1. Past as history written by the specialists What is past?• There is no conclusive definition• Any space gone by time• But normally not recent past in historical writing• According to the Archaeological Ordinance tangible and intangible property of hundred year old
2. What is history1. All the events that happened in the past e.g. The area was inhabited long before the recorded history.2. The past events concerned in the development oparticular place, subject, etc.e.g. Dipavamsa, Dathavamsa, Thupavamsa
3. Contd/ What is history• 3 The study of past events as a subject at school or university• E.g. A history teacher, a degree in history
4. contd/What is history• 4. A written or spoken account of past eventsE.g. Nikayasangrahaya, Dalada Sirita, Daladapujavaliya, Galvihara inscription• 5. A record of something happening frequently in the past life of a person, family or place ; the set of facts that are known about someone’s past life. E.g. Buddhacarita, Parakumba sirirta, Samantakutavannana
5. Specialists’ writings are the windows• Specialists’ writings are the windows through which we see the past.• That past is called history or historical archaeology• Protohistory• Prehistory• History is reconstructed by comparative study of writings and archaeological sources.
6. Discovery of Pali literature of Sri LankaInitial stage and pioneers• Eugene Bunouf 1826 273 quarto pages in manuscript but not published.• Edward Upham, 1833 “The Mahavansi the Rajaratnacari and the Rajavali , forming the sacred and historical books of Ceylon ; also, a collection of tracts illustrative of the Doctrines and Literature of Buddhism”. 3 vols.• George Turner (pioneer) in 1837 put a significant land mark in the discovery of Pali Literature. His work “ The Mahavanso in Roman characters with the translation subjoined and an Introductory Essay on Pali Buddhistical Literature”. 2 vols. Contd/
7. Contd/ Discovery of Pali Literature of Sri LankaDevelopments and evolution into Mahavamsalogy• Sumangala and Batvantudave 1877 Sinhala translation of the Mhv. 2 vols.• L.C.Wijesinha 1889 (a native scholar) Translation of Mahavamsa• Geiger 1908 The Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa and their Historical development of Ceylon• ------- Critical Edition of Mahavamsa and its translation into German• Sumangala and Batuvantudave, 1895 MahavamsaTika• Geiger 1912 Mahavamsa translated into English with the assistance of M.H.Mode.• Geiger translated Mahavamsa into a Mahavamsalogy• Culavamsa concept
8. Contd/ Discovery of Pali Literature of Sri Lanka• D.H.S.Abayaratna 1922 The Sinhala Mahavama (from the beginning up o the end of Sri Vikramarajasina (Chaps 101and appendix covering Europeans upto 1922)• G.P.Malalasekera 1928 Pali Literature of Ceylon (Chapter VII The Pali Chronices,pp.130-146)• ------- Vamsatthappakasini, Mhv T. 1935• B.C.Law 1933 History of Pali Literature• ---------- 1947 On the Chronicles of Ceylon• A.P.Buddhadatta 1959 Unapurana Sahito Mahavamso• A.W.P.Guruge 1989 Mahavasa the Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka (first part of the Mahavamsa)
9. Continuous Sri Lankan tradition of Chronicles• Dipavamsa c. 4th century A.D. to Sasanavamsadipa of Wimalasara of 1929.• Pali : Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa of Mahanama, Pali Bodhivamsa of Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV, Dathavamsa of Dhammakitti of Polonnaruva, Thupamsa of Vacissara, (pitakattayaparagu) of Dambadeniya (ParakramabahuI I), Lalata Dhatuvamsa (the date and author are unknown) Vuttamala sataka of Gatare Upatapassi of the 14th century
10. Sinhala, Chinese, Sanskrit, Arabic, Tamil andSinhala• Portuguese Saddharmaratnavaliya of Dharmasena of Dambadeniya, Nikayasangrahaya of Devarakkhita Jayabahu of Gampola ) Pujavaliya of Buddhaputra of Dambadeniya ( Chaps 33-34) Saddharmaranakaraya of Vimalakitti of Kotte… (chapter 12Rajavaliya of the 17th century of unknown author)Dladasirita of of Devadadampasginavana of the 14th century, Daladapujavaliya of the same period, Sulu Rajavaliya of 17th century, Daladavamsa of he 17th century, Dalada hatana of 1793 , Daladavamasakaviya of the same yea. Narendracaritavalokanapradipa of Yatanvala Mahathera of the 19th century
11. Contd/Sinhala …SanskritVrttaratnakara Pancika of Ramacandra kavibharati of KotteArabicTopographia Cristiana of Cosmas Indecopleustes of the sixthcenturyTamilPeriapuranam of the 7th century, Yalpana vipavamalei of the 15thcenturyPortugueseConquest of Queros
13. Sinhala-Pali; Pali-Sinhala• Writers of Sinhala Atthakatha: Poranacariyas: members of Sangha lineage beginning from Mahinda, Arittha ,etc. Mahaatthakatha, Paccariya, Kurundi• Their critical translations by Mahanama, Buddhaghosa, etc.• Translations of Thupavamsa, ie.Sinhala thuapavams of Parakrama Pandita, Lalatadhatuvamsa into Sinhala.
14. Atthakatha and Tika• Buddhaghosa, Dhammapala, Sariputta ,etc.• Bahiranidana vannana of the Samantapasadika of Buddhaghosa. History of Buddhism from the beginning up to the establishment of Buddhism in Sri Lanka.• Dhampiya atuva Gatapadaya, JatakaAtuva gatapadaya. Unintentionally included data.
15. Evaluation• “Whilst the history of India was only to be conjectured from myths and elaborated from the dates on copper grants, or fading inscriptions on rocks and columns , Ceylon was in possession of continuous written chronicles, rich in authentic facts, and not only presenting a connected history of the island itself but also yielding materials for elucidating that of India”- Tennent, p. 312.
16. Evaluation 2• Unbroken tradition of long standing• Most are focused on secular and royalty, Mostly Buddhist monks.• Conceptual fantasy• Quantitative richness but less diversity in contents; language diversity, prose and peoms, periodical diversity.