Brachial plexus

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upper limb anatomy

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  • Provides the following important functions: (1) sensory innervation to the skin & deep structures; (2) motor innervation to muscles; (3) influence over diameter of blood vessels by sympatetic vasomotor nerves; (4) sympathetic secretomotor supply to the sweat glands.
  • Brachial plexus

    1. 1. Lecture 26 The Brachial Plexus Cleyson Mupfiga
    2. 2. Spinal Nerves Dorsal branch Ventral branch Spinal nerve Spinal nerve 2Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    3. 3. Spinal Nerves  31 pairs of spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord.  8 cervical  12 thoracic  5 lumbar  5 sacral  1 coccygeal  Each spinal nerve divides into a dorsal and ventral ramus. 3Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    4. 4. Brachial Plexus  The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the union of the anterior rami (branches) of C5 – C8 & T1 spinal nerves.  It originates in the neck, passes laterally & inferiorly over the first rib & enters the axilla (arm pit).  All major nerves of the upper limb originate from parts of the brachial plexus.  Divided into ROOTS, TRUNKS, DIVISIONS, and CORDS. BRANCHES emerge to supply the upper limb. 4Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    5. 5. Brachial Plexus Brachial Plexus Lateral Cervical Region (Posterior Triangle) ROOTS DIVISIONS TRUNKS CORDS BRANCHES Robert Trucker Drinks Cold Beer
    6. 6. ROOTS C7 TRUNKSDIVISIONSCORDS MEDIAL POSTERIOR LATERAL MIDDLE LOWER UPPER C5 C6 C8 T1
    7. 7. T1 C8 C7 C5 C6 ROOTS DIVISIONS TRUNKS CORDS BRANCHES
    8. 8. Brachial Plexus Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011 8 Brachial Plexus Clavicle Arm
    9. 9. Brachial Plexus 9  Major nerves:  Axillary  Radial  Musculocutaneous  Ulnar  Median Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    10. 10. Axillary Nerve 10Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    11. 11. Radial Nerve 11Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    12. 12. Musculocutaneous Nerve 12Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    13. 13. Ulnar Nerve 13Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    14. 14. Median Nerve 14Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    15. 15. Upper Middle Trunks Lower Roots (ventral rami): Upper subscapular Lower subscapular Thoracodorsal Medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm Long thoracic Medial pectoral Lateral pectoral Nerve to subclavius Suprascapular Dorsal scapular Posterior divisions Anterior divisions Lateral PosteriorCords Medial Axillary Musculo- cutaneous Radial Median Ulnar Posterior divisions Trunks Roots C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 (a) Roots (rami C5 – T1), trunks, divisions, and cords
    16. 16. Brachial Plexus Injuries 16Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011 Upper brachial plexus injuries: “waiter’s tip position” Lower brachial plexus injuries: short muscles of the hand are affected > “clawhand”
    17. 17. Nerve Injury 17 Anaethesia: loss of sensation; may be pathological or induced to facilitate surgery or other medical treatment. Paraesthesia: abnormal sensation e.g. tingling or burning. Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011
    18. 18. 18 Questions… Cleyson Mupfiga HUB117 2011

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