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Running head: PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 1
PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 10
Program Evaluation Plan
Name:
Tanisha Hannah
Institutio...
amount of success in a person’s aims can only be determined
through evaluation. Therefore, there is a very close relations...
faced in the evaluation plan include cultural stereotypes. Some
students believe that they cannot perform as expected in s...
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Running head: PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 1

PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 10









Program Evaluation Plan
Name:
Tanisha Hannah
Institution:
Strayer University
Professor:
Dr. Jacob
Course:
Edu 571
Date:
March 2, 2020






Program Evaluation Plan (Part 3)
Goals of Evaluation
Evaluation refers to the act of checking various things thoroughly in order to characterize their worth or value, with reference to a certain context. In the field of education, the amount of success in a person’s aims can only be determined through evaluation. Therefore, there is a very close relationship between various aims and evaluation. The main goals of evaluation in schools are as discussed below. The first goal of evaluation in the field of education is to create an educational program ("Evaluation in Teaching and Learning Process | Education", 2020). Through evaluation, evaluators and the school management can build a given program of learning among the students. This is after gathering and checking various factors in order to find what program will fit and make a positive impact in the school. This involves consulting all the stakeholders of the program and developing strategies that will ensure the development of a good program.
The second goal of evaluation is assessing the effectiveness of the program. Evaluation ensures that the developed program is up to standards and serves the purpose that it was intended to. It helps the evaluators to check if the teaching strategies and techniques are being applied properly. The third goal of evaluation is to ensure improvement of the program. Through evaluation, evaluators can gauge the impact of the program on the school and learners. They can also identify various things that can make the program more effective. It acts as an in-built monitor in the program in order to review the progress of the program from time to time. It also gives feedback regarding the design and the implementation of a given program. Through such assessments, the school management can know where to work on, and what they need in order to enhance effective programs in teaching and learning.
For instance, in our case, evaluators can comfortably tell whether or not the program is helping girls become more superior in math. If not they can suggest better or other strategies that will make positive impact.
Cultural Issues Affecting the Program
Culture can influence how different people view things. An individual’s culture and upbringing can affect their way of processing information. Among the cultural issues that might be faced in the evaluation plan include cultural stereotypes. Some students believe that they cannot perform as expected in school or in a particular subject due to lack of preparation from their home environment. This makes them believe they do not have enough potential to do well in a given subject when they get to school. For instance, some students may not have calculat.

Running head: PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 1

PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 10









Program Evaluation Plan
Name:
Tanisha Hannah
Institution:
Strayer University
Professor:
Dr. Jacob
Course:
Edu 571
Date:
March 2, 2020






Program Evaluation Plan (Part 3)
Goals of Evaluation
Evaluation refers to the act of checking various things thoroughly in order to characterize their worth or value, with reference to a certain context. In the field of education, the amount of success in a person’s aims can only be determined through evaluation. Therefore, there is a very close relationship between various aims and evaluation. The main goals of evaluation in schools are as discussed below. The first goal of evaluation in the field of education is to create an educational program ("Evaluation in Teaching and Learning Process | Education", 2020). Through evaluation, evaluators and the school management can build a given program of learning among the students. This is after gathering and checking various factors in order to find what program will fit and make a positive impact in the school. This involves consulting all the stakeholders of the program and developing strategies that will ensure the development of a good program.
The second goal of evaluation is assessing the effectiveness of the program. Evaluation ensures that the developed program is up to standards and serves the purpose that it was intended to. It helps the evaluators to check if the teaching strategies and techniques are being applied properly. The third goal of evaluation is to ensure improvement of the program. Through evaluation, evaluators can gauge the impact of the program on the school and learners. They can also identify various things that can make the program more effective. It acts as an in-built monitor in the program in order to review the progress of the program from time to time. It also gives feedback regarding the design and the implementation of a given program. Through such assessments, the school management can know where to work on, and what they need in order to enhance effective programs in teaching and learning.
For instance, in our case, evaluators can comfortably tell whether or not the program is helping girls become more superior in math. If not they can suggest better or other strategies that will make positive impact.
Cultural Issues Affecting the Program
Culture can influence how different people view things. An individual’s culture and upbringing can affect their way of processing information. Among the cultural issues that might be faced in the evaluation plan include cultural stereotypes. Some students believe that they cannot perform as expected in school or in a particular subject due to lack of preparation from their home environment. This makes them believe they do not have enough potential to do well in a given subject when they get to school. For instance, some students may not have calculat.

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Running head PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN1PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN.docx

  1. 1. Running head: PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 1 PROGRAM EVALUATION PLAN 10 Program Evaluation Plan Name: Tanisha Hannah Institution: Strayer University Professor: Dr. Jacob Course: Edu 571 Date: March 2, 2020 Program Evaluation Plan (Part 3) Goals of Evaluation Evaluation refers to the act of checking various things thoroughly in order to characterize their worth or value, with reference to a certain context. In the field of education, the
  2. 2. amount of success in a person’s aims can only be determined through evaluation. Therefore, there is a very close relationship between various aims and evaluation. The main goals of evaluation in schools are as discussed below. The first goal of evaluation in the field of education is to create an educational program ("Evaluation in Teaching and Learning Process | Education", 2020). Through evaluation, evaluators and the school management can build a given program of learning among the students. This is after gathering and checking various factors in order to find what program will fit and make a positive impact in the school. This involves consulting all the stakeholders of the program and developing strategies that will ensure the development of a good program. The second goal of evaluation is assessing the effectiveness of the program. Evaluation ensures that the developed program is up to standards and serves the purpose that it was intended to. It helps the evaluators to check if the teaching strategies and techniques are being applied properly. The third goal of evaluation is to ensure improvement of the program. Through evaluation, evaluators can gauge the impact of the program on the school and learners. They can also identify various things that can make the program more effective. It acts as an in-built monitor in the program in order to review the progress of the program from time to time. It also gives feedback regarding the design and the implementation of a given program. Through such assessments, the school management can know where to work on, and what they need in order to enhance effective programs in teaching and learning. For instance, in our case, evaluators can comfortably tell whether or not the program is helping girls become more superior in math. If not they can suggest better or other strategies that will make positive impact. Cultural Issues Affecting the Program Culture can influence how different people view things. An individual’s culture and upbringing can affect their way of processing information. Among the cultural issues that might be
  3. 3. faced in the evaluation plan include cultural stereotypes. Some students believe that they cannot perform as expected in school or in a particular subject due to lack of preparation from their home environment. This makes them believe they do not have enough potential to do well in a given subject when they get to school. For instance, some students may not have calculators and revision materials for mathematics at home. This makes them poor in calculations and solving complex problems due to poor practice (Gelb, 2020). As a result, some students get to school lacking various basics and lag behind due to deficiencies in their homes. This also makes them to have shortcomings in knowledge and skills that lead to poor performances. However, this can be corrected by using time wisely while in school and utilizing the resources in the school premises properly to improve their skills by doing regular practice. Another cultural issue is assumption and poor treatment of learners by teachers. Some teachers expect very less from learners from specific cultural backgrounds. When teachers have the mentality of students performing poorly for whatever reason, their teaching approaches align with their low expectation levels. This may affect the program negatively because no matter how much girls try to improve in math, their teachers have already formed a negative perspective. The teachers may not find it important to motivate the students to do well in math because they do not believe they have that potential. This can be solved by helping teachers and students change mentalities that have been developed and associated with their cultures. Different people have different capabilities and can handle things their own way if properly directed. Another issue that may affect the evaluation program is cultural differences between students. Some students believe that only people from a certain background can perform better in a certain subject. People from various cultural traditions may have different education approaches that differ from the approaches in American schools ("Current Issues in Education",
  4. 4. 2020). It is important for the teachers to note such things and encourage students to work hard in all areas despite their differences in cultural beliefs. Students should not feel inferior because of being associated with various cultures. They should acknowledge they have what it takes and the ability to perform better in all areas. Teachers should understand the cultures of every student, and their students at an individual level. Teachers should treat all students the same despite their gender, racial or cultural backgrounds, and have high expectations for everyone in order to enable them to strive and reach their full potential. Data Analysis and Assessment The evaluation plan will be carried out using stratified random sampling. This sampling technique involves diving the study population into meaningful similar groups based on a specific characteristic called strata. Thereafter, a random sample is selected from every group. This type of sampling ensures proper representativeness on a trait of interest in the population. Through this sampling method, a wider range of population can be well studied without a large sample size. The evaluation plan will use three methods of assessment which are formative, summative and process assessment. We will begin the program with process assessment. Process assessment identifies the milestone of the project, activities to be done, products to be expected, and the costs that are likely to be incurred in order to achieve the goals. Formative assessment is whereby the results are used to form and revise the process of an education plan. In case the plan needs any improvement or ways of strengthening it, formative assessment will help us identify that. Summative assessment helps in documenting outcomes and value judgment. Through summative assessment, we will have the necessary feedback about the quality of the plan. The initiation and implementation of the program will take three to four weeks. Evaluation will begin after three to four months through data collection and proper assessment.
  5. 5. Tasks, Costs Personnel, and Questions Involved in the Plan TASKS COSTS QUESTIONS FOR THE INTERVIEW PERSONNEL · Data analysis costs · What were the former grades for the selected population? · Teachers · Data Analysis · Salaries for the Evaluators · What were the expected grades? · Evaluators · Presentation of the outcome · Transportation costs · What did you achieve? · Students · How was it competing with boys for the first time? · Did the program motivate you? · Do you have a different perspective on Math after the
  6. 6. program? Evaluation Timeline Project Goal Activity Activity Expected Completion Date Continue conducting process evaluation for the program on gender equity for girls in Math Monitoring the operations of the evaluation program Conduct visits to review program operations May-20 Continue conducting evaluation of the outcome Complete data collection for the group under study work with the female students for the program success May-20 Finalize collecting data procedures for the control group collect data on culture and personal perspectives Jun-20 Access the information sources for data collection follow up on the measures of outcome for the experimental groups Extract data Jun-20
  7. 7. Sample case tracking and interviewing Extract data Jul-20 Build and implement data analysis and reporting initial plans Conduct data analysis and reports Jul-20 Release the final outcome Give a final report about the program Organize the reports for final presentation Aug-20 Expected Costs The expected costs for the project include: $ 20,000 for data collection $ 10,000 for data analysis $ 50,000 for paying evaluators $ 30, 000 for transport $ 10,000 miscellaneous The total cost of the plan will be $ 120, 000. Cost benefit analysis is a method used in comparing the total costs of a program with its benefits ("Cost Benefit Analysis: An Expert Guide | Smartsheet", 2020). It helps in the calculation of the benefit associated with the program. In this case, we might not be able to account for the benefit in terms of cash because the entire program is based on services. However, there will be cost reduction methods through assistance given by the teachers and the study population. The school will highly benefit from the program by acknowledging the importance of gender equity for girls in Math. They will realize the potential that girls have with regards to Math subject. This will help them improve their performance and start empowering fair competition among the learners.
  8. 8. References Cost Benefit Analysis: An Expert Guide | Smartsheet. (2020). Retrieved 20 February 2020, from https://www.smartsheet.com/expert-guide-cost-benefit-analysis Current Issues in Education. (2020). Retrieved 20 February 2020, from https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study- guides/sociology/education/current-issues-in-education Evaluation in Teaching and Learning Process | Education. (2020). Retrieved 20 February 2020, from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/statistics-2/evaluation-in- teaching-and-learning-process-education/92476 Gelb, C. (2020). Cultural Issues in the Higher Education Classroom. Retrieved 20 February 2020, from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/661/cultural-issues-in- the-higher-education-classroom
  9. 9. Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition http://taylorandfrancis.com Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition Arthur M. Langer CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2018 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
  10. 10. No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-7575-5 (Paperback) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-138-23858-9 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor- age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copy- right.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright
  11. 11. Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com v Contents Foreword xi Acknowledgments xiii Author xv IntroductIon xvii chApter 1 the “rAvell” corporAtIon 1 Introduction 1 A New Approach 3 The Blueprint for Integration 5 Enlisting Support 6
  12. 12. Assessing Progress 7 Resistance in the Ranks 8 Line Management to the Rescue 8 IT Begins to Reflect 9 Defining an Identity for Information Technology 10 Implementing the Integration: A Move toward Trust and Reflection 12 Key Lessons 14 Defining Reflection and Learning for an Organization 14 Working toward a Clear Goal 15 Commitment to Quality 15 Teaching Staff “Not to Know” 16 Transformation of Culture 16 Alignment with Administrative Departments 17 Conclusion 19 vi Contents chApter 2 the It dIlemmA 21 Introduction 21 Recent Background 23 IT in the Organizational Context 24 IT and Organizational Structure 24 The Role of IT in Business Strategy 25 Ways of Evaluating IT 27 Executive Knowledge and Management of IT 28 IT: A View from the Top 29 Section 1: Chief Executive Perception of the Role of IT 32 Section 2: Management and Strategic Issues 34 Section 3: Measuring IT Performance and Activities 35
  13. 13. General Results 36 Defining the IT Dilemma 36 Recent Developments in Operational Excellence 38 chApter 3 technology As A vArIAble And responsIve orgAnIzAtIonAl dynAmIsm 41 Introduction 41 Technological Dynamism 41 Responsive Organizational Dynamism 42 Strategic Integration 43 Summary 48 Cultural Assimilation 48 IT Organization Communications with “ Others” 49 Movement of Traditional IT Staff 49 Summary 51 Technology Business Cycle 52 Feasibility 53 Measurement 53 Planning 54 Implementation 55 Evolution 57 Drivers and Supporters 58 Santander versus Citibank 60 Information Technology Roles and Responsibilities 60 Replacement or Outsource 61 chApter 4 orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng theorIes And technology 63 Introduction 63 Learning Organizations 72 Communities of Practice 75
  14. 14. Learning Preferences and Experiential Learning 83 Social Discourse and the Use of Language 89 Identity 91 Skills 92 viiContents Emotion 92 Linear Development in Learning Approaches 96 chApter 5 mAnAgIng orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng And technology 109 The Role of Line Management 109 Line Managers 111 First-Line Managers 111 Supervisor 111 Management Vectors 112 Knowledge Management 116 Ch ange Management 120 Change Management for IT Organizations 123 Social Networks and Information Technology 134 chApter 6 orgAnIzAtIonAl trAnsFormAtIon And the bAlAnced scorecArd 139 Introduction 139 Methods of Ongoing Evaluation 146 Balanced Scorecards and Discourse 156 Knowledge Creation, Culture, and Strategy 158 chApter 7 vIrtuAl teAms And outsourcIng 163 Introduction 163
  15. 15. Status of Virtual Teams 165 Management Considerations 166 Dealing with Multiple Locations 166 Externalization 169 Internalization 171 Combination 171 Socialization 172 Externalization Dynamism 172 Internalization Dynamism 173 Combination Dynamism 173 Socialization Dynamism 173 Dealing with Multiple Locations and Outsourcing 177 Revisiting Social Discourse 178 Identity 179 Skills 180 Emotion 181 chApter 8 synergIstIc unIon oF It And orgAnIzAtIonAl leArnIng 187 Introduction 187 Siemens AG 187 Aftermath 202 ICAP 203 viii Contents Five Years Later 224 HTC 225 IT History at HTC 226 Interactions of the CEO 227
  16. 16. The Process 228 Transformation from the Transition 229 Five Years Later 231 Summary 233 chApter 9 FormIng A cyber securIty culture 239 Introduction 239 History 239 Talking to the Board 241 Establishing a Security Culture 241 Understanding What It Means to be Compromised 242 Cyber Security Dynamism and Responsive Organizational Dynamism 242 Cyber Strategic Integration 243 Cyber Cultural Assimilation 245 Summary 246 Organizational Learning and Application Development 246 Cyber Security Risk 247 Risk Responsibility 248 Driver /Supporter Implications 250 chApter 10 dIgItAl trAnsFormAtIon And chAnges In consumer behAvIor 251 Introduction 251 Requirements without Users and without Input 254 Concepts of the S-Curve and Digital Transformation Analysis and Design 258 Organizational Learning and the S-Curve 260 Communities of Practice 261 The IT Leader in the Digital Transformation Era 262 How Technology Disrupts Firms and Industries 264 Dynamism and Digital Disruption 264 Critical Components of “ Digital” Organization 265 Assimilating Digital Technology Operationally and Culturally
  17. 17. 267 Conclusion 268 chApter 11 IntegrAtIng generAtIon y employees to AccelerAte competItIve AdvAntAge 269 Introduction 269 The Employment Challenge in the Digital Era 270 Gen Y Population Attributes 272 Advantages of Employing Millennials to Support Digital Transformation 272 Integration of Gen Y with Baby Boomers and Gen X 273 ixContents Designing the Digital Enterprise 274 Assimilating Gen Y Talent from Underserved and Socially Excluded Populations 276 Langer Workforce Maturity Arc 277 Theoretical Constructs of the LWMA 278 The LWMA and Action Research 281 Implications for New Pathways for Digital Talent 282 Demographic Shifts in Talent Resources 282 Economic Sustainability 283 Integration and Trust 283 Global Implications for Sources of Talent 284 Conclusion 284 chApter 12 towArd best prActIces 287 Introduction 287 Chief IT Executive 288 Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in
  18. 18. the Chief IT Executive Best Practices Arc 297 Maturity Stages 297 Performance Dimensions 298 Chief Executive Officer 299 CIO Direct Reporting to the CEO 305 Outsourcing 306 Centralization versus Decentralization of IT 306 CIO Needs Advanced Degrees 307 Need for Standards 307 Risk Management 307 The CEO Best Practices Technology Arc 313 Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc 314 Maturity Stages 314 Performance Dimensions 315 Middle Management 316 The Middle Management Best Practices Technology Arc 323 Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the Middle Manager Best Practices Arc 325 Maturity Stages 325 Performance Dimensions 326 Summary 327 Ethics and Maturity 333 chApter 13 conclusIons 339 Introduction 339 glossAry 357
  19. 19. reFerences 363 Index 373 http://taylorandfrancis.com xi Foreword Digital technologies are transforming the global economy. Increasingly, firms and other organizations are assessing their opportunities, develop- ing and delivering products and services, and interacting with custom- ers and other stakeholders digitally. Established companies recognize that digital technologies can help them operate their businesses with greater speed and lower costs and, in many cases, offer their custom- ers opportunities to co-design and co-produce products and services. Many start-up companies use digital technologies to develop new prod- ucts and business models that disrupt the present way of doing busi- ness, taking customers away from firms that cannot change and adapt. In recent years, digital technology and new business models have dis- rupted one industry after another, and these developments are rapidly
  20. 20. transforming how people communicate, learn, and work. Against this backdrop, the third edition of Arthur Langer’ s Information Technology and Organizational Learning is most welcome. For decades, Langer has been studying how firms adapt to new or changing conditions by increasing their ability to incorporate and use advanced information technologies. Most organizations do not adopt new technology easily or readily. Organizational inertia and embed- ded legacy systems are powerful forces working against the adoption of new technology, even when the advantages of improved technology are recognized. Investing in new technology is costly, and it requires xii Foreword aligning technology with business strategies and transforming cor- porate cultures so that organization members use the technology to become more productive. Information Technology and Organizational Learning addresses these important issues— and much more. There are four features of the new edition that I would like to draw attention to that, I believe, make
  21. 21. this a valuable book. First, Langer adopts a behavioral perspective rather than a technical perspective. Instead of simply offering norma- tive advice about technology adoption, he shows how sound learn- ing theory and principles can be used to incorporate technology into the organization. His discussion ranges across the dynamic learning organization, knowledge management, change management, com- munities of practice, and virtual teams. Second, he shows how an organization can move beyond technology alignment to true technol- ogy integration. Part of this process involves redefining the traditional support role of the IT department to a leadership role in which IT helps to drive business strategy through a technology-based learn- ing organization. Third, the book contains case studies that make the material come alive. The book begins with a comprehensive real-life case that sets the stage for the issues to be resolved, and smaller case illustrations are sprinkled throughout the chapters, to make concepts and techniques easily understandable. Lastly, Langer has a wealth of experience that he brings to his book. He spent more than 25 years as an IT consultant and is the founder of the Center for Technology
  22. 22. Management at Columbia University, where he directs certificate and executive programs on various aspects of technology innovation and management. He has organized a vast professional network of tech- nology executives whose companies serve as learning laboratories for his students and research. When you read the book, the knowledge and insight gained from these experiences is readily apparent. If you are an IT professional, Information Technology and Organi- zational Learning should be required reading. However, anyone who is part of a firm or agency that wants to capitalize on the opportunities provided by digital technology will benefit from reading the book. Charles C. Snow Professor Emeritus, Penn State University Co-Editor, Journal of Organization Design xiii Acknowledgments Many colleagues and clients have provided significant support during the development of the third edition of Information Technology and
  23. 23. Organizational Learning. I owe much to my colleagues at Teachers College, namely, Professor Victoria Marsick and Lyle Yorks, who guided me on many of the the- ories on organizational learning, and Professor Lee Knefelkamp, for her ongoing mentorship on adult learning and developmental theo- ries. Professor David Thomas from the Harvard Business School also provided valuable direction on the complex issues surrounding diver- sity, and its importance in workforce development. I appreciate the corporate executives who agreed to participate in the studies that allowed me to apply learning theories to actual organizational practices. Stephen McDermott from ICAP provided invaluable input on how chief executive officers (CEOs) can success- fully learn to manage emerging technologies. Dana Deasy, now global chief information officer (CIO) of JP Morgan Chase, contributed enormous information on how corporate CIOs can integrate tech- nology into business strategy. Lynn O’ Connor Vos, CEO of Grey Healthcare, also showed me how technology can produce direct mon- etary returns, especially when the CEO is actively involved. And, of course, thank you to my wonderful students at
  24. 24. Columbia University. They continue to be at the core of my inspiration and love for writing, teaching, and scholarly research. http://taylorandfrancis.com xv Author Arthur M. Langer, EdD, is professor of professional practice of management and the director of the Center for Technology Management at Columbia University. He is the academic direc- tor of the Executive Masters of Science program in Technology Management, vice chair of faculty and executive advisor to the dean at the School of Professional Studies and is on the faculty of the Department of Organization and Leadership at the Graduate School of Education (Teachers College). He has also served as a member of the Columbia University Faculty Senate. Dr. Langer is the author of Guide to Software Development: Designing & Managing the Life Cycle. 2nd Edition (2016), Strategic IT: Best Practices for Managers and Executives (2013 with Lyle Yorks), Information Technology and Organizational Learning (2011), Analysis and Design of Information Systems (2007), Applied Ecommerce (2002), and The Art of
  25. 25. Analysis (1997), and has numerous published articles and papers, relating to digital transformation, service learning for underserved popula- tions, IT organizational integration, mentoring, and staff develop- ment. Dr. Langer consults with corporations and universities on information technology, cyber security, staff development, man- agement transformation, and curriculum development around the Globe. Dr. Langer is also the chairman and founder of Workforce Opportunity Services (www.wforce.org), a non-profit social venture xvi Author that provides scholarships and careers to underserved populations around the world. Dr. Langer earned a BA in computer science, an MBA in accounting/finance, and a Doctorate of Education from Columbia University. xvii Introduction Background Information technology (IT) has become a more significant part
  26. 26. of workplace operations, and as a result, information systems person- nel are key to the success of corporate enterprises, especially with the recent effects of the digital revolution on every aspect of business and social life (Bradley & Nolan, 1998; Langer, 1997, 2011; Lipman- Blumen, 1996). This digital revolution is defined as a form of “ dis- ruption.” Indeed, the big question facing many enterprises today is, How can executives anticipate the unexpected threats brought on by technological advances that could devastate their business? This book focuses on the vital role that information and digital technology orga- nizations need to play in the course of organizational development and learning, and on the growing need to integrate technology fully into the processes of workplace organizational learning. Technology personnel have long been criticized for their inability to function as part of the business, and they are often seen as a group outside the corporate norm (Schein, 1992). This is a problem of cultural assimila- tion, and it represents one of the two major fronts that organizations now face in their efforts to gain a grip on the new, growing power of technology, and to be competitive in a global world. The other
  27. 27. major xviii IntroduCtIon front concerns the strategic integration of new digital technologies into business line management. Because technology continues to change at such a rapid pace, the ability of organizations to operate within a new paradigm of dynamic change emphasizes the need to employ action learning as a way to build competitive learning organizations in the twenty-first century. Information Technology and Organizational Learning integrates some of the fundamental issues bearing on IT today with concepts from organizational learning theory, providing comprehensive guidance, based on real-life business experiences and concrete research. This book also focuses on another aspect of what IT can mean to an organization. IT represents a broadening dimension of business life that affects everything we do inside an organization. This new reality is shaped by the increasing and irreversible dissemination of technology. To maximize the usefulness of its encroaching presence in everyday
  28. 28. business affairs, organizations will require an optimal understanding of how to integrate technology into everything they do. To this end, this book seeks to break new ground on how to approach and concep- tualize this salient issue— that is, that the optimization of information and digital technologies is best pursued with a synchronous imple- mentation of organizational learning concepts. Furthermore, these concepts cannot be implemented without utilizing theories of strategic learning. Therefore, this book takes the position that technology liter- acy requires individual and group strategic learning if it is to transform a business into a technology-based learning organization. Technology- based organizations are defined as those that have implemented a means of successfully integrating technology into their process of organiza- tional learning. Such organizations recognize and experience the real- ity of technology as part of their everyday business function. It is what many organizations are calling “ being digital.” This book will also examine some of the many existing organi- zational learning theories, and the historical problems that have occurred with companies that have used them, or that have failed to use them. Thus, the introduction of technology into organizations
  29. 29. actually provides an opportunity to reassess and reapply many of the past concepts, theories, and practices that have been used to support the importance of organizational learning. It is important, however, not to confuse this message with a reason for promoting organizational xixIntroduCtIon learning, but rather, to understand the seamless nature of the relation- ship between IT and organizational learning. Each needs the other to succeed. Indeed, technology has only served to expose problems that have existed in organizations for decades, e.g., the inability to drive down responsibilities to the operational levels of the organization, and to be more agile with their consumers. This book is designed to help businesses and individual manag- ers understand and cope with the many issues involved in developing organizational learning programs, and in integrating an important component: their IT and digital organizations. It aims to provide a combination of research case studies, together with existing theories on organizational learning in the workplace. The goal is also to pro-
  30. 30. vide researchers and corporate practitioners with a book that allows them to incorporate a growing IT infrastructure with their exist- ing workforce culture. Professional organizations need to integrate IT into their organizational processes to compete effectively in the technology-driven business climate of today. This book responds to the complex and various dilemmas faced by many human resource managers and corporate executives regarding how to actually deal with many marginalized technology personnel who somehow always operate outside the normal flow of the core business. While the history of IT, as a marginalized organization, is rela- tively short, in comparison to that of other professions, the problems of IT have been consistent since its insertion into business organiza- tions in the early 1960s. Indeed, while technology has changed, the position and valuation of IT have continued to challenge how execu- tives manage it, account for it, and, most important, ultimately value its contributions to the organization. Technology personnel continue to be criticized for their inability to function as part of the business, and they are often seen as outside the business norm. IT employees are frequently stereotyped as “ techies,” and are segregated in such a
  31. 31. way that they become isolated from the organization. This book pro- vides a method for integrating IT, and redefining its role in organiza- tions, especially as a partner in formulating and implementing key business strategies that are crucial for the survival of many companies in the new digital age. Rather than provide a long and extensive list of common issues, I have decided it best to uncover the challenges of IT integration and performance through the case study approach. xx IntroduCtIon IT continues to be one of the most important yet least understood departments in an organization. It has also become one of the most significant components for competing in the global markets of today. IT is now an integral part of the way companies become successful, and is now being referred to as the digital arm of the business. This is true across all industries. The role of IT has grown enormously in companies throughout the world, and it has a mission to provide stra- tegic solutions that can make companies more competitive. Indeed, the success of IT, and its ability to operate as part of the learning
  32. 32. organization, can mean the difference between the success and failure of entire companies. However, IT must be careful that it is not seen as just a factory of support personnel, and does not lose its justification as driving competitive advantage. We see in many organizations that other digital-based departments are being created, due to frustration with the traditional IT culture, or because they simply do not see IT as meeting the current needs for operating in a digital economy. This book provides answers to other important questions that have challenged many organizations for decades. First, how can manag- ers master emerging digital technologies, sustain a relationship with organizational learning, and link it to strategy and performance? Second, what is the process by which to determine the value of using technology, and how does it relate to traditional ways of calculating return on investment, and establishing risk models? Third, what are the cyber security implications of technology-based products and services? Fourth, what are the roles and responsibilities of the IT executive, and the department in general? To answer these questions, managers need to focus on the following objectives: • Address the operational weaknesses in organizations, in
  33. 33. terms of how to deal with new technologies, and how to bet- ter realize business benefits. • Provide a mechanism that both enables organizations to deal with accelerated change caused by technological innovations, and integrates them into a new cycle of processing, and han- dling of change. • Provide a strategic learning framework, by which every new technology variable adds to organizational knowledge and can develop a risk and security culture. xxiIntroduCtIon • Establish an integrated approach that ties technology account- ability to other measurable outcomes, using organizational learning techniques and theories. To realize these objectives, organizations must be able to • create dynamic internal processes that can deal, on a daily basis, with understanding the potential fit of new technologies and their overall value within the structure of the business; • provide the discourse to bridge the gaps between IT- and non- IT-related investments, and uses, into one integrated system; • monitor investments and determine modifications to the life cycle; • implement various organizational learning practices, includ- ing learning organization, knowledge management, change management, and communities of practice, all of which help foster strategic thinking, and learning, and can be linked to
  34. 34. performance (Gephardt & Marsick, 2003). The strengths of this book are that it integrates theory and practice and provides answers to the four common questions mentioned. Many of the answers provided in these pages are founded on theory and research and are supported by practical experience. Thus, evidence of the performance of the theories is presented via case studies, which are designed to assist the readers in determining how such theories and proven practices can be applied to their specific organization. A common theme in this book involves three important terms: dynamic , unpredictable , and acceleration . Dynamic is a term that rep- resents spontaneous and vibrant things— a motive force. Technology behaves with such a force and requires organizations to deal with its capabilities. Glasmeier (1997) postulates that technology evolution, innovation, and change are dynamic processes. The force then is tech- nology, and it carries many motives, as we shall see throughout this book. Unpredictable suggests that we cannot plan what will happen or will be needed. Many organizational individuals, including execu- tives, have attempted to predict when, how, or why technology will
  35. 35. affect their organization. Throughout our recent history, especially during the “ digital disruption” era, we have found that it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict how technology will ultimately benefit or xxii IntroduCtIon hurt organizational growth and competitive advantage. I believe that technology is volatile and erratic at times. Indeed, harnessing tech- nology is not at all an exact science; certainly not in the ways in which it can and should be used in today’ s modern organization. Finally, I use the term acceleration to convey the way technology is speeding up our lives. Not only have emerging technologies created this unpre- dictable environment of change, but they also continue to change it rapidly— even from the demise of the dot-com era decades ago. Thus, what becomes important is the need to respond quickly to technology. The inability to be responsive to change brought about by technologi- cal innovations can result in significant competitive disadvantages for organizations. This new edition shows why this is a fact especially when
  36. 36. examining the shrinking S-Curve. So, we look at these three words— dynamic, unpredictable, and acceleration— as a way to define how technology affects organizations; that is, technology is an accelerating motive force that occurs irregularly. These words name the challenges that organizations need to address if they are to manage technological innovations and integrate them with business strategy and competi- tive advantage. It only makes sense that the challenge of integrating technology into business requires us first to understand its potential impact, determine how it occurs, and see what is likely to follow. There are no quick remedies to dealing with emerging technologies, just common practices and sustained processes that must be adopted for organizations to survive in the future. I had four goals in mind in writing this book. First, I am inter- ested in writing about the challenges of using digital technologies strategically. What particularly concerns me is the lack of literature that truly addresses this issue. What is also troublesome is the lack of reliable techniques for the evaluation of IT, especially since IT is used in almost every aspect of business life. So, as we increase
  37. 37. our use and dependency on technology, we seem to understand less about how to measure and validate its outcomes. I also want to convey my thoughts about the importance of embracing nonmon- etary methods for evaluating technology, particularly as they relate to determining return on investment. Indeed, indirect and non- monetary benefits need to be part of the process of assessing and … Running Head: DATA COLLECTION 1 DATA COLLECTION 7 DATA COLLECTION Student Name: Tanisha Hannah Institution Affiliation: Strayer University Course: Edu 571 Date: March 8, 2020 Data collection is the process of gathering information that is
  38. 38. relevant to act as evidence on a research project. People use diverse sources so that they can get enough data concerning their research to act as authentic and reliable data for them. There are different forms of data collection that a researcher might implement for their research topic. This paper will focus on discussing three sources that will be expected to be used during the evaluation process, seven open-minded interview queries to present to the target population, the issues that might be encountered in data collection and recommendation on how to maintain effective communication skills. The evaluation process for “gender equity for girls in math” will depend on three different data sources that incorporate the primary, secondary and tertiary sources. Primary sources are the documents, diary or other initial sources of information that is created as well as serves as the original source of data for the research topic (Schindler, 2019). Primary sources of data are important and rely on the survey mechanism to gather information. In this research, the primary source of data will comprise of interviews using emails, telephones as well as face to face communication, designed questionnaires, statistical decretive writings, eyewitness accounts and legal documents. All this kind of primary data are necessary in the evaluation procedure of the research program. The secondary sources that will be used incorporate the program records, data collected from other researches and government databases. The secondary sources depend on the data that is already existing and has already been gathered and supports the primary data. On the other hand, the tertiary sources of information are mostly utilized in the evaluation process because it offers information on the research topic. The tertiary sources include textbooks, encyclopedia, dictionaries and handbooks. These three sources of data are the best sources and main sources to include in a research to ensure that a research meets the requirements of a research paper. These three sources will offer information on gender equality when it comes to math for the girls/females.
  39. 39. The research will also incorporate some open-ended interview question that will help in acquiring more information concerning the program “gender equity for girls in math.” Through utilization of interviews, I believe that there will be an in-depth understanding of this issue as it has been an issue of concern for a long period of time (Schindler, 2019). The use of interview will assist in the process of evaluation. The questions are formulated based on the programs need to collect relevant information from diverse individuals. The following interview question will be addressed: 1. What is the meaning “gender equity for girls in math”? 2. How are these programs useful in schools? 3. How can this program be implemented in most of our schools? 4. What are the pitfalls of this program? 5. How do most of the institution perceive this program? 6. What should be done to advance this program? 7. What methods can be used to implement “gender equity for girls in math”? These question are important for one to realize the importance of this program in our current curriculum or in our institution. “Gender equity for girls in math” is an issue that need to be addressed and the program is the best for ensuring that it has been upheld. Not until schools understand the important of this issue being addressed so that girls might feel comfortable and change their perception about mathematics. In the process of gathering data through collecting, compiling, interpreting, and reporting the data, one might face various challenges. “Schindler (2019) affirms that the population may fail to participate in the questionnaire and fail to respond to the questions in truth.” One of the reason why people might respond with untrue information in the questionnaire is when they feel that the question being act affect their personal lives. Due to gender biasness people might also fail to participate on the questionnaire or offer biased information regarding the questions presented. Men do not like feeling inferior and if they
  40. 40. do not view thing with an open mind they fail to offer true information. There is also an issue when compiling data; one might face some difficulty when the information offered is not enough or might not meet the scope of discussion which might mean the information is not reliable (Mertler, 2016). During the process of interpreting data, there might be misunderstanding regarding what information is true and what data to rely on. When reporting data the information might be unreliable and the information presented might be inaccurate. So many challenges that an individual might face during the research, which might make the information irrelevant or inaccurate (Quinlan et al, 2019). Stakeholders participate in a relevant role in the process of program evaluation through making the necessary contribution that facilitate the process. In the process of gathering and reporting data, it is important to communicate with the stakeholders. “Shamseer (2015) confirms that reports can also be presented through visual and oral form through news, presentations, posters, and exhibit. These two methods are useful in providing reports for the process. Even more, a combination of both written and visual reports is essential and will help provide sufficient information about the process (Bryman, 2016)” These individuals need to be educated on what is going on, incorporating sources of information and the methods of collecting data. The education regarding data collection will create a deeper understanding of the procedure for collection data which the stakeholder can be incorporates in the process of decision making. Stakeholders need to be in the meetings as well ensure that they comprehend the things happening and let them participate in discussions (Bell & Harley, 2018). “Apart from that, it is vital to promote transparency by providing regular updates to shareholders and don’t assume that communication is fluid. This will help reduce friction in the organization and strengthen the relationship with stakeholders. Shamseer (2015)”
  41. 41. Conclusion There are different forms of data collection that a researcher might implement for their research topic. The evaluation process for “gender equity for girls in math” will depend on three different data sources that incorporate the primary, secondary and tertiary sources. There is also an issue when compiling data; one might face some difficulty when the information offered is not enough or might not meet the scope of discussion which might mean the information is not reliable. . Due to gender biasness people might also fail to participate on the questionnaire or offer biased information regarding the questions presented. Stakeholders participate in a relevant role in the process of program evaluation through making the necessary contribution that facilitate the process. In the process of gathering and reporting data, it is important to communicate with the stakeholders. References Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2018). Business research methods. Oxford university press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=J9J2DwAAQBA J&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=research+methods&ots=GLhxgiaVHK& sig=niAHRKqByydlPm9U-nTrddGXjck Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford university press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=N2zQCgAAQB AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=research+methods&ots=doQuFYN9uc &sig=7uoYc3Ycbyf15xNuPRx4sRlxtjc Ghauri, P., Grønhaug, K., & Strange, R. (2020). Research methods in business studies. Cambridge University Press. Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. SAGE Publications Limited. Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2017). Qualitative communication research methods. Sage publications. Mertler, C. A., (2016). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators. Sage Publications.
  42. 42. Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., &Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2019). Business research methods. South Western Cengage. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sPJFDwAAQB AJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT20&dq=research+methods&ots=wloptEVyG2 &sig=WLeGnkcwc6LsYbDjRKWMrksS80k Schindler III, A. R. (2019). System and method for managing sample collection data and documentation. U.S. Patent Application No. 10/198,676. Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., ... & Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ, 349, g7647 Running Head: EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM EVALUATION 1 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM EVALUATION 5 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM EVALUATION Name: Tanisha Hannah Date: February 12, 2020
  43. 43. Institution: Strayer University Instructor: Dr. Jacob Educational program evaluation Change either as an individual or in an institution setting is not an easy and simple thing and mostly involves numerous stages of transition or misunderstandings prior to being fully implemented as per the expectations. A planned approach involves the development of a model which illustrates the stages in the process of transition that illustrate how an institution is anticipated to adapt to the changes that are made. The approach is very important as one is dealing with evaluation of the effectiveness of certain changes as it gives a clear picture of what the real situation is and how institutions has either failed or succeed in implementing changes through any created program (Smith, 2017). Evaluation involves the systematic investigation of the merit, worth or significance of a project. The planned approach helps in ensuring that one has a step by step process which illustrates the expectations and thereby making the evaluation process much easier and simpler. According to the recent research on the planned approach most of the organizations in the world have spared millions of money that they spend on evaluation of change projects through using the planned approach. The technique has enabled firms to follow up on their organizational change and to be able to determine the capability of the corporate in adopting the implemented changes and determining the significance of these
  44. 44. changes. It has allowed firms to be able to effectively solve the challenges that arise during the transitioning process as well as to acquire optimal benefits from their change programs (Kerzner, 2017). The planned approach helps in guiding organizations in the operations so as to minimize problems that result from lack of effective communication and failure of reinforcing the desired behaviors. In addition, the technique helps in pointing out the expectations of the firms to employees as well as other individuals who might be involved in the process of transitioning. The planned approach is very simple and mechanistic and therefore this implies that any firm be it a small business, medium or large firms can be able to effectively use it to achieve their desired outcomes as well as to monitor the transition process to ensure that the outcomes gotten are the desired ones. The planned approach is mostly applicable in evaluation of school programs as it offers a step by step process showing the transition and the anticipated outcomes in every stage (Horton, 2018). In order to conduct a need assessment, the evaluator has to find solutions to questions such as: What are the needs of the target population? What specific services are needed in the education program? What are the characteristics of the target population? What arrangements could be used to provide the needed mechanisms? Moreover, ensuring that the developed program addresses the current issues is important. Therefore, one has to evaluate the program through answers questions such as: Is the program meeting the set objectives? How does the targeted population interact with the program? Are the services provided by the program satisfactory to the target population? What are the perspectives of the personnel, administration and organization regarding the program? Finally, one evaluates the outcomes of the program are met through answering the questions: What benefits does the services and activities in the program yield? Is the target population being affected by the program in a negative way? Does the program solve the problem which caused change to be proposed? Is the program efficient in
  45. 45. yielding the required outcomes? (Vedung, 2017). In order to ensure that a program is efficient in solving the problem which demands for change, evaluation of efficiency of the program is very essential. Therefore, one has to understand how the program is helping meet the needs of the targeted population and the services which are offered by the program in ensuring that all people are benefiting from it. One has to list the needs of the population and match them with the services offered by the program so as to ensure that no one is left out by the program and to make sure that the program does not have services which do not concern the intended population (Beecher.et.al, 2017). The evaluation process checks how the program is operating an also points out any negative effects which might be caused by the program. In addition, assessment of the outcomes helps in bringing out a clear picture of how the program is actually ensuring that the set goals are achieved. In evaluating the school programs, the stakeholders who are involved are the teachers, students, parents, administrators, staff members as well as the community members. These are the people who are concerned with the welfare of the school and therefore they should be involved in the development of education programs so that to ensure that their needs and perceptions are considered in the process of creating the program (Gates, 2017). This ensures that all stakeholders are able to determine what is expected of them and how the program will help make the society better. In order to obtain their involvement in this process, their views should be derived in the social activities that help address the social problems in communities. References Beecher, B., Arthur, L., Death, E., Dockett, S., & Farmer, S. (2017). Programming and planning in early childhood settings.
  46. 46. Cengage AU. Gates, E. F. (2017). Learning from seasoned evaluators: Implications of systems approaches for evaluation practice. Evaluation, 23(2), 152-171. Horton, D. (2018). SysCom Program Evaluation 2017. Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons. Smith, R. D. (2017). Strategic planning for public relations. Routledge. Vedung, E. (2017). Public policy and program evaluation. Routledge. Running Head: PROGRAM EVALUATION 1 PROGRAM EVALUATION 6 Program Evaluation Name: Tanisha Hannah Institute Name: Strayer University Course title: EDU 571 Evaluating School Programs Professor: Antony Jacob Date of Submission: January 26, 2020
  47. 47. Program Evaluation Plan Introduction No matter which level of education one is attaining, they are bound to face many such issues that need proper addressing. That is why several such programs are launched that bring useful awareness and causes the students to come forth with their issues and solutions. In the same spirit, an educational program is being initiated here that is going to be very helpful for all students regardless of their age, course, and department. The educational program that has been picked today is for the Masters Level students and the program name is gender equity for girls in math. This program's all features will be discussed underneath and one will get a complete review of what this program is about and how it is going to occur. Main Elements The main element of the program "gender equity for girls in Math" is something that needs urgent addressing. Females students are no less intelligent than male students and they have been excelling in every field just as any male peers. But then why it is that not many girls are seen to be excelling in the math field. Though, there are certain fields of science in which girls are known to be more enthusiastic to join such as medicine. But the purpose of this program is to evaluate why it is so that girls are reluctant to join math when there are numerous options in comparison to medicine is present here. Through the following three main parts, the importance of this educational program research will be understood. Type – this program is ideal because the need to have female intelligence in the math field is being felt. The program is a student’s program, to bring awareness to them and raise self- consciousness among students especially females. Also, the influence and role fellow male peers can play is highlighted and highly expected. Department administrating – the department that will be administrating it will be the student's council, department of
  48. 48. Math. It is used to the urgency of the matter that these departments have pressed the issue to be raised and they are more than willing to come forward to guide the female students about the bright future opportunities they somehow lack or how to find appealing, related to math. Target population – the expected population target is students of Masters Level as they are at such point of their educational career that the majority of them tend to opt for jobs right after. They need assurance and guidance and that is why this program is initiated. History It has been observed that girls happen to be very hardworking (more than boys) and once they set their minds on something, nothing can beat them. Girls are loyal to their studies (at least the majority of them) and they want to excel to prove to the world. The main reason behind such a notion is that the world has been unfair and cruel to females when their education or jobs come. Workplace discrimination and academic hostility are something everyone is fully aware of. That is why girls have the passion to prove that they are no less than anyone. They can do anything, at any time. But despite such passion and hard work, not many girls are seen joining the Math field. Whether it is due to the self-doubt or not certain about the future options, girls have never looked at these fields as something they want first handed. History has proven that many females were excellent mathematicians such as Sofya Kovalevskaya (1850 - 1891) and Emmy Noether (1882- 1935) and many others like them. But recently, not many females’ contribution is noted in the field of math and it is high time to bring this to their knowledge that girls are equally suitable for the field of math and they can do wonders in them as well. Purpose of the Program and Expectation It is expected that through these programs, female students will realize what they are missing and how they can catch up on
  49. 49. years of missing. The field of math is just as interesting as any other field, maybe more, no doubt they demand more mental strength and stability of senses but this is something females are more aware of than any other person. Therefore, it is expected that girls will do wonderful achievements once they join this field and take them to new heights. Why this program was selected The field of math is missing the contributions of girls. When evaluated this issue, it was found that girls are reluctant to join them due to the uncertainty, the unseen hardship, and not knowing whether this field is right for them or not. Through this program, female students will realize that these two fields are just like any other field and they can join them and perform excellently. Advantages of this program Through this program, girls will realize the importance of the math field and hopefully become eager to join it. other advantages besides the obvious one are as under: · Self-evaluation about strengths and weaknesses · Mental strength and challenging qualities and abilities are tested · Any issue can be discussed with the students' council · Meetings can be arranged with the math department. · Meetings will those who are completing masters in math can be arranged. · A self-assurance course will be held. Issues and solutions Though this program is very straight forward and idealistically, it would not face any issue but few are unavoidable. They are as under: · Girls would be reluctant to talk about vulnerabilities · Awkward long silences when a discussion of why girls are not joining is expected. · Shyness can be observed · Societal pressure does play its role · The pressure on girls is more than ever as we are entering in a
  50. 50. new era. They need to be sure and this makes them vulnerable and reluctant to talk about feelings · Some strong opinions will be heard · Harsh comments and opinions and suggestions will emerge. To avoid such a situation, it would be better to ensure that there is no pressure and it must all be run like any other program. Girls should be expected to come forward and express themselves in a friendly and cooperating environment. References: Fennema, E. (1979). Women and girls in mathematics—Equity in mathematics education. Educational studies in mathematics, 10(4), 389-401. Meece, J. L., Parsons, J. E., Kaczala, C. M., & Goff, S. B. (1982). Sex differences in math achievement: Toward a model of academic choice. Psychological Bulletin, 91(2), 324. Rees, T. (2011). The gendered construction of scientific excellence. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 36(2), 133-145. Yazilitas, D., Svensson, J., de Vries, G., & Saharso, S. (2013). Gendered study choice: A literature review. A review of theory and research into the unequal representation of male and female students in mathematics, science, and technology. Educational research and evaluation, 19(6), 525-545.

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