Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Running head PROGRAM DESIGN 1PROGRAM DESIGN 2.docx

Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Running head: PROGRAM DESIGN 1
PROGRAM DESIGN 2
Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12
Schools
January 15t...
relationships, but also in their dealings with their fellow
citizens. This initiative is premised on the need for students...
contemporary world spend a large fraction of their time on
mobile and social networks, and are exposed to several kinds of...
Advertisement
Advertisement

Check these out next

1 of 11 Ad

Running head PROGRAM DESIGN 1PROGRAM DESIGN 2.docx

Download to read offline

Running head: PROGRAM DESIGN 1
PROGRAM DESIGN 2








Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools
January 15th,2018

Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools

Explanation of Each Initiative
The three main initiatives of promoting social goals in school will include: promoting moral and character education, improving children’s health and nutrition, and creating school communities through extracurricular activities, after school programs, and school spirits (Rissanen et al. 2018). Comment by Evelyn Young: The 3 initiatives are clearly stated. Although did Rissanen et al. propose these 3 initiatives to promote social goals in schools? If these are your arguments, take credit for them. No need to give credit to Rissanen et al. for formulating the thesis for your paper.

I think that your paper could have used an introduction followed by the thesis statement.
Explanation of Each Initiative
Moral education is meant to promote good conduct among school-going children, not just within their immediate social relationships, but also in their dealings with their fellow citizens. This initiative is premised on the need for students to possess clear ideals and judgments on what action are right and what are wrong, including the determination of students’ conduct through a constant reference to those ideals. Moral education will be offered as a social goal to enlighten students on a system of rules and norms that regulate the social interactions of people on concepts of welfare, such as harm, trust, justice, and rights. For some students, issues related to values, personal feelings, and societal norms are constructs for discussions and are as such viewed as being influenced by the manner in which morality taught or experienced in schools, churches, and social institution settings. Moral education will be meant to reduce criminal and deviant behaviors among students. Moral character is required in schools because many parents do not teach their children morality issues.
The health and nutrition initiative is meant to improve the physical and mental well being of students. This initiative has the potential to improve the quality of students’ urban life, strengthen the ability of poor children to excel in their studies, and to compensate them for the substandard home and school environments spawned by competitive, inequitable social order. Health and nutritional initiatives will be strengthened through planning and introducing curriculum on nutrition with educational activities. These will include physical activities, which are combined with the farm to school programs that motivate students to consume healthy diets. Indeed, the hybrid school-based nutritional programs have major influence on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with fruits and vegetable consumption diffused throughout a bigger urban community (Dudley Cotton & Peralta, 2015). This hybrid intervention includes combining district stra.

Running head: PROGRAM DESIGN 1
PROGRAM DESIGN 2








Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools
January 15th,2018

Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools

Explanation of Each Initiative
The three main initiatives of promoting social goals in school will include: promoting moral and character education, improving children’s health and nutrition, and creating school communities through extracurricular activities, after school programs, and school spirits (Rissanen et al. 2018). Comment by Evelyn Young: The 3 initiatives are clearly stated. Although did Rissanen et al. propose these 3 initiatives to promote social goals in schools? If these are your arguments, take credit for them. No need to give credit to Rissanen et al. for formulating the thesis for your paper.

I think that your paper could have used an introduction followed by the thesis statement.
Explanation of Each Initiative
Moral education is meant to promote good conduct among school-going children, not just within their immediate social relationships, but also in their dealings with their fellow citizens. This initiative is premised on the need for students to possess clear ideals and judgments on what action are right and what are wrong, including the determination of students’ conduct through a constant reference to those ideals. Moral education will be offered as a social goal to enlighten students on a system of rules and norms that regulate the social interactions of people on concepts of welfare, such as harm, trust, justice, and rights. For some students, issues related to values, personal feelings, and societal norms are constructs for discussions and are as such viewed as being influenced by the manner in which morality taught or experienced in schools, churches, and social institution settings. Moral education will be meant to reduce criminal and deviant behaviors among students. Moral character is required in schools because many parents do not teach their children morality issues.
The health and nutrition initiative is meant to improve the physical and mental well being of students. This initiative has the potential to improve the quality of students’ urban life, strengthen the ability of poor children to excel in their studies, and to compensate them for the substandard home and school environments spawned by competitive, inequitable social order. Health and nutritional initiatives will be strengthened through planning and introducing curriculum on nutrition with educational activities. These will include physical activities, which are combined with the farm to school programs that motivate students to consume healthy diets. Indeed, the hybrid school-based nutritional programs have major influence on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with fruits and vegetable consumption diffused throughout a bigger urban community (Dudley Cotton & Peralta, 2015). This hybrid intervention includes combining district stra.

Advertisement
Advertisement

More Related Content

More from glendar3 (20)

Advertisement

Running head PROGRAM DESIGN 1PROGRAM DESIGN 2.docx

  1. 1. Running head: PROGRAM DESIGN 1 PROGRAM DESIGN 2 Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools January 15th,2018 Program Design to Promote Social Goals in American K12 Schools Explanation of Each Initiative The three main initiatives of promoting social goals in school will include: promoting moral and character education, improving children’s health and nutrition, and creating school communities through extracurricular activities, after school programs, and school spirits (Rissanen et al. 2018). Comment by Evelyn Young: The 3 initiatives are clearly stated. Although did Rissanen et al. propose these 3 initiatives to promote social goals in schools? If these are your arguments, take credit for them. No need to give credit to Rissanen et al. for formulating the thesis for your paper. I think that your paper could have used an introduction followed by the thesis statement. Explanation of Each Initiative Moral education is meant to promote good conduct among school-going children, not just within their immediate social
  2. 2. relationships, but also in their dealings with their fellow citizens. This initiative is premised on the need for students to possess clear ideals and judgments on what action are right and what are wrong, including the determination of students’ conduct through a constant reference to those ideals. Moral education will be offered as a social goal to enlighten students on a system of rules and norms that regulate the social interactions of people on concepts of welfare, such as harm, trust, justice, and rights. For some students, issues related to values, personal feelings, and societal norms are constructs for discussions and are as such viewed as being influenced by the manner in which morality taught or experienced in schools, churches, and social institution settings. Moral education will be meant to reduce criminal and deviant behaviors among students. Moral character is required in schools because many parents do not teach their children morality issues. The health and nutrition initiative is meant to improve the physical and mental well being of students. This initiative has the potential to improve the quality of students’ urban life, strengthen the ability of poor children to excel in their studies, and to compensate them for the substandard home and school environments spawned by competitive, inequitable social order. Health and nutritional initiatives will be strengthened through planning and introducing curriculum on nutrition with educational activities. These will include physical activities, which are combined with the farm to school programs that motivate students to consume healthy diets. Indeed, the hybrid school-based nutritional programs have major influence on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with fruits and vegetable consumption diffused throughout a bigger urban community (Dudley Cotton & Peralta, 2015). This hybrid intervention includes combining district strategies, local school- based strategies, and home-made strategies developed by teachers. This intervention leads to a higher change in teacher influence on students’ attitudes towards healthy diet, across gender, grade, race, and ethnicity. Sick children in the
  3. 3. contemporary world spend a large fraction of their time on mobile and social networks, and are exposed to several kinds of interactive advertising, the health and nutritional strategy will encourage healthy habits that will be provided through a combined approach on a school-based and media intervention. For instance, numerous studies indicate that the efficacy of this strategy rests in its ability to increase fruit5 and vegetable intake among American children (Dudley Cotton & Peralta, 2015). Healthy eating by school-going children is important for good health and development. Schools can pay an integral role in the education and promotion of healthy eating and living among students. Comment by Evelyn Young: Are these initiatives that have been implemented or strategies that you propose should be implemented? If the former, write in the past tense with evidence supporting the programs. If the latter, put it in the strategies section of your paper. Comment by Evelyn Young: Children in general spend a large amount of time on social media, not just sick children. They can all benefit from media intervention. Further, initiatives aimed at establishing a sense of community among students are useful strategies for developing effective student-teacher relationships. In this perspective, relational communities promote human interactions and social ties that draw students together. Relational communities can be viewed as networks of individuals who interact within formal learning institutions, and as members of informal groups (Peterson, 2017). Common interests, histories, and experiences draw these individuals together and form the basis upon which social relationships develop and grow. In community of students, a special form of cohesiveness is developed among members. A genuine sense of community emerges after the group members have committed themselves to taking major risks and sharing meaningful experiences. In so doing, the group members become tolerant and accepting of each other. A sense of belonging and relatedness can be developed among students. Such feelings of belonging and relatedness can be
  4. 4. extended to everyone in the group, such as students, teachers, parents, and non-teaching staff members. Sports, symposiums, and other extracurricular activities will strengthen the school community initiative. Students can be encouraged to bond to the larger school community through involvements in extracurricular activities or providing support athletic events. They can also be encouraged to participate or attend games events, and get involved in school activities in order to develop a positive school spirit. This additional bonding to the school has the potential to increase the sense of community among the students and the sense of connectedness to the teachers. Comment by Evelyn Young: This sounds somewhat conversational rather than scholarly. Do you have citations to support these arguments? Benefits and Drawbacks of the Program Comment by Evelyn Young: Earlier, you identified 3 initiatives: moral and character education, improving children’s health and nutrition, and creating school communities through extracurricular activities. In this section, you should describe the benefits and drawbacks of each program. I really only see the benefits (and a bit of the drawbacks) of a program aimed at developing students’ social capital. The programs meant to foster social goals in schools generate various benefits to students. Firstly, children can be offered the opportunities to belong to positively-oriented peer groups. Usually students who belong to positive peer groups are often exposed to modeling of pro-social behaviors. Avgitidou (2001) indicates that children develop shared beliefs and values which they practice in the establishment and maintenance of their peer relationships, for example, when empathy is understood among students as showing concern and interest for someone by being able to understand, empathy is closely related to pro-social behavior Avgitidou (2001). Comment by Evelyn Young: I would recommend consolidating all of the benefits to a program on building students’ social capital into one paragraph. Don’t mention too programs, as you would need
  5. 5. to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each. Stay centered on one initiative such as Character Counts, the benefits and drawbacks of Character Counts, and what new strategies you would try to address the issue of students’ moral development. Secondly, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2004) indicates that programs which can make students get more attached to their schools are often considered as models for violence prevention. Results from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health demonstrated that student connectedness reduced negative behaviors in four domains of adolescent health and morbidity: emotional health, violence, substance use, and sexuality (Holtzapple, Griswold, Cirillo, Rosebrock, Nouza & Berry 2011). In addition, these programs afford adolescents with the opportunity to develop social capital in form of positive relationships with adult activity leaders. Resnick (1997) suggests that the leading factor supporting positive outcomes and preventing youth participation in negative behaviors is connectedness to an adult role model. Student participation in these programs has also been connected to reduction in externalizing tendencies such as aggressive behaviors, deviant behaviors, and juvenile delinquencies. Most significantly, addressing student behaviors and skills that would prepare students to be successful in the workplace as these programs sharpen students’ skills in areas such as people skills, communication skills, and life skills (Holtzapple, Griswold, Cirillo, Rosebrock, Nouza & Berry 2011). On the other hand, literatures also indicate that participation in such programs is strongly connected to higher school performance, higher academic aspirations, and increased rates of high school graduation. For instance, according to Elliot (1998), students in implementing schools had significantly greater gains in standardized academic test scores than did students in comparison schools. Ryan and Bohlin (1999) also supported that the character education as with its
  6. 6. twin goals of intellectual and moral development, should be implicit in all of the school’s undertakings. On the downside, a major drawback is these social goal programs may bring up operational and labor cost that could bring financial challenge to schools, especially for those districts that have decreased school funding due to education budget cut. For example, district-wide training may require a significant amount of funding committed (Holtzapple, Griswold, Cirillo, Rosebrock, Nouza, & Berry, 2011). Secondly, character education may bring conflicts because morality and ethics are relatively subjective with various standards. The values taught in schools may cause difficulties for administrators and educators as the standards of behavior differ. Students come from various religious and social backgrounds with different values and expectations. Controversies arise when what are taught at school do not align with student parents’ values. New Strategies to Implement these Initiatives and Goals Comment by Evelyn Young: Same here. You have identified many strategies for addressing students’ character education. However, you also need to discuss strategies to develop ways to address the issues of health and nutrition as well as creating school communities through extracurricular activities. One new strategy for each is sufficient for the purposes of this paper. There are various strategies that can be employed to effectively implement these programs in a way that generates successful outcomes. First, it is important to establish and maintain a culturally relevant environment for different student groups. A respectful environment is also culturally relevant. Educators who have classrooms that are comprised of mainly students from culturally diverse roots can establish classroom environments that provide curriculum that reflect the cultures of the students. Culturally relevant teaching will require the recognition of minority cultures as valuable experiences upon which to build strong student relationships that extend to their
  7. 7. moral, health and social outcomes (Sleeter, 2001). In so doing, students can develop mutual respect and celebrate both as individuals and members of a specific culture (Sonn, Bishop, & Drew, 1999). Students can experiment with new behaviors for social change with encouragement and support while critically evaluating the society. More importantly, students will be benefited by developing a strong sense of community, reducing cultural barriers and to improving global awareness and tolerance for other culture, thus to prepare our students to be the future leaders in the globalized world in this imagination age (Alverez, 2018). In addition, it is important to identify the resources that can be helpful with the successful implementation. This will require both human and financial resources (Lee, B. R. & Barth, R. P. (2009). Careful implementation of these interventions is usually critical to the attainment of the effects that the evidences predict. First, a written description of the contents of the programs to be delivered should be developed. For instance, when it comes to a class lesson meant to discourage substance abuse, there will be need to develop manuals that document the materials to be covered during each classroom session, detailing the descriptions of the class activities, and copies or handouts. In addition, training programs should be introduced to improve and sharpen the skills of individuals who will carry out the programs. Training programs should be provided to educators and present comprehensively written training manuals or workshops that discuss the philosophy behind the interventions and the provision of clear, concrete descriptions of the instructional process and contents to create a structured learning environment. Ongoing assistance and intervention should be provided to those who will implement the programs. For example, State of California has required K-12 schools to embody character education and moral education into core curricula and school culture. These should include provision of on-site supervision, training, and consultation forums. These efforts must be
  8. 8. accompanied by identification of student needs. Some students face bully problems, while others need technology skills, others suffer from poor state of physical and mental wellbeing. Therefore, these instructional programs should be designed in a manner that is tailored to meet the specific needs of each student group (Archer & Hughes, 2011). Approaches should be flexible so as to be applicable to all students in all situations, and Interventions should also be structured enough to be easily applicable, though tailored, and followed by all students and multiple sector staff (Gonsoulin, Darwin & Read, 2012). Further, appropriate channels or modes of delivering these learning contents should be identified. For instance, programs such as the Capturing Kids’ Hearts Campus by Designed Model that has been widely adapted in the US is considered to be both a character education and violence prevention intervention because it aims to improve students’ connectedness to school through enhancing protective factors and targeting modifiable risk factors such as inappropriate behavior, poor social coping skills (Holtzapple, Griswold, Cirillo, Rosebrock, Nouza & Berry 2011). Besides that, strategies aiming to promote social goals should be embedded into school curricula, for example, physical education could provide opportunities for students to build up team works; many schools nowadays introduce exchange programs into their campus thus students can develop sense of communities, while sex education course may require class lectures, and moral instruction and character education could be done through various in-class and out-class fun activities, meaningful community services(Spring, 2018) etc. References Comment by Evelyn Young: Left justify the references. Alvarez, M. G. (2018). Can character solve our problems? Character qualities and the imagination age. Creative Education, 9(2), 152-164
  9. 9. Avgitidou, S. (2001). Peer culture and friendship relationships as contexts for the development of young children’s pro-social behavior. International Journal of Early Years Education, 9(2)145–152. https://doi- org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/09669760120053510 Archer, A. L. & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Dudley, D. A., Cotton, W. G., & Peralta, L. R. (2015). Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta- analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 28. Estell, D. B., Jones, M. H., Pearl, R., Acker, R. V., Farmer, T. W., & Rodkin, P. C. (2008). Peer Groups, Popularity, and Social Preference: Trajectories of Social Functioning Among Students With and Without Learning Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(1), 5– 14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219407310993 Comment by Evelyn Young: Use lower case. Comment by Evelyn Young: Use lower case. Gonsoulin, S., Darwin, M. J., & Read, N. W. (2012). Providing individually tailored academic and behavioral support services for youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Washington, DC: National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC). Holtzapple, C. K., Griswold, J. S., Cirillo, K., Rosebrock, J., Nouza, N., & Berry, C. (2011). Implementation of a School- Wide Adolescent Character Education and Prevention Program. Journal of Research in Character Education, 9(1), 71– 90. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.co m/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=72084674&site=eds- live&scope=site
  10. 10. Lee, B. R. & Barth, R. P. (2009). Residential education: An emerging resource for improving educational outcomes for youth in foster care? Children & Youth Services Review, 31, 155–160. Peterson, T. H. (2017). Student Development and Social Justice: critical learning, radical Comment by Evelyn Young: Use lower case. Comment by Evelyn Young: Use lower case. healing, and community engagement. New York: Springer. Resnick, M. D.,. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. JAMA, 278(10), 823-832. Rissanen, I., Kuusisto, E., Hanhimäki, E., & Tirri, K. (2018). The implications of teachers’ implicit theories for moral education: A case study from Finland. Journal of Moral Education, 47(1), 63-77. Ryan, K. & Bohlin, K. E. (1999). Building character in schools: Practical ways to bring moral instruction to life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Sleeter, C. E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94– 106. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487101052002002 Sonn, C. C., Bishop, B. J., & Drew, N. M. (1999). Sense of community: Issues and considerations from a cross-cultural perspective. Community, Work & Family, 2(2), 205–218. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/13668809908413941 What Works Clearinghouse. (2007). Character education: Overview. Retrieved from http:// ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/ character_education/topic/

×