuu l%uh,mCImd;S yd fkdu. hjk iq¨ wra:ksrEmK ,nd fohs. 2 l%uj;a ióCIK ^systematic survey&.fjsIKhg ,la lrk N+ñh ukdj md,kh l< yels mrsos is;shulWml,ams; fldgqoe,a fhdod l%udkql+, wdldrhg wejso ^field walking&iuSCIKh flfra. N+ñfha lsisoq fldgila fj; wju wjOdkhla fydaWmrsu wjOdkhla fhduq fkdflfra. ksheoslrKfha Wmrsu ksrjoH;djms<sn| ie<ls,su;a fõ.
  25. 25. l%uj;a fCIa;% iuSCIKhl idCIs: 1 flaJo%dmidrS úysoSu 2 úYd, m%foaYhla Wml,ams; fldgqoe,lg we;=<;a fldg iuSCIKh lsrSumqrdúoHd mYapd;a Wmdê wdh;kh u.ska 1999 -2001 w;r ld,h ;=< isoql< lsrs|sTh my<ksuskfha mqrdK ckdjdi iuSCIKh
  26. 26. u ;= m s g ióCIKfhys Ndú;dj* mq¨,a ióCIK ^extensive survey& yd ;Sj%ióCIK ^intensive survey&fuh l%u folla hgf;a jsia;r l< yel tkus 1 m%dfoaYSh ióCIK ^regional survey& jsYd, m%foaYhla fyd l,dmhla f;dard f.k mq¨,a f,i;a ;Sj% f,i;a iuSCIKh lsrSuhs 2 ia:dkSh ióCIK ^site survey& ksYaÑ; l=vd wjldYhla f;dard f.k mq¨,a f,i;a ;Sj% f,i;a iuSCIKh lsrSuhs
  27. 27. Theexplorationwasconductedwithin anarea of300km2. Thisarea wasdivided into1.6x1.6kmsquares. Theextent of thereachablearea in LKBis about164km2. Theun-reachablearea (66km2)consists ofmountains, arestrictedwildlifesanctuary(Yāla) and lsrs|sTh my< ksuskfha jra. lsf,dauSgr 300 l m%dfoaYSh .fjsIKhseveral man-made
  28. 28. N+ fN!;s l .fõIK úêl% u ^geo-physical survey&* mqrdúoHdfõ nyqúIhd;aul m%fõYhfuu l%ufhaoS jvd;a Wmfhda.S lr .kq ,nkafka N+úoHdj jsiska N+wNHka;rh iuSCIKh i|yd oshqKq lrk ,o ;dCIKsl l%ufjsohkah.fmdf<dj wNHka;rh fidhd ne,Su ^subsurface detection& 1 fmdf<dj jsoSu ^Probes/coring method&f,day oKavla wdOdrfhka fyda fndarh ^Bores& Wmldr lr f.k fmdf<djjso mia mrSCId lsrSu u.ska fmdf<dj wNHka;rh iuSCIKh lsrSu. fuys l%ufolls. tkus,w& w;a Ts.rh ^Hand Auger&wd& hdka;%sl TS.rh ^Mechanical Auger&
  29. 29. fmdf<dj jso ne,Sfus jHdmD;sh - 2001 rusnd jsydr jHdmD;sh weUs,smsgsh ^Ramba Vihara Coring Project - 2001&
  30. 30. 2 tkafvdiafldam iuSCIKh ^Endoscope&* 1950 oYlfha jraOkh jQjls* ldraf,d f,rsps ^Carlo Lerici& jsiska oshqKq lrk ,oaols* fmdf<dj wNHka;rfha jk isoqre ;=<ska l=vd wOs;dCIKsl leurdjla hjdiuSCIKh lsrSu* Bcsma;=fjs msruSv fuu l%uh hgf;a mrSCId fldg we;* tgsg%ialka fidfydka N+us 3500 la muK mrSCId fldg tajd ish,a, ysia nj wjfndaOlr .kakd ,ospq u s N l .fjs I K l% u ^Magnetic survey&Ndjs;h - je<,S we;s ms<siaiQ ueá jHqyhka j<x fmdarKq hlv NdKav j<j,a yd w.,awkdjrKh lrhsuQ,Orauh - by; je<,S .sh wx. u.ska uek .; yels wkaofus N+ pqusNl fCIa;%jHdl+,;d ^distortions in the earth’s magnetic field& fmkakqus lrhs.pqusNl fCIa;%j, fjkialus je<,S we;s o%jH wkqj fjkia fjs jsfYaIfhka hlvj,iusnJO;dj wkqj th r|d mj;S fuu ixfjsoS;dj i|yd b;d l=vd hlv m%udkhla;snSu jqjo m%udKj;ah.uegsj, we;s hlv Tlaihsv wxY=j, pqusNlFjh tu uegs fkdmqˆiaik;dla wjsOsu;af,i osYdkq.; fjs. tfy;a tu uegs fi,aishia wxYl 700 g fyda Bg jevsfhka r;alsrSfusoS tajdfha hlv wxY= ia:sr f,i fmdf<dfjs pqusNl fCIa;% wkqj osYd .;jSia:djr fjs.
  31. 31. pqusNl fCIq;%j, wksis m%;sl%shd ukskq ,nk, tu.ska je<,S we;s wx. wkdjrKh lr .ekSu i|yd Ndjs;lrkq ,nk l%ufjso ;=kls. tkus, w& ue.fkdauSgrh ^magnetometers& wd& f.%vsfhdauSgrh ^gradiometers& we& f,day mrSCIlh ^metal detectors&ue.a f kda u S g rfmdf<dfjs we;s lrkq ,nk b;d iq¨ tfy;a ;shqKq pqusNl fCIa;% ;Sj%;d fjkialus .%yKhl< yel1 fm%dafgdak ue.afkdauSgrh ^proton precession magnometer&^jsoq,s o.rhla wka;ra.; lrk ,o c,h msrjQ fnda;,hlska hqla; fjs th l%shdldrS jkafka ixfjsolhlaf,ih fuu ixfjsolh rsgl ijs fldg we;s w;r wf;a f.k hd yels wkaofus fmgsgshl jQ bf,lafg%dakslmrsm:hlg th flan,a u.ska iusnJO fldg we;&2 *a,laiaf.ags ue.afkdauSgrh ^Fluxgate Magnometer&3 vs*rkaI,a *a,laiaf.ags ue.afkdauSgrh ^Differential Fluxgate magnometer&
  32. 32. f.%vsfhdauSgr1 *a,laiaf.ags f.%vsfhda uSgrh ^Fluxgate Gradiometer&fuh wdf,dal m%Njhla wka;ra.; jQjls tu.ska fmdf<dfjs pqusNl fCIa;%j, ;Sj%;dfjs fjki wLKavj uek fohsfuh iajhxl%s%h Pdhd jdra;dlrKhlg yd mrs.Klhlg iusnJO l< yelf,day mrSCIlfus u.ska pqusNlFjh ^magnetism& yd ikakdhl;dj^conductivity&hk .=Kdx. folu Ndjs; lrkq ,nhs th ishˆu f,day jra.j, jsoHq;aikakdhl;dj yd hlv wvx.= f,dayj, by, pqusNl ku%;djg m%;spdrolajhs1 mdxY= ikakdhl;d udklh ^soil conductivity meter&2 iamkaok udklh ^pulsed induction meter&fuu WmlrK u.ska fmdf<dj fj;g iusfm%aIKh lrkq ,nk ;rx.j,fjkila we;s lrk mfia we;s ikakdhl;dj fyda ku%;dj u.ska fmdf<djwNHka;rfha je<,S we;s o%jH ms<sn|j fkdj jHqy ms<sn|j wkdjrKh fjs
  33. 33. oq r ia : ixfõoS ióCIK úêl% u ^remote sensingmethods&fmdf<dj jso ne,Sulska fyda leKSulska fyda f;drj ydksodhl fkdjkwdldrfha fmdf<dj wNHka;rh mrSCId lsrSfus l%u jkafka oqria: ixfjsoSiuSCIK l%uhkahoqria: ixfjsoS WmlrK jsjsO Yla;Ska uqod yer mia jsksjso f.dia fmdf<djhg je<,s we;s o%jH yd jHqyhka ms<n|j ms<sUsnqjla ,nd fokafkafmdf<dfjs we;s pqusNl fCIa;%j, ;Sj%;djg ixfjsoS fjusks1 .=jka PdhdrEm ^Arial Photographs& ;sria .=jka PdhdrEm ^oblique Arial photographs& isria .=jka PdhdrEm ^vertical Arial photographs&
  34. 34. frdaudkq n,fldgqjla .=jka PdhdrEmhlg osia jk whqre
  35. 35. 2 pJo%sld PdhdrEm ^Landsat Satellite Images&
  36. 36. Spot 7 kus jQ m%xYhg wh;aLandsatpJo%sldj jsiska 2002 jifraoS .kakd,o lsrs|sTh my, ksuskh yd wjg
  37. 37. Spot 7 Landsat pJo%sldfjka .kakd ,oPdhdrEmhlska osia jk mshjs weigfkdfmfkk hd, m%foaYfha mqrdK l=Uqrehdhl m%;sksraudKhla
  38. 38. 3 iSiausla yd Osjks ;rx. ^Seismic and Acoustic Methods&^Osjks m%;srdj l%u - Echo Sounding&fmdf<dj ;=<g Yla;sh hjd bka cks; Osjksh jdra;d.; lr N=.; wx.wkdjrKh lr .; yelfuu.ska oqraj, Ynso u.ska lsisoq wjfYaIhla fkdue;s wNHka;rhlaowkqkdohla kxjk Ynsohla u.ska je<,S we;s j<j,a fyda w.,a ms<sn|i<l=Kqo y.jhs.w& ia:djr ;rx. l%uh ^Standing wave technique&wd& fidakdra l%u ^Sonar& 1 mdraYajSh ialEka fidakdra ^Side Scan Sonar&4 .=jka jsoq,s ;rx. yd bf,lafg%daksl iamkaok ^Radio Wavesand Electrical Impulses&w& mdxY= Osjks fravdrh ^Soil-Sounding Radar&wd& N+ fravdrh ^Geo-radar&we& jsoHq;a m%;sfrdaOh ^Electriclal resistivity&