Materials i tècniques per al’ensenyament de l’anglès com a llengua estrangeraFernando Romeu EsquerréEscola Oficial d’Idiomes de Tortosafromeu@xtec.cat
Books1. Pros and cons of using coursebooks2. Where we can choose from – Publishing houses3. Analysis of coursebooks4. Analysis of lessons or units5. Supplementary material6. Readers
Coursebooks – Pros and cons A coursebook is …A recipe A straitjacketA holy book A survival kitA springboard A crutchA compass A supermarket
Why do teachers and learners need a book? It is a map. It shows where one is going and where one has been. It provides language samples. It offers variety.
Why do learners need a book? It defines what is to be learnt and what will be tested. It reinforces what the teacher has done and makes revision and preparation possible. It thus offers support for learning outside the class.
Why do teachers need a book? “Coursebooks are good servants, but poor masters” It provides a structure for teaching. It saves time. To prepare materials from scratch for every lesson would be impossible. It offers linguistic, cultural and methodological support. It is easy to keep track of what you have done and to tell others where you have reached.
Teacher-training events APAC ELT Convention – In February (24th to 26th). Barcelona Jornades de Llengües Estrangeres (Tarragona, Lleida and Girona) Jornades Pedagògiques de l’anglès del Montsià (early February) Teachers’ day organized by publishing houses EOICAT (every other year)
Materials evaluationMaterials evaluation is a procedure that involvesmeasuring the value (or potential value) of a set oflearning materials. It involves making judgments aboutthe effect of the materials on the people using them and ittries to measure some or all of the following:
the appeal of the materials to the learners the credibility of the materials to the learners, teachers and administrators. The validity of the materials The reliability of the materials The ability of the materials to interest and motivate learners and teachers. The value of the materials in terms of short-term learning (important, for example, for performance on tests and examinations).
The value of the materials in terms of long-term learning. The learner’s and teacher’s perception of the value of the materials. The assistance given to teachers in terms of preparation, delivery and assessment. The flexibility of the materials. The contribution made by the materials to teacher development. The match with administrative requirements.
The evaluation of materials fully depends on the context inwhich they are to be used. It is not the materials that arebeing evaluated, but their effect on the people who comeinto contact with them.An evaluation is not the same as an analysis. It caninclude an analysis or follow from one, but the objectivesand procedures are different. An evaluation focuses on theusers of the materials and makes judgements about theireffects.
Analysis of coursebooksPrice and availability MethodologyAdd-ons and extras Language skills Topics and culturalLayout and design appropriacyInstructions Teacher’s guide
Analysis of coursebooks II By looking at the table of contents, can we draw conclusions on the general approach of each book? Do lessons correspond to the promises in the table of contents? Which coursebook would you use and why?
Using a coursebook – Some decisionsGeneral decisions about the book Order of units. Components to be used (workbook, dvd …).Decisions about the activities in the book Adaptation as addition. Adaptation as change.
Adapting materialsAdaptation as addition Devise more items of the same type (extension) Give students another exercise from another source or make up another exercise (supplementation) Paraphrase a coursebook instruction or explanation (extemporisation)Adaptation as change• Omission• Replacement• Re-ordering• Combining / Modifying
Adapting materials - IIOmission Learners already know it. Too many tasks in an area. The item is not a priority. Bad design or inappropriatenessRe-ordering• To revise an area earlier than the coursebook does.• To compare and contrast areas.• To provide thematic unity.• To provide an appropriate follow-up.
Adapting materials - IIIReplacement Inappropriate length. Mismatch between learner’s needs and material. Materials are misleading or not clear enough. Tasks are badly designed.Changing the form of tasks Not suitable for learning style Need of a change of pace Task often repeated in coursebook